Duchy of Aquitaine

The Duchy of Aquitaine (Occitan: Ducat d'Aquitània, IPA: [dyˈkad dakiˈtaɲɔ]; French: Duché d'Aquitaine, IPA: [dyʃe dakitɛn]) was a historical fiefdom in western, central and southern areas of present-day France to the south of the Loire River, although its extent, as well as its name, fluctuated greatly over the centuries, at times comprising much of what is now southwestern France (Gascony) and central France.

Duchy of Aquitaine
Ducat d'Aquitània  (Occitan)
Duché d'Aquitaine  (French)
Angevin coat of arms (12th century)
Map of France in 1154
StatusFief of Francia (602 – late 7th century), independent duchy (intermittently late 7th century – 769)
Common languagesMedieval Latin
Old Occitan
GovernmentFeudal monarchy
Duke of Aquitaine 
Ranulf I of Aquitaine
William VIII of Aquitaine
William X
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Henry IV of Aquitaine
Historical eraMiddle Ages
 Duke appointed by the Merovingian kings
 Annexed by Kingdom of France
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Visigothic Kingdom
Umayyad Caliphate
Duchy of Guyenne
Kingdom of France
Today part ofFrance

It originated in the 7th century as a duchy of Francia, ultimately a recreation of the Roman provinces of Aquitania Prima and Secunda. As a duchy, it broke up after the conquest of the independent Aquitanian duchy of Waiofar, going on to become a sub-kingdom within the Carolingian Empire, eventually subsumed in West Francia after the 843 partition of Verdun. It reappeared as a duchy, and in the High Middle Ages, an enlarged Aquitaine pledged loyalty to the Angevin kings of England. Their claims in France triggered the Hundred Years' War, in which the kingdom of France gained control of the territory under dispute in the 1450s, with many incorporated areas coming to be ruled directly by the French kings.