European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity

ENTSO-E, the European Network of Transmission System Operators, represents 42 electricity transmission system operators (TSOs) from 35 countries across Europe, thus extending beyond EU borders. ENTSO-E was established and given legal mandates by the EU's Third Package for the Internal energy market in 2009, which aims at further liberalising the gas and electricity markets in the EU.[1]

European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity
Formation19 December 2008; 12 years ago (2008-12-19)
Legal statusAISBL
PurposeENTSO-E promotes closer cooperation across Europe’s TSOs to support the implementation of EU energy policy and achieve Europe’s energy & climate policy objectives, which are changing the very nature of the power system
HeadquartersAvenue de Cortenbergh 100
Brussels, Belgium
Region served
Transmission system operators
Main organ


On 27 June 2008, 36 European electricity transmission system operators (TSOs) signed in Prague a declaration of intent to create the ENTSO-E.[2] ENTSO-E was established on 19 December 2008 in Brussels by 42 TSOs as a successor of six regional associations of the electricity transmission system operators.[3][4] ENTSO-E became operational on 1 July 2009. The former associations ETSO, ATSOI, UKTSOA, NORDEL, UCTE and BALTSO became a part of the ENTSO-E, while still offering data by their predecessors for public interest.[5]

Creation of ENTSO-E was initiated by the adoption of the European Union third legislative package on the gas and electricity markets.[2] In 2003, the European Commission conducted a sector inquiry concerning the competition of electricity market in six European countries.[6] Examining competition in these countries, the final report stated serious issues to be solved.[7] It was noticed that the integration between member state's markets is still insufficient. Additionally, the absence of transparently available market information was assessed.[6] As a result, the third legislative package on the EU gas and electricity markets was adopted by the European Commission in September 2007.[8]


According to its website, "ENTSO-E promotes closer cooperation across Europe’s TSOs to support the implementation of EU energy policy and achieve Europe’s energy & climate policy objectives, which are changing the very nature of the power system. The main objectives of ENTSO-E centre on the integration of renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind and solar power into the power system, and the completion of the internal energy market (IEM), which is central to meeting the European Union’s energy policy objectives of affordability, sustainability and security of supply. [...] ENTSO-E aims to be the focal point for all technical, market and policy issues relating to TSOs and the European network, interfacing with power system users, EU institutions, regulators and national governments."[1]


TSOs are responsible for the bulk transmission of electric power on the main high voltage electric networks. TSOs provide grid access to the electricity market players (i.e., generating companies, traders, suppliers, distributors, and directly connected customers) according to non-discriminatory and transparent rules. In many countries, TSOs are in charge of the development of the grid infrastructure, too. TSOs in the European Union internal electricity market are entities operating independently from the other electricity market players (unbundling)[9]

ENTSO-E contains 42 TSOs from 35 countries.[10]

ISO country code Country TSO Abbr.
AL AlbaniaOperatori i Sistemit te TransmetimitOST
AT AustriaVerbundAPG
AT AustriaVorarlberger ÜbertragungsnetzVUEN
BA Bosnia and HerzegovinaBiH Independent System OperatorNOS BiH
BE BelgiumElia Transmission BelgiumElia
BG BulgariaElectroenergien Sistemen OperatorESO
HR CroatiaCroatian Transmission System OperatorHOPS
CY CyprusCyprus Transmission System OperatorCyprus TSO
DK DenmarkEnerginet
EE EstoniaElering
FI FinlandFingrid
FR FranceRéseau de Transport d'ÉlectricitéRTE
DE GermanyTransnetBWTNG
DE GermanyTennet TSOTTG
DE GermanyAmprion
DE Germany50Hertz Transmission50Hertz
GR GreeceIndependent Power Transmission OperatorIPTO (or ADMIE)
HU HungaryMAVIR Magyar Villamosenergia-ipari Átviteli Rendszerirányító ZRt.MAVIR
IS IcelandLandsnet
IE IrelandEirGrid
IT ItalyTerna
LV LatviaAugstsprieguma tīklsAST
LT LithuaniaLitgrid
LU LuxembourgCreos Luxembourg
MK North MacedoniaMEPSO
ME MontenegroCrnogorski elektroprenosni sistem ADCGES
NL NetherlandsTenneT
NO NorwayStatnett
PL PolandPolskie Sieci ElektroenergetycznePSE
PT PortugalRedes Energéticas NacionaisREN
RO RomaniaTranselectrica
RS SerbiaElektromreža SrbijeEMS
SI SloveniaElektro-SlovenijaELES
ES SpainRed Eléctrica de EspañaREE
SE SwedenSvenska KraftnätSVK
CH SwitzerlandSwissgridSwissgrid
GB United KingdomNational Grid plcNational Grid
GB United KingdomSystem Operator for Northern IrelandSONI
GB United KingdomScottish Hydro Electric Transmission plcSHE Transmission
GB United KingdomScottish Power Transmission plcSPTransmission
TR Turkey (observer member)Türkiye Elektrik İletim A.Ş.TEİAŞ

Geographical area

The geographical area covered by ENTSO-E's member TSOs is divided into five synchronous areas and two isolated systems (Cyprus and Iceland). Synchronous areas are groups of countries that are connected via their respective power systems. The system frequency (50 Hz, with usually very minor deviations) is synchronous within each area, and a disturbance at one single point in the area will be registered across the entire zone. Individual synchronous areas are interconnected through direct current interconnectors.

The benefits of synchronous areas include pooling of generation capacities, common provisioning of reserves, both resulting in cost-savings, and mutual assistance in the event of disturbances, resulting in cheaper reserve power costs (for instance in case of a disturbance or outage).[11]

Legal basis

The Third Energy Package and Regulation (EC) No 714/2009[12] on conditions for access to the network for cross-border exchanges in electricity regulation stipulate ENTSO-E's tasks and responsibilities. Regulation (EU) 838/2010[13] on guidelines relating to the inter-TSO compensation mechanism sets out the methodology by which TSOs receive compensation for the costs incurred in hosting cross-border flows of electricity. Regulation (EU) 347/2013[14] on guidelines for trans-European energy infrastructure defines European Projects of Common Interest (PCIs)[15] identifies ENTSO-E's ten-year network development plan (TYNDP)[16] as the basis for the selection of PCIs. ENTSO-E is also mandated to develop a corresponding cost–benefit methodology[17] for the assessment of transmission infrastructure projects.

The Transparency Regulation (EU) No. 543/2013[18] on submission and publication of data in electricity markets makes it mandatory for European Member State data providers and owners to submit fundamental information related to electricity generation, load, transmission, balancing, outages, and congestion management for publication through the ENTSO-E Transparency Platform.[11]

Key activities

Pan-European Transmission Network plans and cost–benefit analysis

The ten-year network development plan 2016 (TYNDP)[19] is drafted by ENTSO-E, in close cooperation with stakeholders, under scrutiny of ACER and is finally adopted by the European Commission. It is the only existing pan-European network development plan. It is the basis for the selection of EU projects of common interest (PCIs).[20] The list of PCIs is not fixed by ENTSO-E and is subject to a different process led by the European Commission and EU Member States.

The TYNDP is updated every two years. For inclusion in the TYNDP, each project, whether transmission or storage, has to go through a cost–benefit analysis. The benefit analysis methodology[17] is developed by ENTSO-E in consultation with stakeholders and adopted by the European Commission. It assesses projects against socio-economic and environmental criteria.[11]

Adequacy forecasts

ENTSO-E publishes summer and winter generation outlooks,[21] well as a long-term system adequacy forecast, the Scenario Outlook & Adequacy Forecast (SO&AF).[22] The seasonal outlooks assess if there is enough generation to cover supply and highlight possibilities for neighbouring countries to contribute to the generation/demand balance in critical situations in a specific country. The SO&AF analyses system adequacy on the long-term and is connected to investment decisions.[11]

Network codes

ENTSO-E's network codes are binding pan-European rules drafted by ENTSO-E in consultation with stakeholders, with guidance from ACER. Network codes are grouped in three areas:

  • connection codes connecting electricity generators, demand, and direct current lines to the transmission grids;
  • operational codes governing how the pan-European electricity systems are operated;
  • and market codes facilitating and harmonising electricity trading across European borders.[11][23]

The drafting and adoption process of network codes is defined by the Third Package. ACER develops a framework guideline setting the policy choices for each code. On this basis, the codes are drafted by ENTSO-E in consultation with stakeholders. After ACER's opinion and recommendation for adoption, each code is submitted to the European Commission for approval through the Comitology process, i.e., to be voted on by Member State representatives and thus to become EU law, directly binding and implemented across all Member States.[11]

Transparency Platform (TP)

ENTSO-E's Central Information Transparency Platform[24] provides free access to fundamental data and information on pan-European wholesale energy generation, transmission, and consumption.[25]

Research, development, and innovation (RDI)

ENTSO-E's R&D Roadmap[26] provides the ENTSO-E vision on grid projects to be carried out by TSOs to meet EU objectives. The roadmap is supported by the annual R&D Implementation Plan,[27] which combines both top-down and bottom-up approaches in meeting the requirements of the roadmap. ENTSO-E publishes annually a R&D Monitoring Report[28] that assesses the progress of TSO-related R&D work.[11]


ENTSO-E is an international non-profit association (AISBL) established according to Belgian law. ENTSO-E is financed by its members. The TSOs contribute to the budget according to the number of countries and the population served.[11]

The highest body of ENTSO-E is the Assembly, which is composed of representatives at CEO level of all the currently 43 members. The ENTSO-E Board is elected every two years from the overall membership and through the Assembly. It includes 12 representatives. The president, vice president, and committee chairs are invited to board meetings. The board coordinates the committees and LRG work and implements Assembly decisions.[11][29]

ENTSO-E has established four specialized committees[30] composed of managers from member TSOs. Each committee leads a number of regional groups and working groups.

At the same level as the four committees, the transversal Legal & Regulatory Group[31] advises all ENTSO-E bodies on legal and regulatory issues. In addition, expert groups on data, network codes implementation, and EU affairs provide specific expertise and work products to the association.[11]

ENTSO-E's Secretariat is based in Brussels. It is headed by the secretary-general and represents ENTSO-E to the European institutions, regulators, and stakeholders.

Organizational chart

Position Name
President Ben Voorhorst
Vice President Hervé Laffaye
Chair of the Board Bente Hagem
Vice Chair of the Board Fintan Slye
Secretary General Laurent Schmitt
Manager - Strategy & Communication Susanne Nies
Manager - Data & Infrastructure Nicolas Richet
Manager - Human Resources and Finance Arnaud Scaramanga
Manager - Legal Florence Melchior
Manager - Market Zoltan Gyulay
Manager - System Development Robert Schroeder
Manager - System Operations Sonya Twohig

Key figures (2014)

  • 41 transmission system operators
  • 34 European countries
  • 532 million customers served
  • 312,693 kilometres (194,298 mi) of transmission lines
  • 3,174.2 TWh electricity transported
  • 423,586 GWh of electricity exchange between member TSOs
  • 1,023,721 MW net generation capacity connected to the grid[11]

See also


  1. "Who Is ENTSO-E?". Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  2. "TSOs for electricity are founding new association" (Press release). ENTSO-E. 1 July 2008. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  3. "TSOs for electricity have founded a new association" (Press release). ENTSO-E. 19 December 2008. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  4. "European TSOs established new organisation ENTSO-E" (Press release). Statnett. 19 December 2008. Archived from the original on 23 September 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  5. "ENTSO-E, fully operational as of 1 July, welcomes the adoption of the EU's 3rd energy package" (Press release). ENTSO-E. 1 July 2009. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  6. "Inquiry pursuant to Article 17 of Regulation (EC) No 1/2003". European Commission. 2005. Archived from the original on 23 January 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  7. "Communication from the Commission – Inquiry pursuant to Article 17 of Regulation (EC) No 1/2003 into the European gas and electricity sectors". European Commission. 2007. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
  8. "Energising Europe – a real market with secure supply (Third legislative package)". European Commission. Archived from the original on 8 April 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  9. "Market legislation - Energy - European Commission". Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  10. "ENTSO-E Member Companies". Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  11. "ENTSO-E at a Glance". Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  12. "REGULATION (EC) No 714/2009 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  13. "COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 838/2010". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  14. "REGULATION (EU) No 347/2013 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  15. "Energy topics - European Commission". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  16. "R&D Implementation Plan 2016–2018". Archived from the original on 10 July 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  17. "Cost Benefit Analysis Methodology CBA 1.0 for TYNDP Project Assessment". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  18. "COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 543/2013". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  19. "Ten-Year Network Development Plan 2016". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  20. "Projects of common interest - European Commission". 8 November 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  21. [dead link]
  22. "Scenario Outlook & Adequacy Forecasts". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  23. "Network Codes". Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  25. Hirth, Lion; Mühlenpfordt, Jonathan; Bulkeley, Marisa (1 September 2018). "The ENTSO‑E Transparency Platform: a review of Europe's most ambitious electricity data platform". Applied Energy. 225: 1054–1067. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.04.048. ISSN 0306-2619. Retrieved 1 August 2018. CC‑BY‑4.0 license.
  26. "R&D Roadmap 2017–2026". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  27. "R&D Implementation Plan 2016–2018". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  28. "R&D Monitoring Report 2015". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  29. "ENTSO-E Governance". Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  30. "ENTSO-E Working Committees". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  31. "Legal and Regulatory Group (LRG)". Retrieved 1 December 2016.