Education in Russia
In Russia, the state provides most education services regulating education through the Ministry of Education and Science. Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. Russia's expenditure on education has grown from 2.7% of the GDP in 2005 to 3.8% in 2013, but remains below the OECD average of 5.2%.
|Ministry of Education and Research|
|Minister for Education||Sergey Kravtsov|
|National education budget (2014)|
|Budget||499.5 billion rouble|
Before 1990 the course of school training in the Soviet Union lasted 10 years, but at the end of 1990 an 11-year course officially came into operation. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free; first tertiary (university level) education is free with reservations: a substantial number of students enroll on full pay. Male and female students have equal shares in all stages of education, except in tertiary education where women lead with 57%.
A 2015 estimate by the United States Central Intelligence Agency puts the literacy rate in Russia at 99.7% (99.7% for men, 99.6% for women). According to a 2016 OECD estimate, 54% of Russia's adults (25- to 64-year-olds) have attained a tertiary education, giving Russia the second-highest attainment of tertiary education among 35 OECD member-countries. 47.7% have completed secondary education (the full 11-year course); 26.5% have completed middle school (9 years) and 8.1% have elementary education (at least 4 years). Highest rates of tertiary education (24.7%) are recorded among women aged 35 to 39 years (compared to 19.5% for men of the same age bracket).
In 2014 the Pearson/Economist Intelligence Unit rated Russia's education as the 8th-best in Europe and the 13th-best in the world; Russia's educational attainment was rated as the 21st-highest in the world, and the students' cognitive skills as the 9th-highest.[importance?]
In 2016 the US company Bloomberg rated Russia's higher education as the third-best in the world, measuring the percentage of high-school graduates who go on to attend college, the annual science and engineering graduates as a percentage of all college graduates, and science and engineering graduates as a percentage of the labor force.[importance?]
In 2014 Russia ranked as the 6th most-popular destination for international students.[importance?]