Eighth Dynasty of Egypt

The Eighth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty VIII) is a poorly known and short-lived line of pharaohs reigning in rapid succession in the early 22nd century BC, likely with their seat of power in Memphis. The Eighth Dynasty held sway at a time referred to as the very end of the Old Kingdom or the beginning of the First Intermediate Period. The power of the pharaohs was waning while that of the provincial governors, known as nomarchs, was increasingly important, the Egyptian state having by then effectively turned into a feudal system. In spite of close relations between the Memphite kings and powerful nomarchs, notably in Coptos, the Eighth Dynasty was eventually overthrown by the nomarchs of Heracleopolis Magna, who founded the Ninth Dynasty. The Eighth Dynasty is sometimes combined with the preceding Seventh Dynasty, owing to the lack of archeological evidence for the latter which may be fictitious.

Eighth Dynasty of Egypt
ca. 2181 BC–ca. 2160 BC
CapitalMemphis
Common languagesEgyptian language
Religion
ancient Egyptian religion
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Historical eraBronze Age
 Established
ca. 2181 BC
 Disestablished
ca. 2160 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Sixth Dynasty of Egypt
Seventh Dynasty of Egypt
Ninth Dynasty of Egypt
Tenth Dynasty of Egypt

Egyptologists estimate that the Eighth Dynasty ruled Egypt for approximately 2045 years and various dates have been proposed: 2190–2165 BC,[1] 21812160 BC,[2][3] 21912145 BC,[4] 21502118 BC.[5]