Education in Sweden
Education in Sweden is mandatory for children between ages 7 and 15. The school year in Sweden runs from mid/late August to early/mid June. The Christmas holiday from mid December to early January divides the Swedish school year into two terms.
|Ministry of Education and Research|
|Minister for Education||Anna Ekström|
|National education budget (2017)|
|Budget||71.6 billion SEK|
|Secondary diploma||83% of adults (OECD 2017)|
|Post-secondary diploma||41.9% of adults (OECD 2017)|
Preschool is free for low-income families and subsidized with a price ceiling for all families. The year children turn six they start the compulsory preschool class (förskoleklass), which act as a transition phase between preschool and comprehensive schools. Children between ages 7 and 15 attend comprehensive school where a wide range of subjects are studied. All students study the same subjects, with exception for different language choices. The majority of schools are run municipally, but there are also privately owned schools, known as independent schools.
Almost all students continue studying in 3 year long upper secondary schools where most students choose one out of 18 national programmes some of which are vocational and some preparatory. For students not fulfilling the requirements for the national programmes, introductory programmes are available where students work to satisfy the requirements for the national programmes. In 2018, 16% of students finishing year 9 of comprehensive school were not eligible for national programmes.
The higher education system is compatible with the rest of Europe through the Bologna Process where degrees are divided into 3 cycles, basic level, advanced level and doctoral level. There are two degrees available in each cycle of different lengths. Universities have no tuition fees for Swedish citizens (as well for citizens of European Economic Area сountries), and student aid is available from the government.
|Type of education||School||Designation||Age|
|Research entitled university college
(Högskola med forskningstillstånd)
|4th year||Ages vary|
|Master's level education||University
|2nd year||Ages vary|
|Bachelor's level education||University
|3rd year||Ages vary|
|Upper secondary education||Gymnasium/High School
|Tredje ring||3rd grade||18–19|
|Andra ring||2nd grade||17–18|
|Första ring||1st grade||16–17|
|Primary and lower secondary education||Comprehensive school
|Preschool class education||Preschool class
In 1842, the Swedish parliament introduced a four-year primary school for children in Sweden, "folkskola". In 1882 two grades were added to "folkskola", grade 5 and 6. Some "folkskola" also had grade 7 and 8, called "fortsättningsskola". Schooling in Sweden became mandatory for 7 years in the 1930s and for 8 years in the 1950s. In 1962 the first version of the current compulsory school was introduced with Swedish children having 9 mandatory years in school – from August the year the child turns 7 to June the year the child turns 16.
The 1962 curriculum included two different study paths vocational and preparatory, this was however abolished in the 1969 revision. In 1980 came another major revision increasing the emphasis on the theoretical subjects. In 1994 the grading system was changed and in the latest revision from 2011 the grading system was changed yet again this time also introducing grades from year 6.
In 1905 realskolan was introduced for students wanting to continue studying after folkskolan it had varying length between 3 and 6 years.
In 1968 gymnasieskolan was introduced with a similar structure to the current version. 22 different programmes some of which were vocational and some preparatory. These programmes lasted from between 2 and 4 years something that was changed in 1991 making all programmes 3 years long.
Preschool is offered to all children whose parents are working, studying, unemployed or on parental leave from the age of one. From the age of 3, all children are eligible for at least 3 hours of preschool education every day for free. Fees for children being at preschool for more than 3 hours a day or under 3 years of age are based on family income and number of children. Prices range from free to a maximum of 1 425 SEK (€135 or US$150) per month As of July 2019[update] with exact rates set by the municipality.
It is intended to free up parents to work, establishing a foundation for children going into the comprehensive school and promote fundamental values such as the equal value of all people. This is achieved through pedagogical activities prepared by preschool teachers often involving things such as play, singing and drawing. The preschool teachers should incorporate multiple educational moments each day.
In the Swedish compulsory school each student take 16 compulsory subjects which are, sorted by time allocated: Swedish, Mathematics, Physical Education, English, Handicrafts, Music, Visual arts, Technology, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, History, Social Studies, Religion, Geography and Home Economics. All of these subjects are taken in all three school stages, lower stage (grades 1–3), middle stage (grade 4–6), and upper stage (grades 7–9).
In sixth grade students can also choose a non-compulsory foreign language course. Over 85% of grade 9 students studied a third language in 2017. All schools have to offer 3 of the languages Spanish, French, and German. Many schools also offer additional help in the core subjects English and Swedish instead of the language course. Taking the language course can improve the students final grade score significantly and for some more competitive Upper Secondary Schools be required.
There is also a compulsory, non-graded Student's Choice subject (Elevens Val) where the student can choose from various activities facilitated by the school. Student's Choice has been criticized for potentially being a bad use of the students and teachers time.
In Sweden students start receiving grades from year 6 with proposals of changing it to year 4. Before grade 6 students receive an Individual Development Plan (Individuell Utvecklingsplan (IUP)) containing the teachers assessment of the students knowledge. Students have regular development talks with their teachers discussing how to improve based on their IUP and grades.
The grading system in compulsory school uses the grades A, B, C, D, and E as passing grades and F as failing. B and D work as filling grades, for when a student hasn't reached all objectives for C or A but has reached most of them. If the student can't be graded, e.g. extensive truancy, the student will receive a dash instead of an F. A dash is not considered a grade. If a student is on the verge of receiving an F in a certain subject/course, the teacher responsible for that subject will notify the student and the student's parents. If a student is given an F, they will receive a written review of how to improve themselves.
The pupil's total score, which is used for application to upper secondary schools, is calculated by taking the pupil's subject grades and numerically adding them together, with the following letter to number conversion: E = 10, D = 12.5, C = 15, B = 17.5, and A = 20. This yields a maximum possible score of 340 for students taking 17 subjects. Pupils can have either 16 or 17 grades depending on if they take an additional language course on top of the 16 compulsory subjects. Pupils who don't study any foreign language or instead study extra Swedish or English will only have 16 grades and cannot receive a score higher than 320.
The sixteen subjects used to calculate the total must include the three core subjects – English, Swedish, and Mathematics. If the pupil fails any of the core subjects, she or he lacks qualification to attend secondary school. However, the student can still attend the secondary school introduction program (introduktionsprogram), either to gain competence in the core subjects and start a secondary school programme or gain skills to enter employment.
In grades 3, 6 and 9 national tests are administered to all students in the Swedish grundskola. The primary aim of these tests are to ensure all students are assessed equivalently. The test results should be given special consideration by teachers when setting the students final grade.
In grade 3 the tests are framed around a story involving two children encountering Mathematics and Swedish in everyday situations to make the test situation less intimidating. Only Swedish and Mathematics have national tests in year 3. The results from the tests are not used for grading, as students do not receive grades before year 6.
In grade 6 and 9 there are tests for all three core subjects Swedish, Mathematics and English. These tests consist of both oral and written components. In grade 9 one science subject (Physics, Biology or Chemistry) and one social science subject (Civics, Religion, Geography or History) are tested as well.
Skolverket also provide tests similar to the national tests for the purpose of assisting teachers with assessing students. These are sometimes confused for national tests however these tests are not mandatory and available for a greater variety of year levels and subjects.
The tests and mark schemes have several times been spread on the internet before the test date resulting in wide spread cheating. In these cases substitute tests are to be used, however these tests have been accused for not giving results consistent with the non substitute tests by the Swedish Teachers' Union and can not be used in Statistics Sweden's reports. The Swedish National Audit Office published a report regarding "The unauthorised dissemination of national tests" in 2018. The audit found the Swedish National Agency for Education's new guidelines for handling the national tests satisfactory, but implemented too late. The report recommended the Swedish School Inspectorate to monitor individual schools compliance with these new guidelines.
In 2014, the National Agency for Education published guidelines to staff on how to act during incidents of armed violence. In the 2012–2017 period, the number of reports of physical violence in schools increased 129% and reports of threats increased with 46% in the same period according to the Swedish Work Environment Authority. The latter reports include all reported physical violence and threats, not only armed violence.
Other types of primary education
There are various types of primary education including the Sami-schools, with special accommodations for the indigenous Sámi people, special needs schools for students with intellectual disabilities, and special schools for students with other disabilities such as deafness.
There is also komvux, adult education at primary or secondary level, and introductory programmes for students who failed compulsory education. Homeschooling is only permitted for students who for some reason, usually severe sickness, can't participate in normal classroom education.
Upper Secondary education
Upper Secondary school, called gymnasieskola, usually lasts for three years. It's elective, but with a 99% enrollment rate (OECD 2018). It is divided into 18 different national programmes with different educational focus. The system is course based with the same courses being used for multiple programmes. There are also introductory programmes for students who don't satisfy the requirements for the national programmes. A significant number of these students are immigrants learning Swedish.
The national programmes are divided into two categories: preparatory and vocational. All national programmes give basic qualification to attend university, but preparatory programs typically also satisfy the additional requirements needed to study university courses in specific subject areas.
All students take at least 2500 points worth of courses. Some of these courses are universal for students in all programmes. These courses are the first course in each of the following subjects: English, Swedish, Mathematics, Religion, Civics, Natural Science and Physical Education. In preparatory programmes additional English, Swedish and Mathematics is also included as core courses.
There are also programme specific and orientation specific courses. Orientation specific courses are the courses that a student elects to take by selecting an orientation inside of their programme. Finally, individually selected courses are courses that the student freely selects for herself/himself.
In all programs in the upper secondary school, all students are required to do a diploma project. The diploma project is a project where the students are required to plan, execute and reflect on a bigger project related to something they have been studying. This project have two grading options, which is receiving an E (pass) or F (fail). The diploma project is not included in the students merit value that is used towards further education.
To be eligible for upper secondary education the pupil need to pass 8 out of 16 subjects for the vocational programmes and 12 out of 16 for preparatory programmes. The pupil also need to pass the three core subjects Mathematics, Swedish and English.
In 2018, 15.6% of pupils who left compulsory education did not qualify to proceed to upper secondary education. This is a significant increase from 2011, the first year with the current syllabus, where 12.3% of pupils did not qualify. The group not mastering compulsory education are predominantly boys and pupils with foreign origin.
The prospective student applies to attend a certain program at a certain school, competing for entrance based upon his/her elementary school grades. In a few cases, such as the arts program (Estetiska programmet) at certain schools, the student applies for both the program and the orientation. Some programmes, generally the arts programmes and certain more specialized programmes/orientations, have some form of entrance exam in addition to the elementary school grades.
For students who did not qualify for the national programmes, most often by failing Swedish, English or Mathematics. There are different types of introductory programmes the most common of which being language introduction for immigrants learning Swedish and individual alternative, a highly individualized programme intended to help students who did not satisfy the eligibility requirements for the national programmes to gain eligibility for them.
After upper secondary school, students can apply to university in order to receive tertiary education. General academic degrees are offered by public universities and university colleges that tend to attract students on a regional basis. Besides general academic degrees, the higher education system also provides a number of professional degrees at a bachelor's or master's level in fields such as engineering, law and medicine. Independently from the Bologna Process-compatible university system there is a system of higher vocational education where subject areas such as, Business Finance and Administration, IT, and Hospitality and Tourism are being taught.
Types of degrees
Swedish degrees are incorporated in the Bologna Process, the European higher education framework. In this system degrees are divided into three cycles, corresponding to bachelor's level, master's level and doctoral level. In Sweden, there are two general qualifications for each cycle of different lengths and various professional degrees and various professional degrees at bachelor's or master's level.
|Type of education||Level||Degree||Designation|
|Degree of Doctor (PhD)
240 higher education credits
|Degree of Licentiate
120 higher education credits
|Degree of Master (Two years)
120 higher education credits
(3–5 years long)
|Degree of Master (One year)
60 higher education credits
|Degree of Bachelor
180 higher education credits
|Higher Education Diploma
120 higher education credits
Basic level (grundnivå)
To be admitted to a programme at the basic level, a student must complete an education at the gymnasieskola level or its equivalent. The degrees that can be obtained at the basic level are:
- Higher Education Diploma (högskoleexamen), 2 years, 120 higher education credits
- Degree of Bachelor (kandidatexamen), 3 years, 180 higher education credits
Advanced level (avancerad nivå)
To be admitted to a programme at the advanced level, a student must have obtained a three-year Swedish degree at the basic level or a corresponding degree from another country or some corresponding qualification. The degrees that can be obtained at the advanced level are:
- Degree of Master (One year) (magisterexamen), 1 year, 60 higher education credits
- Degree of Master (Two years) (masterexamen), 2 years, 120 higher education credits
Both degrees require completing a thesis.
The Degree of Master (Two years) is a new degree that is intended to be closely linked to continuing education at the graduate level.
Doctoral level (forskarnivå)
To be admitted to a programme at the doctoral level, a student must have obtained a Swedish degree at the advanced level or completed at least four years of full-time study with at least one year at the advanced level or a corresponding degree from another country or equivalent knowledge. The degrees that can be obtained at the doctoral level are:
- Degree of Licentiate (licentiatexamen), 2 years, 120 higher education credits
- Degree of Doctor (PhD, doktorsexamen), 4 years, 240 higher education credits
Postgraduate academic titles are associate professor (docent) and professor.
The grading system used vary between different universities and university colleges. There are currently five different systems in use all of which are criteria-referenced. The three most common systems are the seven-grade scale (A–F, Fx), the three-grade scale VG, G, U which is very similar to the pre-2011 compulsory and upper secondary grade system and the pass or fail system G/U. The grades from all systems can be converted to the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) for grade comparison with other universities across Europe.
Before being accepted to a higher education programme in Sweden, all applicants must demonstrate a minimum proficiency in Swedish and English. For international applicants, the Test in Swedish for University Studies is used to test Swedish language proficiency and Test of English as a Foreign Language or the Cambridge First Certificate in English exam may be used for English.
The Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test (Högskoleprovet) is a standardised test used as one of the means to gain admission to higher education in Sweden. The test itself is divided into a mathematical part and a verbal part, which both contain 4 subdivisions, in total 160 multiple-choice questions. Apart from the English language reading comprehension test, all sections are taken in Swedish. To gain admittance to courses or programmes using the SweSAT students need to independently fulfill the eligibility requirements.
Swedish students receives help from the National Board of Student Aid (CSN) while studying. CSN is a Swedish Government authority that is sending out financial aid for studies. This includes loans and grants for students that is studying in Sweden or abroad in another country.
Anti discrimination work
All universities are required to have guidelines how to handle cases of discrimination. They are also required to work together with the Equality Ombudsman to ensure admission, tuition and examinations are fair.
Higher vocational education
Post-secondary vocational education usually consist of many 1–2 year long subject specific programmes consisting of roughly three quarters theoretical and one quarter workplace experience. Higher vocational schools cooperate with various employers to improve employment prospects of the students. The system is independent from the other types of higher education in that it is not Bologna compatible, does not award a bachelor's or master's degree (while professional degrees do) and is not taught by universities or university colleges.
Prior to the 1990s, there were only a handful of private schools in Sweden, mostly tuition-funded boarding schools, whereof Sigtunaskolan and Lundsbergs skola are the most well known. A major education reform in 1992 allowed privately run schools offering primary or secondary education to receive public funding for each student, at a level similar to what public schools receive. These are called "independent schools" (friskolor), and in 2008 there were around 900 of them.
The "independent schools", similar to charter schools in the United States or academies in the United Kingdom, are funded with public money (skolpeng) from the local municipality, based on the number of pupils they have enrolled, in the same way Swedish public schools are. Consequently, they are not allowed to discriminate or require admission examinations, nor are they allowed to charge the students any additional fees. They are, however, allowed to accept private donations. Regional economic differences directly affect how much money each municipality can provide per pupil.
Anyone can start an independent for-profit school, or a chain of such schools, in Sweden. Many of them offer an alternate pedagogy (such as Montessori), or a foreign/international, religious or special needs (such as hearing-impaired) profile. There are also several secondary schools with an elite sports profile. Internationella Engelska Skolan and Kunskapsskolan are the two largest "independent school" chains. In 2008, more than 10% of Swedish pupils were enrolled independent schools.
The independent school system has divided public opinion in Sweden, especially regarding religious schools and for-profit schools. During the 2018 election several parties, including the Moderate party and Socialdemocratic party, suggested some kind of limit to profits, while the Liberals and Centre party opposed such a limit. A ban on religious independent schools has also been suggested with support from the Left party and Socialdemocratic party, while the Moderates, Green party, Christiandemocrats and Centre party are satisfied with the current system banning religious elements in the classroom, but allowing it during breaks or before lessons start.
The Swedish model has been put forward as a possible model for similar solutions in both the United Kingdom and the United States, where Per Unckel, County Governor of Stockholm and former Conservative Minister of Education, in 2009 summarized the advantages of the Swedish system in an opinion piece produced by the Libertarian think tank Pacific Research Institute: "Education is so important that you can’t just leave it to one producer. Because we know from monopoly systems that they do not fulfill all wishes".
In February 2013, The Guardian published an article by a former political advisor to the Swedish Ministry of Education, Karin Svanborg-Sjövall, on the independent school system: "Sweden proves that private profit improves services and influences policy. Even education unions came on board when private provision was introduced into Swedish schools", citing the paper on average educational performance made by research institute under the Swedish Ministry of Employment, IFAU, which found "that an increase in the share of independent-school students improves average performance at the end of compulsory school as well as long-run educational outcomes". However, in June 2015, another article by the education correspondent from The Guardian quoted then Education Minister, Gustav Fridolin, as saying that the system was "a political failure" and stated that standards in learning had dropped dramatically over the years and were in a state of "crisis".
PISA and PIRLS results
Swedish results in the Programme for International Student Assessment were in 2015 close to the OECD average. The Swedish scores were declining between 2006 and 2012, which was heavily reported and adopted as an important talking point for many political parties, including the Alliance and the Social Democratic Party.
In the 2015 PISA report, the Swedish scores increased for the first time since the programme started in 2006. Both the Moderate Party and the Social Democratic Party have suggested actions to improve education and increase PISA scores in the future.
Sweden’s performance in the international fourth-grade reading assessments (PIRLS) dropped by 19 points from 2001 (561) to 2011 (542) and recovered by 13 points in 2016 (555).
However, this does not account for the entirety of the drop in results. In the spring of 2021, the nationwide newspaper Expressen published a series of articles describing major flaws in the testing carried out by the National Agency for Education. A comparatively large number and range of students had, in violation of the intention of the tests, been exempted from testing, generating a result showing a positive trend. An investigation into how this could have happened despite several officials at the Ministry for Education having raised questions concerning the testing methods is taking place. Some MPs have called for the resignation of the Minister for Education, who in turn has directed the liability of the testing towards the school authority.
- Education in Stockholm
- List of universities in Sweden
- Student loans in Sweden
- Swedish National Union of Students
- Open access in Sweden
- "Utbildningsdepartementet" (in Swedish). Government of Sweden. 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "Statens budget i siffror" (in Swedish). Government of Sweden. 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Grundskolan - Elevstatistik Läsåret 2017/18" (in Swedish). Swedish National Agency for Education. 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Elever i gymnasieskolan läsåret 2017/18" (in Swedish). Swedish National Agency for Education. 2017. p. 3. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Education at a glance: Educational attainment and labour-force status". OECD. 2017. doi:10.1787/889e8641-en. Cite journal requires
- "Grundskolan – Betyg och Prov – Riksnivå". Skolverket (in Swedish). Retrieved 28 March 2019.
- "The Swedish Education System" (PDF). Om Svenska skolan. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
- Ståhle, Lennart (11 June 2007). "University or University College?". Swedish National Agency for Higher Education. Archived from the original on 7 October 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
- "Study levels and degrees". www.studera.nu. Swedish Council for Higher Education. 7 February 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
- "Folkskolan och grundskola" (PDF). www.lararnashistoria.se. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
- "Läroverken och gymnasieskolan" (PDF). www.lararnashistoria.se. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
- "Swedish preschool". sweden.se. Swedish Institute. 13 June 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- "Swedish preschool". sweden.se. 13 June 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
- "Preschool and preschool class | Skolverket nyanlända". www.omsvenskaskolan.se. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
- Curriculum for the Preschool (PDF) (in Swedish). Skolverket. 2019. ISBN 978-913832747-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
- "Undervisning i förskolan - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 18 March 2019.
- "Comprehensive school and recreation centres | Skolverket nyanlända". www.omsvenskaskolan.se. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
- "Timplan för grundskolan - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- Curriculum for the compulsory school, preschool class and school-age educare 2011, revised 2018 (PDF). 2018. ISBN 9789138327340. OCLC 1066022776. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
- "Skolverket - Jämförelsetal - Databasen". www.jmftal.artisan.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- "Språkvalet i grundskolan - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "Swedish grades" (PDF). Skolverket (in Swedish). 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
- "Antagningsstatistik för gymnasieprogram,Stockholms stad" (PDF). www.gyantagningen.se. 2 July 2018.
- "Anordna elevens val - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "Dags att avskaffa pseudoämnet elevens val? - Nicklas Mörk". lrbloggar (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "Mer idrott – mindre "elevens val"". Skolvärlden (in Swedish). Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "En försöksverksamhet med betyg från och med årskurs 4". Regeringskansliet (in Swedish). 10 November 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "IUP med omdömen i grundskolan - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Sätta betyg i grundskolan - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 27 February 2019.
- "Extra anpassningar och särskilt stöd i skolan - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 27 February 2019.
- "Meritpoäng". Utbildningsinfo (in Swedish). Skolverket. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
- "Introductory programmes in upper secondary school | Skolverket nyanlända". www.omsvenskaskolan.se. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
- "Nationella prov i grundskolan - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- "Genomföra och bedöma prov i grundskolan - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- "Provdatum i grundskolan - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- "National tests" (PDF). Skolverket. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
- "Bedömningsstöd i ämnen i grundskolan - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Hälften av de nationella proven i matte ett ersättningsprov". lararnastidning.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 18 March 2019.
- Otillåten spridning av nationella prov – vad gör Skolverket och Skolinspektionen? (in Swedish). Stockholm: Riksrevisionen. 2018. p. 6. ISBN 978-91-7086-505-3.
- Otillåten spridning av nationella prov – vad gör Skolverket och Skolinspektionen? (PDF) (in Swedish). Stockholm: Riksrevisionen. 2018. pp. 5–7. ISBN 978-91-7086-505-3.
- Väpnat våld i skolan hur skolor kan agera om det händer. Stockholm: Skolverket. 2014. ISBN 9789175590820. OCLC 941398864.
- "Lärare utbildas i att bemöta väpnat våld i skolan". Sveriges radio (in Swedish). 22 September 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
- Nyheter, SVT (29 September 2018). "Anmälningar om våld i skolor ökar kraftigt". SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 6 October 2018.
- "Sameskolan - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- "Special needs comprehensive school | Skolverket nyanlända". www.omsvenskaskolan.se. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
- "Vad är specialskola? | Skolverket nyanlända". www.omsvenskaskolan.se. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- "Registrera och utforma betyg - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- "Enrolment by age". www.oecd-ilibrary.org. doi:10.1787/71c07338-en. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- "Gymnasieprogrammen - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 27 February 2019.
- "Gymnasieskolan - Elevstatistik". siris.skolverket.se. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Slutbetyg 2010 och framåt - Antagning.se". www.antagning.se. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- "Områdesbehörigheter för Gy11 och Vux12" (PDF). www.antagning.se. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- "Gymnasieprogrammen - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Upper secondary school | Skolverket nyanlända". www.omsvenskaskolan.se. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Barn- och fritidsprogrammet programstruktur" (PDF). www.skolverket.se.
- "Naturvetenskapsprogrammet programstruktur" (PDF). www.skolverket.se. Skolverket.
- "Gymnasiearbetet - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 19 March 2019.
- "Behörighet till gymnasieskolan". siris.skolverket.se. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Behörighet till gymnasieskolan". siris.skolverket.se. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Läget är jävligt allvarligt". Forskning & Framsteg (in Swedish). 8 February 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- "Gymnasieförordning (2010:2039)" [Secondary Education Act]. Kap 7, of 22 December 2010 (in Swedish).
- "Försöksverksamhet med spetsutbildning i gymnasiet - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 11 March 2019.[permanent dead link]
- "Introduktionsprogram - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- BONJEAN, Dominique (21 September 2018). "The Bologna Process and the European Higher Education Area". Education and Training - European Commission. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- "The framework of qualifications for the European Higher Education Area" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- "Betyg i högre utbildning" (PDF). www.suhf.se. Sveriges universitets-och högskoleförbund. 23 February 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- "Betygssystem & betygsfördelning - Stockholms universitet". www.su.se. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- "Bachelor's level requirements - Universityadmissions.se". www.universityadmissions.se. Swedish Council for Higher Education. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "Språkkrav för utbildningar som ges på svenska - Antagning.se". antagning.se. Swedish Council for Higher Education. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "English language requirements - Universityadmissions.se". www.universityadmissions.se. Swedish Council for Higher Education. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "What is the Högskoleprovet?". www.studera.nu. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
- "Financial aid for studies". Regeringskansliet (in Swedish). 22 April 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
- Swedish Ministry of Education and Research. "Competing on the basis of quality – tuition fees for foreign students". Archived from the original on 3 January 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- "Fees and scholarships - Universityadmissions.se". www.universityadmissions.se. Swedish Council for Higher Education. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "Högskolans aktiva åtgärder - Diskrimineringsombudsmannen". www.do.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 17 March 2019.
- "Higher vocational education". www.studera.nu. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "Yrkeshögskolan - How does it work?". Yrkeshögskolan (in Swedish). Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "Higher Vocational Education (HVE)". Yrkeshögskolan (in Swedish). Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Buonadonna, Paola (26 June 2008). "independent schools". BBC News Online.
- "Så mycket kostar skolan". skl.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "Private actors in preschools and schools". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "The Swedish model". The Economist. 12 June 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- "Friskolor, vinster och det fria skolvalet | Nya Moderaterna". moderaterna.se. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- "Friskolor". Socialdemokraterna (in Swedish). Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- "Friskolor". Liberalerna (in Swedish). Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- "Vinstförbud - en käpp i hjulet för friskolor". www.centerpartiet.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- Knutson, Mats (13 March 2018). "Analys: Religiösa friskolor blir slagträ i valdebatten". SVT Nyheter. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- "Made in Sweden: the new Tory education revolution". The Spectator. Archived from the original on 27 June 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
- Lance T. Izumi. "Sweden's Choice: Why the Obama Administration Should Look to Europe for a School Voucher Program that Works". The New York Times.
- Sweden proves that private profit improves services and influences policy, The Guardian
- "Independent schools and long-run educational outcomes" (PDF). Swedish Ministry of Employment. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- correspondent, Sally Weale Education (10 June 2015). "'It's a political failure': how Sweden's celebrated schools system fell into crisis". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- "PISA 2015 - Lärare och elever lyfter svensk skola". Socialdemokraterna (in Swedish). Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- "Alliansen: Skolreformer för att Sverige ska vara bland de tio bästa i kunskapsmätningen Pisa. | Nya Moderaterna". moderaterna.se. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- "Pisa-studien: Sveriges skola sämst i Norden". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). 3 December 2013. ISSN 1101-2412. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- Carp, Ossi (3 December 2013). "Sverige sämst i klassen". Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- "PISA: internationell studie om 15-åringars kunskaper i matematik, naturvetenskap och läsförståelse - Skolverket". www.skolverket.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 13 March 2019.
- "PISA 2015 - Lärare och elever lyfter svensk skola". Socialdemokraterna (in Swedish). Retrieved 22 June 2019.
- "PIRLS Trends".
- Staufenberg, Jess (16 March 2016). "Immigrant children in Sweden blamed for country's poor test scores". The Independent.
- Sverige. Skolverket (2008). Ten years after the pre-school reform : a national evaluation of the Swedish pre-school (in Swedish). Skolverket. p. 6. OCLC 770518906.
- "Generaldirektören: "I dag tror jag att förtroendet för Skolverket är stukat"". www.expressen.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2 May 2021.
- "SD kräver ministerns avgång – men L och KD säger nej". Aftonbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 2 May 2021.
- "DEBATT: Sluta skyll på Skolverket, Anna Ekström". www.expressen.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2 May 2021.
- Bjorklund, Anders, et al. The market comes to education in Sweden: an evaluation of Sweden's surprising school reforms. (Russell Sage Foundation, 2006).
- Passow, A. Harry et al. The National Case Study: An Empirical Comparative Study of Twenty-One Educational Systems. (1976) online