Distributed computing

Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. A distributed system is a system whose components are located on different networked computers, which communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages to one another from any system.[1][2] The components interact with one another in order to achieve a common goal. Three significant challenges of distributed systems are: maintaining concurrency of components, overcoming the lack of a global clock, and managing the independent failure of components.[1] When a component of one system fails, the entire system does not fail.[3] Examples of distributed systems vary from SOA-based systems to massively multiplayer online games to peer-to-peer applications.

A computer program that runs within a distributed system is called a distributed program,[4] and distributed programming is the process of writing such programs.[5] There are many different types of implementations for the message passing mechanism, including pure HTTP, RPC-like connectors and message queues.[6]

Distributed computing also refers to the use of distributed systems to solve computational problems. In distributed computing, a problem is divided into many tasks, each of which is solved by one or more computers,[7] which communicate with each other via message passing.[8]

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