Duchy of Normandy

The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and the Viking leader Rollo. The duchy was named for its inhabitants, the Normans.

Duchy of Normandy
Duché de Normandie
Ducatus Normanniae
911–1259/1469
Top: The reconstruction of the Norman "papal" banner according to Bayeux Tapestry
Bottom: Heraldic flag of Normandy
Normandy's historical borders in the northwest of France and the Channel Islands
StatusVassal of the Kingdom of France
CapitalRouen
Common languagesLatin
Old Norman
Religion
Norse religion
Roman Catholicism
GovernmentFeudal monarchy
Duke of Normandy 
 911–927
Rollo (first)
 1035–1087
William the Conqueror
 1144–1150
Geoffrey Plantagenet
 1199–1216 (1204)
John Lackland (last)
Historical eraMiddle Ages
911
1066
 Normandy conquered by Anjou
1144
 Normandy conquered by French Crown
1204
1259
 Ducal ring destroyed
1469
 French nominal ducal title abolished
1790
CurrencyDenier (Rouen penny)
Today part of

Guernsey

Jersey

From 1066 until 1204, as a result of the Norman conquest of England, the kings of England were also dukes of Normandy, with the exception of Robert Curthose (1087–1106), eldest son of William the Conqueror but unsuccessful claimant to the English throne; and Geoffrey Plantagenet (1144–1150), husband of Empress Matilda and father of Henry II.

In 1202, Philip II of France declared Normandy forfeit to him and seized it by force of arms in 1204. It remained disputed territory until the Treaty of Paris of 1259, when the English sovereign ceded his claim except for the Channel Islands; i.e., the Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey, and their dependencies (including Sark).

In the Kingdom of France, the duchy was occasionally set apart as an appanage to be ruled by a member of the royal family. After 1469, however, it was permanently united to the royal domain, although the title was occasionally conferred as an honorific upon junior members of the royal family. The last French duke of Normandy in this sense was Louis-Charles, duke from 1785 to 1789.