Detailed logarithmic timeline

This timeline shows the whole history of the universe, the Earth, and mankind in one table. Each row is defined in years ago, that is, years before the present date, with the earliest times at the top of the chart. In each table cell on the right, references to events or notable people are given, more or less in chronological order within the cell.

Each row corresponds to a change in log(time before present) (that is, the logarithm of the time before the present) of about 0.1 (using base 10 logarithm). The dividing points are taken from the R′′20 Renard numbers. Thus each row represent about 21% of the time from its beginning until the present.

The table is divided into sections with subtitles. Note that each such section contains about 68% of all the time from the beginning of the section until now.


14,000 million years ago to 5 500 million years ago

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
14 Ga – 11 Ga

Big Bang. Formation of galaxies. Birth of HD 140283, the "Methuselah star", seemingly more than 14 Ga ago. Earliest quasars, habitable epoch[1][2] NGC 6522 star cluster forms. Omega Centauri star cluster forms.

11 Ga – 9 Ga

Formation of the Gliese 581 planetary system, BX442 (oldest grand design spiral galaxy observed), NGC 2808 globular cluster, giant red star Mu Cephei, and the Andromeda Galaxy. Barnard's Star (nearby red dwarf star) may have formed.

9 Ga – 7 Ga

A galaxy collides with the Milky Way giving rise to the so-called Gaia Sausage population of stars. Gliese 876 and its planets form[3]

7 Ga – 5.5 Ga

Birth of Alpha Centauri

5 500 million years ago to 1 800 million years ago

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
5.5 Ga – 4.5 Ga

Formation of Sun, Solar System, Earth, Moon

4.5 Ga – 3.5 Ga

Hadean eon,

beginning of Archaean eon

Late Heavy Bombardment (possibly). Origin of life. Earliest known life forms: unusually high amounts of light isotopes of carbon, a common sign of life, found in mineral deposits aged 4.25 Ga located in the Jack Hills of Western Australia.[4][5] Last universal common ancestor. Evidence for hydrothermal vent microbes;[6][7] Biogenic graphite in metasedimentary rocks aged 3.7 Ga discovered in Western Greenland.[8] Weathering of land affects ocean chemistry.[9][10] Bacteria and Archaea split.

3.5 Ga – 2.8 GaArchaean eon

Microbial mat fossils[11][12] and signs of life on land[13] in Western Australia. Stromatolites. Possible Cyanobacteria (photosynthesis).[14] Stabilization of cratons. Sterane biomarkers possibly indicate first eukaryotes. Possible largest crater on earth near Maniitsoq, Greenland.[15]

2.8 Ga – 2.2 GaEnd of Archaean, beginning of Paleoproterozoic era

Lomagundi event signalling oxygen in the atmosphere. Beginning of Huronian glaciation. Grypania fossils. Continents form.[16][17]

2.2 Ga – 1.8 GaPaleoproterozoic era

End of Huronian glaciation. First unambiguous Cyanobacteria fossils, in Belcher Islands.[14] First known eukaryotic acritarchs (probably).[18] Bolide over 10 km in size creates Vredefort crater. Milky Way perturbed by collision.[19] Oxygen levels briefly plummet (possibly).[14] 10-km diameter bolide creates Sudbury Basin. Columbia supercontinent. Traces of 24-isopropylcholestane, possibly from sponges.

1 800 million years ago to 550 million years ago

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
1.8 Ga – 1.4 GaEnd of Paleoproterozoic, beginning of Mesoproterozoic era

Possibly multicellular red algae (eukaryotic).[20] Erosion of granite introduces copper, zinc, and molybdenum into surface waters.[21]

1.4 Ga – 1.1 GaMesoproterozoic era

Eukaryotes found in lakes.[22]

1.1 Ga – 900 MaEnd of Mesoproterozoic, beginning of Neoproterozoic era. Tonian period

Coming together of Rodinia supercontinent. Fossils of organisms with two kinds of cells (cellular differentiation).[23][24]

900 Ma – 700 MaCryogenian period

Traces of sponge-like animals.[25][26] Terrestrial fungi.[27][28] Breakup of Rodinia, Sturtian glaciation begins, possible Snowball Earth, volcanism on Venus practically stops

700 Ma – 550 MaEnd of Cryogenian, beginning of Ediacaran period

Pannotia supercontinent forms, then breaks up into Laurentia, Gondwana, Angaraland and Baltica. Marinoan glaciation. First non-microscopic life (Ediacaran biota). Rangeomorphs. Shuram excursion of δ13C, possibly connected to rise of first Cambrian-like animals such as arthropod-like Yilingia.[29]

550 million years ago to 180 million years ago

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
550 Ma – 450 Ma

End of Ediacaran. Cambrian period (541–485 Ma) – Ordovician (485–443 Ma)

Cambrian explosion. Fish-like Myllokunmingia, Haikouichthys, & Pikaia. First conodonts. Trilobites. All modern mineralized phyla present.[30] Bivalves. Arthropods dominant until arrival of chambered nautili.[31] Stifling hot "Dead Interval".[32] End-Botomian mass extinction. Appalachian Mountains form. First fossils of plants on land.[33] Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. First eurypterids or "sea scorpions". Collision of asteroids gives rise to L chondrite group of meteoroids and several craters ca. 470 Ma ago (Ordovician meteor event).[34] Andean-Saharan glaciation. First starfish, sea urchins, placoderms, cartilaginous fish (such as sharks) and bony fish. First clear evidence of land arthropods (scorpions).[33]

450 Ma – 350 Ma

Silurian (443–419 Ma) – Devonian (416–359 Ma)

Ordovician-Silurian extinction events. Prototaxites, tree-like organism, probably a fungus or lichen. First wood.[35][36] Jaekelopterus, giant "sea scorpion". First amphibians, the Labyrinthodontia, the group that now includes reptiles and mammals. Archaeopteris (fern-like trees), Tiktaalik (lungfish) walks on land. Ichthyostega. First seeds, coelacanths. Kellwasser event. Hangenberg event with atmospheric oxygen falling to 13%. Few arthropods left on land.[33] Beginning of Karoo Ice Age. Romer's gap in the tetrapod record.

350 Ma – 280 Ma

Carboniferous (359–299 Ma), beginning of Permian (299–252 Ma)

Karoo Ice Age. Formation of Pangaea supercontinent. Oxygen levels rise and animals colonize the land a second time.[33] First winged insects and reptiliomorphs such as Solenodonsaurus and Eogyrinus. Synapsids and then pelycosaurs (forerunners of mammals). Reptiles. Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse. Prionosuchus, a large carnivorous amphibian.

280 Ma – 220 MaPermian, Triassic (252–201 Ma)

Cycads, seed ferns. Oxygen in atmosphere peaks, around 30%.[33] Gorgonopsians and other therapsids (forerunners of mammals) displace pelycosaurs as dominant land animals. End-Capitanian extinction event.[37] Cynodonts (forerunners of mammals). First warm-blooded animals.[38] Siberian Traps eruption and Permian-Triassic extinction event. Dinosaur tracks.[39][40] 40 °C sea temperatures during Smithian-Spathian extinction. Turtles. Archosaurs: dominance of Suchians (forerunners of crocodilians). First pterosaurs, ichthyosaurs. Dinosaurs. Gymnosperms dominant. Dicroidium flora common on land. Manicouagan Crater formed. First lizards.

220 Ma – 180 Ma

Triassic, Jurassic (201–145 Ma)

First redwoods. Central Atlantic eruption and Triassic–Jurassic extinction event. Oxygen in atmosphere hits low of about 12%.[33] Breakup of Pangaea into Gondwana and Laurasia. Mammals. Gymnosperms (especially conifers, Bennettitales, and cycads) and ferns common. Sauropods, carnosaurs, stegosaurs. Toarcian turnover (extinction). Gondwana breaks up.

180 million years ago to 55 million years ago

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
180 Ma – 140 MaJurassic

Possible true polar wander moves east Asia southward by 25°, leading to aridification.[41] India breaks from East Gondwana. Juramaia sinensis, first known eutherian mammal. First birds (Archaeopteryx). Dinosaurs are dominant terrestrial animal. Small Magellanic Cloud passes through Large Magellanic Cloud.[42][43]

140 Ma – 110 MaEarly Cretaceous (145 – 100 Ma), Aptian & Albian

Flowering plants. First Enantiornithes or "backward birds". Ontong Java eruption. First known snakes. Early-Aptian anoxic event. Seas cool by 5 °C during 2 million years.[44] Earliest known monotreme fossils. Sinodelphys, earliest known marsupial. Eomaia, similar to placental mammals.

110 Ma – 90 MaLate Cretaceous: Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian, Santonian

Supervolcano in eastern Australia sends particles to west coast.[45][46] Bees. Mammals diversify into many forms.[47] Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event (oceans anoxic for half a million years),[48] extinction of ichthyosaurs.

90 Ma – 70 MaCampanian & Maastrichtian stages of the Cretaceous

Dominance of angiosperm rosids. Rocky Mountains begin forming. Zealandia breaks away from Australia. Mosasaurs are dominant marine predator.

70 Ma – 55 MaPaleocene (66–56 Ma)

Evidence for grasses in dinosaur dung (coprolites). Crocodiles. Madagascar breaks away from India. Bolide creates Chicxulub Crater. Deccan Traps. Possible Shiva crater. Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction Event, (non-avian) dinosaurs die out. Mammals dominate. Titanoboa, largest known snake. Eritherium, first known proboscid. Lemurs. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

55 million years ago to 18 million years ago

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
55 Ma – 45 MaEarly Eocene

First creodonts. First equid, the Eohippus or Hyracotherium. Andes mountains begin to rise. Azolla event reduces carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. India collides with Asia, giving rise to the Himalayas. First cetaceans (whales) and simians.

45 Ma – 35 MaEocene

Primates cross Atlantic to South America and become New World monkeys. First elephant-like animal, the Moeritherium. Grasses common. 100-km Popigai crater in Siberia. 2-mile (3.2 km) diameter bolide creates 90-km Chesapeake Bay impact crater in America.

35 Ma – 28 MaBeginning of Oligocene (34 – 23 Ma)

Tasmanian Seaway and Drake Passage open, allowing creation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Baleen whales appear. Gould Belt of stars created.[49] Alps begin to rise. First indricotheria, "hornless rhinoceros" about 6 metres high. Explosive eruption of La Garita Caldera in Colorado.

28 Ma – 22 MaOligocene, Chattian

Pelagornis sandersi, largest known flying bird with a wingspan of 6 or 7 metres. Puijila darwini, early pinniped. Daeodon shoshonensis ("terminator pig").

22 Ma – 18 MaMiocene (23 to 5 Ma), Aquitanian age

Dawn bear – ancestor of bears.

18 million years ago to 5.5 million years ago

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
18 Ma – 14 MaMiocene, Burdigalian age, Langhian age

Antarctica becomes mostly ice-covered. Africa/Arabia collides with Eurasia, end of Tethys Sea. Columbia River basalts. First deinotheres, similar to an elephant but with tusks on lower jaw. Nördlinger Ries impact crater. Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, Middle Miocene disruption. Hominidae split from gibbons.

14 Ma – 11 MaMiocene, Serravallian age

Last of the adapiforms. Anoiapithecus, one of the first hominids, in Spain.

11 Ma – 9 MaMiocene, Tortonian age

Olympic Mountains reach present height. Rudapithecus, a great ape that was probably bipedal.[50][51]

9 Ma – 7 MaMiocene, Tortonian age

First Gigantopithecus, an ape almost 10 feet (3.0 m) tall. C4 grasses become common. Crocodiles cross the Atlantic to America.[52]

7 Ma – 5.5 MaMiocene, Messinian age

Graecopithecus ("Greek ape"), possibly ancestor of hominins. "Toumaï", of species Sahelanthropus tchadensis, shows some human traits. First Thylacosmilus, sabre-toothed marsupial of South America. Orrorin tugenensis, possible hominin. Apparent hominin footprints near Trachilos, on Crete.[53][54] Mediterranean Sea dries up (Messinian Event).

5.5 million years ago to 1.8 million years ago

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
5.5 Ma – 4.5 MaPliocene, Zanclean

Zanclean Deluge. Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus anamensis. Divergence of polar bears and brown bears.[55] Possible date of 52-km Karakul crater in Tajikistan.

4.5 Ma – 3.5 MaPliocene, Zanclean

First Australopithecus afarensis, a bipedal great ape. Hominin fossil footprints in Laetoli, Tanzania.

3.5 Ma – 2.8 MaPliocene, Piacenzian

Evidence of use of stone tools by A. afarensis.[56][57] Human line loses fur (possibly).[58] Possible time of Isthmus of Panama connecting South and Central America. Great American Interchange. Lucy, member of the species Australopithecus afarensis. First Megatherium americanum, a giant sloth.

2.8 Ma – 2.2 MaBeginning of Pleistocene, Gelasian, Lower Paleolithic

Homo habilis appears. Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary extinction of marine megafauna, including the megalodon shark,[59] possibly caused by a nearby supernova or supernovas of the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, which deposited 60Fe on Earth.[60][61] Oldowan tools used near Gona, Ethiopia. Possible tool use in Sivalik Hills, India.[62][63][64] Beginning of the current ice age, known as the Quaternary glaciation, impact of Eltanin asteroid (1 to 4 km in diameter) in Pacific. Stone artefacts at Longgupo (Dragon Bone Slope) in China.[65] (see also Wushan Man)

2.2 Ma – 1.8 MaGelasian

Island Park Caldera in Wyoming and Idaho. Homo erectus appears. Dmanisi Man (Homo erectus georgicus) in Dmanisi, Georgia and in Xiaochangliang, China. Human-like Australopithecus sediba. Homo ergaster in Africa. First signs of Acheulian culture, in Kenya. Last known terror birds.

1.8 million years ago to 550,000 years ago

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
1.8 Ma – 1.4 Ma

First true hand-axes. Homo erectus found in Europe.

1.4 Ma – 1.1 Ma

Henry's Fork Caldera in Idaho erupts.

1.1 Ma – 900 ka

Stone artefacts on Flores, made by hominins.[66] This required crossing seas at least 19 km wide.[67] Possible evidence of cooking with fire.[68][69] 14-km Zhamanshin Crater formed in Kazakhstan. Hominin footprints and tools in England.

900 ka – 700 ka

Species of Homo found in Yun County, Hubei, sharing features of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens.[70][71] Australasian strewnfield. Evidence of use of fire[72] and of olives, acorns, and other plant-based foods,[73][74] at Daughters of Jacob Bridge, Palestine. Brunhes–Matuyama geomagnetic reversal. Hominins present in Luzon, Philippines, possible ancestors of Flores man.[75][76] Homo floresiensis-like creatures on Flores.[77][78]

700 ka – 550 kaGünz glaciation

Yellowstone Caldera supervolcano spreads ash over North America. Homo antecessor in Spain. Cut marks on human bones indicate cannibalism.[79]

550,000 years ago to 180,000 years ago

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
550 ka – 450 kaGünz-Mindel interglacial Mindel glaciation

Stone points (possibly for spears) used by Homo heidelbergensis in South Africa. Etching on shell at Trinil in East Java, done by Homo erectus.[80] Homo heidelbergensis in Germany, France, and Greece. Oldest known spear, Clacton-on-Sea.[81]

450 ka – 350 kaMindel glaciation, Mindel-Riss interglacial

Venus of Tan-Tan (300 to 500 ka ago) and Venus of B'rekhat Ram (231 to 800 ka BC). First appearance of proto-Neanderthal traits. Sima de los Huesos hominins in Spain, related to Neanderthals.[82] First known homicide victim was dropped into the cave.[83] Weald–Artois Anticline breached by a massive glacial lake outburst flood, creating a valley under present-day Strait of Dover.[84] Hominin footprints in Italy (Ciampate del Diavolo).

350 ka – 280 ka

Schöningen wooden spears.[85] Evidence for use of fire to pre-treat stone for making blades, at Qesem cave in Palestine.[86][87] Earliest known Homo sapiens remains at Adrar Ighud in Morocco. Geminga supernova.

280 ka – 220 ka

Jinniushan woman near Korea, with traits between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. Homo naledi skeletons in the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. Estimated time of Y-chromosomal Adam.[88][89] Bedding made of ash and grass.[90] Strait of Dover formed. Britain (possibly) becomes an island for the first time.[84] Apparent date of stone tools at the Hueyatlaco site in Mexico.

220 ka – 180 kaIllinoian Stage (Riss glaciation)

Homo sapiens in Greece.[91][92] Dali Man in China. Homo sapiens Omo remains in Ethiopia. Homo sapiens at Misliya cave in Palestine.[93][94]

180,000 years ago to 55,000 years ago

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
180 ka – 140 kaIllinoian Stage (Riss glaciation)

Underground circular piles of stalagmites built by Neanderthals.[95][96] Use of ochre, fine stone blades, and seafood at Pinnacle Point, SA.[97] Clear evidence of roasting of plant-based food (rhizomes of Hypoxis).[98][99] Denisovans (in Tibet).[100][101] Beginning of Mousterian culture. Estimated time of Mitochondrial Eve.

140 ka – 110 kaEemian interglacial

Appearance of full-blown Neanderthal traits. Stone tools in Crete (40 km from nearest neighboring land).[102] Signs of Homo in California.[103][104] Neanderthals make ornaments from eagle claws.[105][106] Temperatures generally higher during the Eemian interglacial than during the Holocene. Sea levels 5 to 10 metres above current level.[107] Evidence of humans in southwest Victoria (Australia).[108] Late Eemian Aridity Pulse.[109] Tools used at Talepu site in Sulawesi.[110][111] Shell jewelry in Spain, apparently made by Neanderthals.[112][113]

110 ka – 90 ka

Last evidence of Homo erectus.[114] Shells with holes, probably used as beads, at the Es Skhul cave on Mount Carmel. Abbassia Pluvial. Denisovan "art" (parallele lines).[115][116] Humans with modern teeth in China (Fuyan Cave, between 80 and 120 ka ago).[117] Paint made at Blombos Cave.[118] Metre-high Flores Man on the island of Flores (Indonesia). Human burial at Jebel al-Qafzeh in Israel.

90 ka – 70 kaBeginning of Würm glaciation

Shell beads in Taforalt Caves, Morocco. Use of insecticidal Cape laurel in bedding at Sibudu Cave in South Africa.[119] Tools made in Kota Tampan, Malaysia, probably by Homo sapiens. Abstract designs engraved on ochre, and pressure flaking, at Blombos Cave in South Africa. Use of glue at Sibudu Cave. Arrowhead-like projectile points[120] and possibly poisoned arrows.[121][122]

70 ka – 55 kaCa. 68,000 – ca. 53,000 BCE

Supervolcano Toba in Indonesia erupts, covering south Asia with ash and starting a 1,000-year ice age. Cave art in Spain, by Neanderthals or Homo sapiens.[91][112][123] Humans in Northern Territory, Australia.[124][125] Humans begin to use clothing. Homo luzonensis in Philippines.[126][127] Sewing needle-like implement used at Sibudu Cave, South Africa.[120] Engraved ostrich eggs at Diepkloof Rock Shelter. Circular structure of posts near Poitiers, built by Neanderthals.[128] Neanderthals reenter Britain.[84]

55,000 years ago to 18,000 years ago

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
55 ka – 45 kaCa. 53,000 – ca. 43,000 BCE

Remains of string in France.[129][130] Australia starts to become largely desert, probably due to man.[131]

45 ka – 35 kaCa. 43,000 – ca. 33,000 BCE Upper Paleolithic

Mungo Man in Australia. Homo sapiens in Bacho Kiro cave in Bulgaria.[132][133] Earliest painted "story", in Sulawesi.[134][135] Cro-Magnon people in France, Britain, and Italy. Neanderthal Divje Babe fluteprehistoric music. Mining of hematite at the Lion Cave in Swaziland. Deep-sea fishing of tuna.[136][137] Brief geomagnetic Laschamp Excursion. 50-metre diameter asteroid creates 1.2-km Meteor Crater in Arizona. Humans in Tianyuan Cave, China.[138][139] Neanderthals disappear. Needles and sewing. Shoes. Beginnings of Aurignacian culture. Paleolithic flutes and Venus of Hohler Fels, Dyed flax fibres in Georgia.

35 ka – 28 kaCa. 33,000 – ca. 26,000 BCE

Oldest known skull of a dog (Siberia), with wolf-like teeth.[140] Oats made into flour.[141][142] Human presence in Japan. Lion man ivory sculpture. Chauvet Cave paintings. Stone mortar and pestle used to grind fern and cattail tubers.[143][144] Boomerang made from mammoth tusk in Poland.[145] Avian figurine in ivory and stone phallus of Hohler Fels.[146] Venus of Dolní Věstonice (first known ceramic). Impression of rope on fired clay.[147] End of Aurignacian culture, beginning of Gravettian.

28 ka – 22 kaCa. 26,000 – ca. 20,000 BCE

Imprint of woven cloth in clay (Czech Republic). Venus of Lespugue (ivory sculpture). First known spear thrower or atlatl. Humans present in Mexico.[148][149][150] Oruanui eruption in New Zealand. Venus of Brassempouy (carving of face). Lapedo child with mixture of Neanderthal and sapiens features at Lagar Velho Portugal.

22 ka – 18 kaCa. 20,000 – ca. 16,000 BCE

End of Gravettian culture, beginning of Solutrean. Ishango Bone, thought by some to be a tally stick which may show a prime number sequence. 1.9-km Tenoumer crater in Mauritania. Claimed presence of Australian aborigine-type people in Brazil.[151][152] First clear evidence of building (homes),[153] remains of mud huts at Ohalo, by Sea of Galilee. Pottery sherds at Xianren Cave. Reported date of artefacts found on Cactus Hill in Virginia.[154]

18,000 years ago to 5,500 years ago

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
18 ka – 14 kaCa. 16,000 – ca. 12,000 BCE

Disappearance of Solutrean. Beginning of Magdalenian culture. Clay figurines of animals.[155] Lascaux cave paintings and 7mm-diameter rope. Red Deer Cave people, a possible separate species of Homo in China. Stone tools at the Buttermilk Creek Complex in Texas. Oldest known burial of dog with humans.[156][157] Evidence of massacre at Cemetery 117. Older Dryas cold spell. Most recent glaciation gradually ends. Sea level rises 30 metres in a few hundred years (Meltwater pulse 1A). Beginning of African humid period. Beginning of Natufian culture in Levant. Flatbread (in Jordan).[158][159]

14 ka – 11 kaCa. 12,000 – ca. 9,000 BCE. End of Pleistocene, beginning of Holocene.

Clovis culture in Americas. Tooth drilling and filling in Italy.[160][161] Outburst of water from Lake Agassiz or Younger Dryas impact event brings about the Younger Dryas cold spell. Meltwater pulse 1B causes 7.5 metre rise in sea level. Extinction of many species of large animals. Natufian Shaman burial[162] and earliest known banquet.[163] Vela Supernova only 800 ly away. Island of Spartel flooded (possible site of Atlantis). Arrow-shaft straighteners used by Natufian culture in the Levant. Göbekli Tepe (temple-like site of megalithic monuments and art). Lime. Neolithic Revolution (agriculture begins, domestication of animals). Earliest layers of Jericho – first known monumental building (stone tower 8 m high). Domestication and agriculture allows humans to live in one place - civilization.

11 ka – 9 kaTransition from Mesolithic to Neolithic. Beginning of Pre-Pottery Neolithic B in Mideast, 9th millennium BCE, 8th millennium BCE

Copper pendant in Iraq. Toothpicks and birch-bark chewing gum. Sea rises about 20 m in 9th millennium BCE. Beginning of an inex series of solar eclipses every 29 years, unbroken till the present. Cannabis achenes at archeological site in the Oki Islands, probably indicating use by humans.[164][165] Bas relief of dancing at Nevalı Çori.[166] Possible lunar time reckoner at Warren Field in Aberdeenshire.[167] Dog sleds in use in Arctic.[168][169] Kennewick Man in Washington, whose skull was different from modern Native Americans. Oldest cloth yet found (Çayönü). Dentistry. Alcoholic beverage (in China).[170] Mead. Small stone circle at Atlit Yam, Palestine.

9 ka – 7 kaEnd of Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. Ubaid period. 7th millennium BCE, 6th millennium BCE

Trepanation. Lake Agassiz largely empties into the Hudson Bay. Finse event, a 300-year cold spell, starting around 6250 BC. Storegga tsunami. Doggerland flooded, cutting off Britain. Meltwater pulse 1C causes 6.5 metre rise in sea level. Mount Etna causes tsunami, possibly ending Atlit Yam settlement (Palestine). Possible evidence of beer making at Göbekli Tepe.[166] Smelted lead, pottery & finger rings at Çatal Höyük. Rock painting of collecting wild honey (Spain). Opium. Wine[171] and beer. Cheesemaking (Poland). Sea rises 15–20 m in 6th millennium BCE. Holocene thermal maximum brings temperatures slightly warmer than in recent past. Older Peron "transgression" (high sea level). Sahara region not a desert (Neolithic Subpluvial). Domestication of the horse. Pottery revolutionized by the potter's wheel. Earliest known smelting of copper (Serbia). Earliest ritual landscapes, mustatils in Arabia.

7 ka – 5.5 kaChalcolithic. 5th millennium BCE, beginning of 4th millennium BCE

Oldest wrought gold known, in Varna necropolis. Earliest copper-tin bronze. Megaliths spread through Europe. Last mastodons. Arsenical bronze. Copper Age. Continuation of Holocene thermal maximum. Settlements with thousands of houses, in the Tripolye culture (Moldova and Ukraine). 5.9 kiloyear event. Sweet Track roadway. Silver mining. Invention of wheel. Large city of Hamoukar, destroyed in war, probably by Uruk in Sumer.

5,500 years ago to 1,800 years ago

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
5.5 ka – 4.5 kaEnd of 4th millennium BCE, beginning of 3rd millennium BCE. Beginning of Bronze Age.

Ötzi the Iceman. City of Liangzhu in China. Norte Chico civilization in Peru, first known civilization in Americas. Piora Oscillation – redesertification of the Sahara. Yamna culture, identified with the Proto-Indo-Europeans. Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Menes. Phonetic writing begins in Sumer (Cuneiform), Egypt, and Elam. Invention of toilet and sewerage systems (Indus civilization and Skara Brae). Soap-like substance produced in Babylon.[172] Early Dynastic Period in Mesopootamia. Wire. Bell Beaker culture in Europe. Pyramids of Ancient Egypt. Indus civilization, Ur. Beginning of Old Kingdom of Egypt. Stonehenge. Camel domesticated in Bactria and Arabia. Great Sphinx of Giza (possibly).

4.5 ka – 3.5 kaEnd of 3rd millennium BCE, beginning of 2nd millennium BCE

Destruction of Mari. Sargon of Akkad conquers Sumer, Mari, and Ebla. Courier services in Egypt. Maize cultivation in Mexico. Akkad sacked by the Gutians. 4.2 kiloyear event — a long drought that may have caused the collapse of the Old Kingdom of Egypt and the Akkadian Empire. Fall of Akkad. Gilgamesh epic Law code of Ur-Nammu. Possible time of the Great Flood of China and Yu the Great. Xia dynasty. Aegean Bronze Age ends. Argaric culture in Spain. Farming starts in KentuckyEastern Agricultural Complex [173] Bahr Yussef canal. Minoan Crete. Hammurabi. Avellino eruption of Vesuvius. Plimpton 322 tablet relating to Pythagorean triples. Calculation of the square root of 2 in Babylon.[174] Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, implying an approximation of pi. Last mammoths. Thera eruption. Hollow glassware.[175] Surgical and medical papyri in Egypt. Cannabis found in Turkmen shrine.[176]

3.5 ka – 2.8 kaca. 1500 BCE – ca. 800 BCE. Beginning of Iron Age.

Akhenaten. Rigveda. Shang dynasty. Olmec civilization. Hittites. Oracle bone script in China. Trojan war, Late Bronze Age collapse. Hekla 3 eruption. Beginning of Zhou Dynasty. David and Solomon. Apiculture.

2.8 ka – 2.2 kaca. 800 BCE – ca. 200 BCE

Zarathustra (Zoroaster), Homer, Hesiod. King Uzziah develops weapon like ballista or trebuchet. Fall of Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah. First coins. Solon's reforms in Athens. Cyrus, Kǒng Fūzǐ (Confucius). High THC cannabis used in Xinjiang.[177] Buddha (date uncertain), Pythagoras. Rudimentary democracy in Athens. Greco-Persian Wars, Mo Tzu (Micius). Etruscan civilization, ancient Iberian civilitzation, Socrates, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle. Helike sinks beneath the waves. Alexander, Euclid. Greco-Bactrian kingdom, Indo-Greek Kingdom. Gallic invasion of the Balkans. Library of Alexandria. Ashoka. Punic Wars end with razing of Carthage. Qin Dynasty.

2.2 ka – 1.8 kaca. 200 BCE – ca. 200 CE

Roman Warm Period. Han Dynasty. Mithridates the Great massacres around 100,000 Romans, sparking the Mithridatic Wars. Julius Caesar. Roman Empire, Yeshua (Jesus). Paul. First Jewish–Roman War and destruction of Jerusalem. Spread of Buddhism. Lions become extinct in Western Europe. AD 115 Antioch earthquake, Hadrian's Wall. Second Jewish–Roman War. Kanishka the Great and the Kushan Empire. Antonine Plague, Christianity, Gnosticism, Mithraism

1,800 years ago to 550 years ago

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
1.8 ka – 1.4 kaca. 200 – ca. 600

Manichaeism Plague of Cyprian. Jin Dynasty. Diocletian. Constantine. Axumite Empire adopts Christianity, conquers Meroë and the Kingdom of Kush. 365 Crete earthquake. Roman Empire splits. Tiwanaku. Classic Maya civilization. Byzantine Empire, Augustine, Attila the Hun, Saint Patrick, King Arthur. Teotihuacán. King Kaleb of Axum conquers Jewish Himyarite Kingdom for persecuting Christians. Nika riots. Climate changes of 535-536. Plague of Justinian. Beginning of Late Antique Little Ice Age.

1.4 ka – 1.1 kaca. 600 – ca. 900

Tang dynasty. Sasanids temporarily conquer Egypt. Muhammad. Muslims capture Ctesiphon, largest city in world. Alexandria falls to the Muslims. Khazar khaganate. Beginning of Turkic expansion. Siege of Constantinople (717–718). Battle of Poitiers. Donation of Pepin. 774–775 carbon-14 spike.[178] Charlemagne. Al-Kindi. Vikings.

1100 y – 900 yca. 900 – ca. 1120

Beowulf composed. Chinese invent gunpowder. Saeculum obscurum, or "Rule of the Harlots" period of the papacy. Bjarni Herjólfsson sights North America. Leifr Eiriksson goes there (Vinland). Medieval Warm Period. Song Dynasty. Ibn Sina. Reform of Pope Gregory VII. East-West Schism. Height of Kievan Rus' and Fatimid Caliphate, decline of Byzantine Empire. Norman Conquest. First Crusade.

900 y – 700 yca. 1120 – ca. 1320

Crusades. Height of Khmer Empire. Bombard invented in China. Genghis Khan. Magna Carta. Francis of Assisi. Mount Rinjani on Lombok erupts, causing global cooling and failed harvests. Siege of Baghdad (1258) by the Mongols. Mamluks defeat Mongol army of Hulagu Khan (under Kitbuqa) in the Battle of Ain Jalut — first known use of hand cannon. Golden Horde. Thomas Aquinas. Cannon. Yuan Dynasty. Marco Polo. Great Famine of 1315–1317 and beginning of the crisis of the Late Middle Ages.

700 y – 550 yca. 1320 – ca. 1470

Beginning of Hundred Years' War. Black Death marks the beginning of the Second plague pandemic. Papal Schism of the Catholic Church. Chaucer. Beginning of Ming Dynasty. Hwacha multiple rocket launcher. Zheng He. Beginning of the Renaissance. Battle of Grunwald. Battle of Agincourt. Joan of Arc. Kuwae eruption. Fall of Constantinople. Gutenberg. Beginning of Wars of the Roses.

550 years ago to 180 years ago

Time interval, before the present time. Period Event, invention or historical development
550 y – 450 yca. 1470 - ca. 1570

French-Breton War. Columbus rediscovers the New World. Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars (1492 to 1537). Vasco da Gama reaches India by sea. Columbian Exchange. Da Vinci, Michelangelo. Luther and the Reformation. Siege of Vienna. Copernicus, Scientific Revolution. 1556 Shaanxi earthquake.

450 y – 350 yca. 1570 - ca. 1670

Eighty Years' War. First of about 11 Russo-Turkish Wars (1568 to 1878). Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Battle of Lepanto. Spanish Armada. Microscope. Rise of the Moghul Empire. Russian Time of Troubles and Russian famine of 1601–1603, probably connected to eruption of Huaynaputina. Beginning of Little Ice Age (ca. 1550 to 1850). Beginning of Northern Wars (1554 to 1721). St. Bartholomew's Day massacre and the French Wars of Religion, ending with the Edict of Nantes. William Shakespeare. King James Bible. Thirty Years' War. Galileo. English Civil War. Descartes. Fermat. Pascal. First of four Anglo-Dutch Wars from 1652 to 1784. Louis XIV. Great Plague of London. Great Fire of London. Isaac Newton.

350 y – 280 yca. 1670 – ca. 1740

Franco-Dutch War. Battle of Vienna and Great Turkish War. Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes and begins persecuting Protestants. Glorious Revolution of 1688. Nine Years' War. Seven ill years in Scotland, failure of the Darién scheme. War of the Spanish Succession. Great Northern War. Kingdoms of England and Scotland unite to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. Battle of Poltava in Ukraine – beginning of decline of Swedish power. South Sea Bubble. Defoe, Swift, Bach,

280 y – 220 yca. 1740 – ca. 1800

Voltaire. Age of Enlightenment. Lisbon destroyed by earthquake, tsunami, and fire. Seven Years' War. Rousseau. American Revolution. Watt engine. Dismantlement of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Eruption of Laki. Mozart. French Revolution, Haitian Revolution. Quasi-War between US and France.

220 y – 180 yca. 1800 – ca. 1840

Barbary Wars between US and Barbary states. First locomotive. Ludwig van Beethoven. Napoleon I of France. New Madrid earthquakes. War of 1812. Eruption of Mount Tambora. Battle of Waterloo. Simón Bolívar. Year Without a Summer. Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829). Photography, electric motor. Babbage. Telegraph.

180 years ago to 55 years ago

Time interval, before the present time. Period Event, invention or historical development
180 y – 140 yca. 1840 – ca. 1880

First Opium War. Mexican–American War. Revolutions of 1848. Crimean War. Taiping Civil War kills at least 20 million. John Snow. Beginning of Third Plague Pandemic. Second Opium War. Darwin. Solar storm of 1859. American Civil War. President Lincoln assassinated. Paraguayan War. Austro-Prussian War. Famine of 1866–68 in Finland and Sweden. Joseph Lister. Marx. Franco-Prussian War. Great Famine of 1876–78 in India and China.[179] Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878). Long Depression. Alexander Graham Bell, Telephone.

140 y – 110 yca. 1880 – ca. 1910

Pasteur. War of the Pacific. First Boer War. Invention of automobile. Krakatoa. 1887 Yellow River flood. Mark Twain. Henry George. Spanish–American War. Boxer Rebellion. Second Boer War. Philippine–American War. Wright brothers. Russo-Japanese War. Herero atrocities by the Germans in German South West Africa. Einstein's papers on special relativity and quantization of light (photons). 1906 San Francisco earthquake. US Panic of 1907. Tunguska event. First Model T.

110 y – 90 yca. 1910 – ca. 1930

Freud, Cubism, Republic of China, RMS Titanic. Novarupta volcano, biggest eruption of the 20th century. World War I. General relativity, Russian Revolution. Irish War of Independence. Russian famine of 1921. Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922). Chinese famine of 1928–30 kills millions. Crash of 1929.

90 y – 70 yca. 1930 – ca. 1950

Stalin. 1931 Yellow River flood. Soviet famine of 1932–1933 kills ca. 8 million. Great Depression. Hitler. Franklin Roosevelt, New Deal. Sulfa drugs. Gödel. Gandhi. Second Sino-Japanese War, Spanish Civil War. 1938 Yellow River flood. LSD discovered. Winter War. World War II. Ballistic missiles, radar, jet aircraft. Penicillin. Chinese famine of 1942–43. Bengal famine of 1943. Nuclear weapons, Bretton Woods system. United Nations. Cold War begins. Soviet famine of 1946–47. Creation of Pakistan and Republic of India. ENIAC, Formation of Israel and 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

70 y – 55 yca. 1950 – 1966

NATO, Mao Zedong. Korean War. Structure of DNA found. McCarthyism, Elvis Presley. Suez War. Beginning of Vietnam War. Sputnik. ARPA. Ca. 20–30 million die in Great Chinese Famine. Cuban Revolution., invention of laser. Great Chilean Earthquake, most powerful recorded earthquake. Berlin Wall. Cuban Missile Crisis, The Beatles. American Civil Rights Movement. Indonesian mass killings of 1965–1966.

55 years ago to 18 years ago

Time interval, before the present time. Period Event, invention or historical development
55 y – 45 y1966–1976

Decolonisation, Space Race. Cultural Revolution (1966–76). Six-Day War. 2001 (film). Vietnam War, Counterculture. Sino-Soviet border conflict. First moon landing. Woodstock. Unix Bhola cyclone kills 500,000, Bangladesh Liberation War. Yom Kippur War. Richard Nixon resigns. Banqiao Dam and 61 other dams break in China.

45 y – 35 y1976–1986

Khmer Rouge. Tangshan earthquake. Downfall of Gang of Four. Microcomputers, Jimmy Carter, Three Mile Island, Margaret Thatcher comes to power, Usenet. Eruption of Mount St. Helens. Pac-Man. CNN. MTV. AIDS discovered. First IBM PC. Beginning of presidency of Ronald Reagan. Falklands War. Black July pogrom against Tamils in Sri Lanka. 1.2 million die in 1983–1985 famine in Ethiopia. Macintosh. Bhopal disaster., Soviet–Afghan War. Discovery of ozone hole.

35 y – 28 y1986–1993

Challenger disaster. Chernobyl. First 80386, Iran–Contra affair . BSE, perestroika, Black Monday, 1988 Burmese uprising. End of Iran–Iraq War, George H. W. Bush presidency. March 1989 geomagnetic storm cuts power in Quebec. Tiananmen protests. Communists lose power in Poland, fall of Berlin Wall. US invades Panama. Launch of Hubble Space Telescope. First Gulf War. AOL. Eruption of Mount Pinatubo. 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, End of USSR. Black Wednesday attack on British pound.

28 y – 22 y1993–1999

Beginning of Clinton presidency. First Pentium. Bosnian War. End of apartheid. 1994 Los Angeles earthquake. Rwandan Massacre. Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty. Rising use of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Start of World Trade Organization. Kobe earthquake. Windows 95, Java programming language. Rwanda invades ZaireFirst Congo War. Tony Blair becomes PM of the UK. North Korean famine. Asian financial crisis. Eritrean–Ethiopian War. Good Friday Agreement. Discovery of the acceleration of the universe. Beginning of Second Congo War.

22 y – 18 y1999–2003

Kosovo War. 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. Beginning of Second Chechen War. Vladimir Putin president of Russia. end of Indonesian occupation of East Timor. Y2K scare. Human genome sequenced. Start of al-Aqsa Intifada (Second Intifada). George W. Bush becomes president of US, Introduction of Wikipedia, 2001 Gujarat earthquake, Mac OS X, September 11 attacks, US invasion of Afghanistan, Windows XP

18 years ago to present

Time interval, before the present time. Period Event, invention or historical development
18 y – 14 y2003–2007

Columbia disaster, Darfur conflict begins, 2003 Iraq War, European heat wave of 2003. Bam earthquake. Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity land on Mars. Yassir Arafat dies. 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. Assassination of Rafic Hariri and Cedar Revolution. John Paul II dies. Gaza pullout by Israel, Great Flood of New Orleans (Hurricane Katrina), Kashmir earthquake. 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, 2006 North Korean nuclear test.

14 y – 11 y2007–2010

Nicolas Sarkozy becomes president of France. Battle of Gaza (2007). iPhone. Gordon Brown becomes PM of UK. World population becomes more than 50% urban. Cyclone Sidr, Cyclone Nargis. 2008 Sichuan earthquake. 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Financial crisis of 2007–2008. 2008 Mumbai attacks. Android (operating system). 2008-2009 Israel-Gaza conflict. Barack Obama president of US. Introduction of Bitcoin and cryptocurrency. Northwest Passage opens for first time in recorded history. 2009 swine flu pandemic.

11 y – 9 y2010–2012

2010 Haiti earthquake. 2010 Chile earthquake. iPad. 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull. Deepwater Horizon oil spill. 2010 European sovereign debt crisis. 2010 United Kingdom general election brings David Cameron to power. 2010 Gaza flotilla clash. 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat waves. 2010 Pakistan floods. WikiLeaks publishes US diplomatic cables. 2010–11 Queensland floods. 2010–2011 Tunisian revolution. Egyptian Revolution of 2011. February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Fukushima nuclear accident. Beginning of Syrian Civil War. Killing of Osama bin Laden. Last Space Shuttle flight. 2011 North American heat wave, 2011 Norway attacks. United States debt-ceiling crisis. 2011 England riots. 2011 Libyan civil war ends rule of Mu`ammar al-Qaddhafi, 2011 Thailand floods.

9 y – 7 y2012–2014

Largest strike-slip earthquake ever recorded.[180] François Hollande becomes president of France. Discovery of the Higgs boson. Curiosity rover lands on Mars. Hurricane Sandy. November 2012 Gaza conflict. France intervenes in the Northern Mali conflict. Chelyabinsk meteor. Hugo Chavez dies. Benedict XVI resigns, Jorge Mario Bergoglio becomes Pope Francis. Cyprus bailout. 2013 Korean crisis. 2013 protests in Turkey. 2013 Egyptian coup d'état. 2013 NSA surveillance scandal. Ghouta chemical attack. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), one of most powerful on record. Central African Republic conflict (2013–2014), beginning of South Sudanese Civil War.

7 y – 0 y2014–2021

Early 2014 North American cold wave. Belgium legalises euthanasia. 2014 Ukrainian revolution and Russian annexation of Crimea. Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant launches 2014 Northern Iraq offensive and announces caliphate. 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict. West African Ebola virus epidemic, Rosetta mission arrives at Comet 67P. 2014 Peshawar school massacre. United States–Cuban thaw.

January 2015 Paris attacks. Assassination of Boris Nemtsov. Dawn spacecraft arrives at Ceres. 2015 military intervention in Yemen, Garissa University College attack. April 2015 Nepal earthquake, FIFA crisis. 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis. US Supreme Court allows same-sex marriage. Greek bailout referendum, Iran nuclear deal, Turkey-PKK conflict restarts, New Horizons flies by Pluto, Beginning of European refugee crisis. Windows 10. Volkswagen emissions scandal. Mecca crane collapse and Mina stampede. Evidence of saltwater flows found on Mars. Russian intervention in Syria. Knife Intifada. Metrojet Flight 9268 brought down near Sharm el-Sheikh. November 2015 Paris attacks. Mauricio Macri President in Argentina, opposition wins 2015 Venezuelan parliamentary election. 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference. New Year's Eve sexual assaults in Germany.

Saudi Arabia executes Nimr al-Nimr. January 2016 North Korean nuclear test and satellite launch. LIGO announces discovery of gravitational waves. Zika fever outbreak, ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter launched. 2016 Brussels bombings. Panama Papers. 2016 Ecuador earthquake. 2016 Fort McMurray Wildfire. Impeachment of Dilma Rousseff. Britain votes to leave the EU. Panama Canal widened. Atatürk Airport attack. July 2016 Baghdad bombings. 2016 shooting of Dallas police officers. 2016 Nice truck attack. Turkish coup d'état attempt. July 2016 Kabul bombing. 2016 Louisiana floods. 2016–2017 Central Italy earthquakes. Hurricane Matthew. Colombian peace agreement referendum. Paris climate agreement becomes law. Donald Trump elected. Fidel Castro dies. 2016 Italian constitutional referendum. Impeachment of Park Geun-hye. Berlin Christmas market truck attack. Syrian Army and Russia win the battle over Ḥalab (Aleppo).

WikiLeaks publishes Vault 7. 2017 Shayrat missile strike. 2017 Turkish constitutional referendum. WannaCry ransomware attack. Emmanuel Macron president of France. Manchester Arena bombing. May 2017 Kabul attack. United States withdrawal from the Paris Agreement 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis. 2017 United Kingdom general election. North Korea tests ICBMs. Mawsil recaptured from IS. Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville. 2017 Barcelona attacks. Hurricanes Harvey and Irma hit the Caribbean and the US. Northern Rakhine State clashes. 2017 South Asian floods. Cassini–Huygens plunges into Saturn. 2017 Central Mexico earthquake. Hurricane Maria devastates Dominica and Puerto Rico. 2017 Las Vegas shooting. 2017 Catalan independence referendum. October 2017 Northern California wildfires. October 2017 Mogadishu bombings. Iraqi government forces take Kirkuk Lebanese PM Sa`ad Hariri resigns in Saudi Arabia. Robert Mugabe resigns. U.S. recognition of Jerusalem as Israeli capital. Violence in Democratic Republic of the Congo. December 2017 California wildfires.

2018 Southern California mudflows. Hawaii missile panic. Turkish invasion of Afrin. 2018 Winter Olympics in South Korea. Jacob Zuma resigns. Poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal. 2018 Venezuelan presidential election widely condemned. Kim Jong-un meets Moon Jae-in. 2018 Kilauea eruption. US withdraws from Iran deal. 2018 Italian election brings to power a coalition of the Five Star Movement and the Lega Nord. Socialist Pedro Sánchez becomes PM of Spain. Peace between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Kim meets Donald Trump. Trump tariffs. 2018 Mexican general election brings López Obrador to presidency. France wins 2018 World Cup. Venezuelan refugee crisis. Hurricane Florence. 2018 Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami. Brett Kavanaugh confirmed as US Supreme Court justice. Murder of Jamal Khashoggi. Hurricane Michael. Hurricane Leslie hits Iberia. 2018 Moscow–Constantinople schism. Bolsonaro elected president of Brazil. Fire destroys Paradise, California. Gilets jaunes riots in Paris. 2018 Sunda Strait tsunami (Anak Krakatau). Longest US government shutdown.

Chang'e 4 lands on far side of the moon. Félix Tshisekedi controversially declared president of the DRC. Protests in Sudan and Zimbabwe. Juan Guaidó recognized by many countries as interim president of Venezuela. Cyclone Idai, possibly the worst weather-related natural disaster in history in the southern hemisphere. Christchurch mosque shootings Boeing 737 MAX groundings. Beginning of 2019–20 Hong Kong protests. Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigns. 2019 Western Libya offensive Omar al-Bashir removed from power. Notre-Dame de Paris fire. Redacted Mueller Report released. 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings. Escalating tension between US and Iran. Beginning of 2019–20 locust infestation around horn of Africa. Boris Johnson becomes prime minister of UK. 2019 Amazon rainforest wildfires. Hurricane Dorian devastates areas of the Bahamas. 2019 Papua protests. Attacks on two Saudi oil facilities. 2019 Egyptian protests. 2019 Indonesian protests and riots. Impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump opens. September 2019 climate strikes. Riots in Iraq 2019 Ecuadorian protests 2019 Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria. Typhoon Hagibis makes landfall in Japan, the biggest storm to hit the region in decades. 2019 Catalan protests. 2019–20 Lebanese protests and 2019 Chilean protests. Death of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Alberto Fernández wins presidential election in Argentina. 2019 California wildfires. 2019 Bolivian protests and resignation of Evo Morales. Protests in the Czech Republic. Beginning of 2019–2020 Iranian protests. 2019 Georgian protests. Chaos in Haiti. 2019 Maltese protests. 2019 United Kingdom general election won by Tories. Protests in India over citizenship act. In general, protests of 2019. Congress votes for the impeachment of Donald Trump

2019–20 Persian Gulf crisis, killing of Qasem Soleimani, downing of UIA 752 near Tehran. COVID-19 pandemic. Police arrest 15 pro-democracy activists in Hong Kong. Super Cyclonic Storm Amphan, costliest cyclone in Indian Ocean. China proposes amending the Hong Kong Basic Law. George Floyd protests. Hong Kong national security law imposed. 2020 deployment of federal forces in the United States. 2020 Beirut explosions. 2020–21 Belarusian protests. Israel-United Arab Emirates accord. 2020 Thai protests. 2020 Malian coup. Poisoning of Alexei Navalny. 2020 Western United States wildfire season worst in many years. Hurricane Laura. Hurricane Sally. Signing of the "Abraham Accords". 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. "End SARS" protests in Nigeria. 2020 Thai protests. 2020 Aegean Sea earthquake. Super Typhoon Goni hits Catanduanes Island in the Philippines with wind speeds up to 315 km/hr, a record for a landfalling tropical cyclone. Joe Biden wins 2020 United States presidential election. Start of Tigray War in Ethiopia. Hurricane Iota ends the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season with a record 28 storms. Assassination of Mohsen Fakhrizadeh. Kent variant of the COVID-19 virus. EU–UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement.

2021 storming of the United States Capitol. Inauguration of Joe Biden. Alexei Navalny releases video about Putin's Palace, returns to Russia and is imprisoned. 2021 Myanmar coup d'état and 2021 Myanmar protests. Mario Draghi becomes PM of Italy. 2021 Bata explosions in Equatorial Guinea. Number of displaced persons from Islamist insurgency in Mozambique exceeds half a million.[181] 2021 Suez Canal blockage. Natanz uranium enrichment facility sabotaged. Russian troops deploy around Ukraine. Chadian president Idriss Déby killed. Derek Chauvin convicted for death of George Floyd. 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis. Ryanair forced landing in Belarus. 2021 Mount Nyiragongo eruption.


A logarithmic timeline can also be devised for events which should occur in the future, barring unforeseen circumstances and assuming that we can extrapolate into the future based on our science.

Time interval Event
1 – 10 years (2021–2030)
10 – 100 years (2030–2120)Global warming. Year 2038 problem and Year 2106 problem
100 – 1000 years (2120–3020)

Consumption of fossil fuels much lower than at present

1000 – 10 ka (3020-12 020)

Opening of the Crypt of Civilization. Summer and winter constellations switch, north celestial pole moves far from present North Star

10 ka – 100 ka (12 020 – 102 020)Presently used Computus will give Paschal Full Moon at new moon.

Alpha Centauri passes the sun and continues toward Lynx.

Present constellations become unrecognizable.

Hebrew calendar out of sync with seasons.

100 ka – 1 MaGregorian Calendar out of sync with seasons.

Several supervolcanoes erupt. Strait of Gibraltar closes, Mediterranean Sea dries up.

1 Ma – 10 MaTechnetium-99 produced today ceases to be a danger

Gliese 710 passes through the Oort Cloud.

Several kilometre-size asteroids or comets on collision course with Earth.

The Afar Depression and the East African Rift become a new sea, splitting Africa.

10 Ma – 100 MaMediterranean basin closes.

Iodine-129 and Neptunium-237 in nuclear waste decay away.

100 Ma – 1 GaDifferent continents from today due to splitting and coalescence. Possible new supercontinent.[182]

Sun completes several orbits around the Milky Way

1 Ga – 10 GaHotter sun makes land too hot for life.

Oceans evaporate.

Andromeda–Milky Way collision.

Sun becomes a red giant

10 Ga – 100 Ga

Sun becomes a white dwarf

Presently existing uranium and rhenium-187 decay away.

100 Ga – 1 TaWhite dwarf Sun fades away.

Local Group coalesces.

Presently existing thorium decays away.

1 Ta – 10 Ta

Galaxies outside Local Supercluster no longer visible (if dark energy prevails). Proxima Centauri ceases to be a main-sequence star.

10 Ta – 100 TaStar formation ends. Degenerate Era starts.
100 Ta – 1 PaNuclear fusion ceases (if not sooner).

Sun becomes a black dwarf.

1 Pa – 10 PaPlanets fall or are flung away from their stars.
10 Pa – 100 Pa
100 Pa – 1 exaannus

Vanadium-50 decays.

1 Ea – 10 Ea

Tungsten-180, Europium-151, Molybdenum-100, Neodymium-150, and Tellurium-130 decay

10 Ea – 100 Ea

Zirconium-96, Bismuth (209), Calcium-48, and Cadmium-116 decay

100 Ea – 1 zettaannus

Selenium-82 decays

1 Za – 10 Za

Barium-130, Germanium-78, Xenon-136, and Krypton-78 decay

10 Za – 100 Za

Xenon-124 decays

100 Za – 1 Ya
1 Ya – 10 Ya

Tellurium-128 decays

10 Ya – 100 Ya

See also


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