Egypt–European Union relations
Under the aegis of the Global Mediterranean Policy (GMP) launched in 1972, an agreement between the European Economic Community and Egypt was signed in January 1977. The framework laid out by the 1995 Euro-Mediterranean Partnership paved the way for some modest advances in the EU–Egypt relations, leading to a new association agreement signed on 25 June 2001 in the context of the Barcelona process, that entered into force in June 2004. An EU–Egypt Action Plan also entered into force in 2007.
The outbreak of the Arab Spring defied the traditional stability-driven policy conducted by the EU in the region, conveyed by the support to authoritarian rulers in office, including Egypt's Hosni Mubarak, eventually leading to a reassessment of the EU foreign policy in the region.
Both sides share a common membership in the Union for the Mediterranean.
Chronology of relations with the EU
- Although there has been a large degree of integration between European Union member states, foreign relations is still a largely intergovernmental matter, with the 28 members controlling their own relations to a large degree. However, with the Union holding more weight as a single bloc, there are at times[vague] attempts to speak with one voice, notably on trade and energy matters. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy personifies this role.
- Zank 2010, p. 149.
- Bordón 2019, p. 330.
- Zank 2010, p. 152.
- Abdel Ghafar & Jacobs 2019, pp. 1–2.
- "KEY MILESTONES EGYPT" (PDF). European Commission. 1 September 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
- Abdel Ghafar, Adel; Jacobs, Anna (2019). "EU–North Africa Relations in an Age of Turbulence". In Abdel Ghafar, Adel (ed.). The European Union and North Africa: Prospects and Challenges. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 9780815736967.
- Bordón, Javier (2019). "The European Union and the Egyptian Neighbour: assessing the characterization of resilience as an external action priority" (PDF). Paix et Sécurité Internationales. Paix et sécurité internationales: Journal of International Law and International Relations (7): 323–348. ISSN 2341-0868.
- Zank, Wolfang (2010). "Cooperation or Silent Rivalry? The EU and the USA in the Mediterranean – The Case of Egypt" (PDF). Perspectives on Federalism. 2 (3). ISSN 2036-5438.