Eduard Bernstein

Eduard Bernstein (6 January 1850 – 18 December 1932) was a German social democratic Marxist theorist and politician. A member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), Bernstein had held close association to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, but he began to identify what he believed to be errors in Marxist thinking and began to criticize views held by Marxism when he investigated and challenged the Marxist materialist theory of history.[1] He rejected significant parts of Marxist theory that were based upon Hegelian metaphysics and rejected the Hegelian perspective of an immanent economic necessity to socialism.[2]

Eduard Bernstein
Member of the Reichstag
from Brandenburg
In office
7 June 1920  20 May 1928
ConstituencyPotsdam (Teltow-Beeskow-Charlottenburg)
Member of the Imperial Reichstag
from Silesia
In office
13 January 1912  10 November 1918
Preceded byOtto Pfundtner
Succeeded byReichstag dissolution
ConstituencyBreslau-West
In office
31 October 1901  25 January 1907
Preceded byBruno Schönlank
Succeeded byOtto Pfundtner
ConstituencyBreslau-West
Personal details
Born(1850-01-06)6 January 1850
Schöneberg, Kingdom of Prussia
Died18 December 1932(1932-12-18) (aged 82)
Berlin, Free State of Prussia, Weimar Republic
Political partySDAP (1872–1875)
SPD (1875–1917)
USPD (1917–1919)
SPD (1918–1932)

Philosophy career
Era19th20th-century philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolSocialism
Main interests
Politics, economy, sociology
Notable ideas
Social democracy
Revisionism
Influenced