Denmark

Denmark (Danish: Danmark, pronounced [ˈtænmɑk] (listen)) is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It is the most populous and politically central constituent of the Kingdom of Denmark,[N 12] a constitutionally unitary state that includes the autonomous territories of the Faroe Islands and Greenland in the North Atlantic Ocean.[16] European Denmark[N 3] is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, lying southwest of Sweden, south of Norway,[N 13] and north of Germany. It consists of the peninsula of Jutland and an archipelago of 443 named islands,[17] of which the largest are Zealand, Funen and the North Jutlandic Island. Denmark's geography is characterised by flat, arable land, sandy coasts, low elevation, and a temperate climate. It has a total area of 42,943 km2 (16,580 sq mi) [8] and a population of 5.86 million (as of 2021), of which 800,000 live in the capital and largest city Copenhagen.[18]

Denmark
Danmark  (Danish)
Motto: (royal) "Guds hjælp, folkets kærlighed, Danmarks styrke"[N 1]
"God's help, the love of the people, Denmark's strength"[1]
Anthems:
Der er et yndigt land
(English: "There is a lovely country")

Kong Christian stod ved højen mast[N 2]
(English: "King Christian stood by the lofty mast")
Location of metropolitan Denmark[N 3] (dark green)

 in Europe (green & dark grey)
 in the European Union (green)

Capital
and largest city
Copenhagen
55°43′N 12°34′E
Official languagesDanish
Recognised regional languagesGerman[N 4]
Ethnic groups
(2020)[3][4]
Religion
(2020)[5][6]
Demonym(s)
Sovereign stateKingdom of Denmark
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional monarchy
 Monarch
Margrethe II
Mette Frederiksen
Henrik Dam Kristensen
LegislatureFolketing
History
c. 8th century[7]
5 June 1849
24 March 1948[N 6]
1 January 1973
Area
 metropolitan Denmark
42,933 km2 (16,577 sq mi)[8] (130th)
 Water (%)
1.74 (as of 2015)[9]
Population
 Q3 2021 estimate
5,850,189[10][N 7] (114th)
 Faroe Islands
52,110[11]
 Greenland
56,081[12]
 Density (Denmark)
137.65/km2 (356.5/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
 Total
$299 billion[13][N 8] (52nd)
 Per capita
$51,643[13] (19th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
 Total
$370 billion[13][N 8] (34th)
 Per capita
$63,829[13] (6th)
Gini (2020) 27.3[14]
low
HDI (2019) 0.940[15]
very high · 10th
CurrencyDanish krone[N 9] (DKK)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
[N 10]
Driving sideright
Calling code
3 calling codes
  • +45      (Denmark)
  • +298    (Faroe Islands)
  • +299    (Greenland)
ISO 3166 codeDK
Internet TLD.dk[N 11]
Website
Denmark.dk

The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the eighth century as a proficient maritime power amid the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea.[7] In 1397, it joined Norway and Sweden to form the Kalmar Union, until the latter's secession in 1523; the remaining Kingdom of Denmark–Norway persisted until 1814. Beginning in the 17th century, several wars with the Swedish Empire resulted in territorial cessions, and following the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was absorbed into Sweden while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Iceland. A surge of nationalist movements in the 19th century were defeated in the First Schleswig War, though the Second Schleswig War of 1864 resulted in the loss of the Duchy of Schleswig to Prussia. Denmark remained neutral during World War I but regained the northern half of Schleswig in 1920. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a highly developed mixed economy.

The Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660. It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, and main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948 and in Greenland in 1979; the latter obtained further autonomy in 2009. In 1973, Denmark, together with Greenland but not the Faroes, became a member of what is now the European Union in 1973, but negotiated certain opt-outs, such as retaining its own currency, the krone.

A highly developed country, Danes enjoy a high standard of living, with the country performing at or near the top in measures of education, health care, civil liberties, democratic governance and LGBT equality.[19][20][21][22] Denmark is a founding member of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, and the United Nations; it is also part of the Schengen Area. It maintains close political, cultural, and linguistic ties with its Scandinavian neighbours, with the Danish language being partially mutually intelligible with both Norwegian and Swedish.


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