Elections by country


For each de jure and de facto sovereign state and dependent territory an article on elections in that entity has been included and information on the way the head of state, head of government, and the legislature is selected. Merged cells for "head of state" and "head of government" indicate the office is the same for that country; merged cells for "lower house" and "upper house" indicate a unicameral legislature. The linked articles include the results of the elections. For a chronological order, see the electoral calendar.

A


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Abkhazia Direct election [1] Direct election[1]
Afghanistan Direct election[2] Direct election[2] Indirect election and appointments[2]
Åland President of Finland Election by legislature Direct election
Albania Election by legislature[3] Election by legislature[3] Direct election[3]
Algeria Direct election[4] Election by legislature[4] Direct election[4] Partially elected by electoral college, rest appointed by President[4]
American Samoa President of the United States[5] Direct election[5] Direct election[5] Election by regional governing councils[5]
Andorra The President of France and the Bishop of Urgell are co-heads of state[6] Election by legislature[6] Direct election[6]
Angola Indirect election by legislature[7] Direct election[7]
Anguilla Monarchy[8] Election by legislature[8] Direct election and appointments[8]
Antigua and Barbuda Monarchy[9] Election by legislature[9] Direct election[9] Appointments[9]
Argentina Direct election[10] Direct election[10] Direct election[10]
Armenia Election by Legislature Election by Legislature Direct election [11]
Aruba Monarch of the Netherlands[12] Election by legislature[12] Direct election[12]
Australia Monarchy[13] Election by legislature[13] Direct election[13]
Austria Direct election[14] Election by legislature[14] Direct election[14] Indirect election[14]
Azerbaijan Direct election[15] Appointment by head of state[15] Direct election[15]

B


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Bahamas Monarchy[16] Election by legislature[16] Direct election[16] Appointments[16]
Bahrain Monarchy[17] Appointment by head of state[17] Direct election[17] Appointments[17]
Bangladesh Indirect election by legislature[18] Election by legislature[18] Direct and indirect election[18]
Barbados Monarchy[19] Election by legislature[19] Direct election[19] Appointments[19]
Belarus Direct election[20] Appointment by head of state[20] Direct election[20] Indirect election and appointments[20]
Belgium Monarchy[21] Election by legislature[21] Direct election[21] Indirect election[21]
Belize Monarchy[22] Election by legislature[22] Direct election[22] Appointments[22]
Benin Direct election[23] Direct election[23]
Bermuda Monarchy[24] Election by legislature[24] Direct election[24] Appointments[24]
Bhutan Monarchy[25] Elected by legislature[25] Direct election[25] Direct election and appointments[25]
Bolivia Direct election[26] Direct election[26] Direct election[26]
Bosnia and Herzegovina Rotating presidency of directly elected candidates[27] Appointment by head of state[27] Direct election[27] Indirect election[27]
Botswana Election by legislature[28] Direct election[28] Hereditary and appointments[28]
Brazil Direct election[29] Direct election[29] Direct election[29]
British Virgin Islands Monarchy[30] Election by legislature[30] Direct election[30]
Brunei Monarchy[31] Appointments by head of state[31]
Bulgaria Direct election[32] Election by legislature[32] Direct election[32]
Burkina Faso Direct election[33] Appointment by head of state[33] Direct election[33]
Burma see Myanmar
Burundi Direct election[34] Direct election and co-option[34] Indirect election[34]

C


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Cabo Verde see Cape Verde
Cambodia Monarch elected by Royal Council[35] Indirect election by lower house of legislature[35] Direct election[35] Indirect election and appointments[35]
Cameroon Direct election[36] Appointment by head of state[36] Direct election[36] Indirect election and appointments[36]
Canada Monarchy[37] Election by lower house of legislature[37] Direct election[37] Appointments[37]
Cape Verde Direct election[38] Appointment by head of state[38] Direct election[38]
Cayman Islands Monarchy[39] Election by legislature[39] Direct election and appointments[39]
Central African Republic Direct election[40] Appointment by head of state[41] Direct election[40]
Chad Direct election[42] Appointment by head of state[42] Direct election[42]
Chile Direct election[43] Direct election[43] Direct election[43]
China Election by legislature[44] Appointment by head of state[44] Indirect election[44]
Colombia Direct election[45] Direct election[45] Direct election[45]
Comoros Direct election[46] Direct and indirect election[46]
Congo (Brazzaville) see Republic of the Congo
Congo (Kinshasa) see Democratic Republic of the Congo
Cook Islands Monarchy[47] Election by legislature[47] Direct election[47]
Costa Rica Direct election[48] Direct election[48]
Côte d'Ivoire Direct election[49] Appointment by head of state[49] Direct election[49]
Croatia Direct election[50] Election by legislature[50] Direct election[50]
Cuba Election by legislature[51] Direct election[51]
Curaçao Monarch of the Netherlands[52] Election by legislature[52] Direct election[52]
Cyprus Direct election[53] Direct election[53]
Czech Republic Direct election[54] Appointment by head of state[54] Direct election[54] Direct election[54]

D


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Democratic Republic of the Congo Direct election[55] Appointment by head of state[55] Direct election[55] Indirect election[55]
Denmark Monarchy[56] Election by legislature[56] Direct election[56]
Djibouti Direct election[57] Appointment by head of state[57] Direct election[57]
Dominica Election by legislature[58] Appointment by head of state[58] Direct election and appointments[58]
Dominican Republic Direct election[59] Direct election[59] Direct election[59]

E


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
East Timor Direct election[60] Election by legislature[60] Direct election[60]
Ecuador Direct election[61] Direct election[61]
Egypt Direct election[62] Appointment by head of state[62] Direct election and appointments[62]
El Salvador Direct election[63] Direct election[63]
Equatorial Guinea Direct election[64] Appointment by head of state[64] Direct election[64] Direct election and appointments[64]
Eritrea Indirect election by legislature[65] Direct and indirect election[65]
Estonia Election by legislature and/or electoral college[66] Appointment by head of state[66] Direct election[66]
Eswatini Monarchy[67] Appointment by head of state[67] Election by traditional local councils and appointments[67] Election by lower house and appointments[67]
Ethiopia Election by legislature[68] Election by legislature[68] Direct election[68] Indirect election[68]

F


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Falkland Islands Monarchy[69] Indirect appointment by monarch[69] Direct election and appointments[69]
Faroe Islands Monarch of Denmark[70] Election by legislature[70] Direct election[70]
Federated States of Micronesia see Micronesia
Fiji Election by legislature[71] Appointment by president[71] Direct election[71]
Finland Direct election[72] Election by legislature[72] Direct election[72]
France Direct election[73] Appointment by president[73] Direct election[73] Indirect election[73]
French Polynesia President of France[74] Election by legislature[74] Direct election[74]

G


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Gabon Direct election[75] Appointment by head of state[75] Direct election[75] Indirect election[75]
Gambia Direct election[76] Direct election and appointments[76]
Georgia Direct election[77] Election by legislature[77] Direct election[77]
Germany Election by electoral college[78] Election by legislature[78] Direct election[78] Representation of state governments[78]
Ghana Direct election[79] Direct election[79]
Gibraltar Monarchy[80] Election by legislature[80] Direct and indirect election[80]
Greece Election by legislature[81] Election by legislature[81] Direct election[81]
Greenland Monarch of Denmark[82] Election by legislature[82] Direct election[82]
Grenada Monarchy[83] Election by legislature[83] Direct election[83] Appointment[83]
Guam President of the United States[84] Direct election[84] Direct election[84]
Guatemala Direct election[85] Direct election[85]
Guernsey Monarchy[86] Election by legislature[86] Direct election[86]
Guinea Direct election[87] Appointment by head of state[87] Direct election[87]
Guinea-Bissau Direct election[88] Appointment by head of state[88] Direct election[88]
Guyana Election by legislature[89] Direct election[89]

H


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Haiti Direct election[90] Appointment by head of state[91] Direct election[90] Direct election[90]
Honduras Direct election[92] Direct election[92]
Hong Kong Election by electoral college[93] Election by electoral college[93] Direct election[93]
Holy See see Vatican City
Hungary Election by legislature[94] Election by legislature[94] Direct election[94]

I


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Iceland Direct election[95] Election by legislature[95] Direct election[95]
India Election by electoral college[96] Election by legislature[96] Direct election[96] Indirect election[96]
Indonesia Direct election[97] Direct election[97] Direct election[97]
Iran Election by Assembly of Experts[98] Direct election[98] Direct election and appointment[98]
Iraq Election by legislature[99] Election by legislature[99] Direct election[99]
Ireland Direct election[100] Election by legislature's lower house[100] Direct election[100] Election by functional constituencies and appointment[100]
Isle of Man Monarchy[101] Election by legislature[101] Direct election[101] Indirect election/ex officio[101]
Israel Election by legislature[102] Appointment by president[103] Direct election[102]
Italy Election by legislature[104] Appointment by president[104] Direct election[104] Direct election[104]

J


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Jamaica Monarchy[105] Election by lower house of legislature[105] Direct election[105] Appointment[105]
Japan Monarchy[106] Election by lower house of legislature[106] Direct election[106] Direct election[106]
Jersey Monarchy[107] Election by legislature[107] Direct election[107]
Jordan Monarchy[108] Appointment by monarch[108] Direct election[108] Appointment by monarch[108]

K


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Kazakhstan Direct election[109] Appointment by head of state[109] Direct and indirect election[109] Indirect election and appointments[109]
Kenya Direct election[110] Direct election and appointments[110] Direct election[110]
Kiribati Direct election[111] Direct election and appointments[111]
Korea, North see North Korea
Korea, South see South Korea
Kosovo Election by legislature[112] Election by legislature[112] Direct election[112]
Kuwait Monarchy[113] Appointment by head of state[113] Direct election and appointments[113]
Kyrgyzstan Direct election[114] Election by legislature[114] Direct election[114]

L


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Laos Election by legislature[115] Election by legislature[115] Direct election[115]
Latvia Election by legislature[116] Appointment by head of state[116] Direct election[116]
Lebanon Election by legislature[117] Appointment by head of state[117] Direct election[117]
Lesotho Monarchy[118] Election by lower house of legislature[118] Direct election[118] Appointments[118]
Liberia Direct election[119] Direct election[119] Direct election[119]
Libya Head of Presidential Council[120] Direct election[121]
Liechtenstein Monarchy[122] Election by legislature[122] Direct election[122]
Lithuania Direct election[123] Appointment by head of state[123] Direct election[123]
Luxembourg Monarchy[124] Election by legislature[124] Direct election[124]

M


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Macau Election by Election Committee[125] Election by Election Committee[125] Direct election, indirect election, and appointments[125]
Madagascar Direct election[126] Election by lower house of legislature[126] Direct election[126] Indirect election and appointments[126]
Malawi Direct election[127] Direct election[127]
Malaysia Election by the rulers of the Malay states[128] Election by lower house of legislature[128] Direct election[128] Indirect election and appointments[128]
Maldives Direct election[129] Direct election[129]
Mali Direct election[130] Appointment by head of state[130] Direct election[130]
Malta Election by legislature Appointment by head of state Direct election
Marshall Islands Election by legislature Direct election
Mauritania Direct election Direct election Indirect election
Mauritius Election by legislature Direct election
Mexico Direct election Direct election Direct election
Micronesia Election by legislature Direct election
Moldova Direct election Direct election
Monaco Monarchy Direct election
Mongolia Direct election Direct election
Montenegro Direct election Direct election
Montserrat Monarchy[131] Election by legislature[131] Direct election[131]
Morocco Monarchy Direct election Indirect election and election by functional groups
Mozambique Direct election Direct election
Myanmar Election by legislature Direct election and appointments Direct election and appointments

N


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Nagorno Karabakh Direct election Direct election
Namibia Direct election[132] Direct election[132] Indirect election[132]
Nauru Election by legislature[133] Direct election[133]
Nepal Indirect election[134] Election by legislature[134] Direct election[134] Indirect election and appointments[134]
Netherlands Monarchy[135] Election by legislature[135] Direct election[135] Indirect election[135]
New Caledonia President of France[136] Election by legislature[136] Indirect election[136]
New Zealand Monarchy[137] Election by legislature[137] Direct election[137]
Nicaragua Direct election[138] Direct election and ex officio[138]
Niger Direct election[139] Appointment by head of state[139] Direct election[139]
Nigeria Direct election Direct election Direct election
Niue Monarchy[140] Election by legislature[140] Direct election[140]
Norfolk Island Monarchy[141] Indirect appointment by head of state[141] Direct election[141]
North Korea Elected by legislature[142] Direct election
North Macedonia Direct election[143] Election by legislature[143] Direct election[143]
Northern Cyprus Direct election Direct election
Northern Mariana Islands President of the United States[144] Direct election[144] Direct election[144] Direct election[144]
Norway Monarchy Direct election

O


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Oman Monarchy[145] Indirect election[145] Appointments[145]

P


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Pakistan Indirect election Direct election Indirect election
Palau Direct election Direct election Direct election
Palestine Direct election Direct election
Panama Direct election Direct election
Papua New Guinea Monarchy[146] Election by legislature[146] Direct election[146]
Paraguay Direct election Direct election Direct election
People's Republic of China see China
Peru Direct election Direct election
Philippines Direct election Direct election Direct election
Pitcairn Islands Monarchy[147] Direct election[147] Direct election and appointment[147]
Poland Direct election Appointment by head of state Direct election Direct election
Portugal Direct election Direct election
Puerto Rico President of the United States[148] Direct election[148] Direct election[148] Direct election[148]

Q


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Qatar Monarchy[149] Appointed by monarch[149] Appointed by monarch[149]

R


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Republic of China see Taiwan
Republic of the Congo Direct election Direct election Indirect election
Romania Direct election[150] Appointed by head of state[150] Direct election[150] Direct election[150]
Russia Direct election Direct election Indirect election and appointments
Rwanda Direct election[151] Appointment by head of state[151] Direct election and appointments[151] Indirect election and appointments[151]

S


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Appointment Appointments
Saint Helena Monarchy[152] Appointment by head of state[152] Direct election and appointments[152]
Saint Kitts and Nevis Monarchy[153] Election by legislature[153] Direct election and appointments[153]
Saint Lucia Monarchy Direct election Appointments
Saint Pierre and Miquelon President of France[154] Election by legislature[154] Direct election[154]
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Monarchy Direct election and appointments
Samoa Election by legislature Direct election
San Marino Election by legislature Direct election
São Tomé and Príncipe Direct election Direct election
Saudi Arabia Monarchy[155] Appointment by monarch[155]
Senegal Direct election Direct election
Serbia Direct election Direct election
Seychelles Direct election Direct election
Sierra Leone Direct election Direct election
Singapore Direct election Direct election
Sint Maarten Monarch of the Netherlands[156] Election by legislature[156] Direct election[156]
Slovakia Direct election Direct election
Slovenia Direct election Direct election Representation of interest groups
Solomon Islands Monarchy[157] Election by legislature[157] Direct election[157]
Somalia Transition Transition
Somaliland Direct election Direct election Traditional leaders
South Africa Election by lower house of legislature[158] Direct election[158] Indirect election[158]
South Korea Direct election Direct election
South Ossetia Direct election Direct election
South Sudan Direct election Direct election
Spain Monarchy Election by legislature Direct election Direct and indirect election
Sri Lanka Direct election Direct election
Sudan Direct election Appointments due to transition Indirect election
Suriname Election by electoral college Direct election
Sweden Monarchy[159] Election by legislature[159] Direct election[159]
Switzerland Election by legislature Direct election Direct election
Syria Approval by referendum Direct election

T


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Taiwan Direct election Direct election
Tajikistan Direct election Direct election Indirect election and appointments
Tanzania Direct election Direct election
Thailand Monarchy Direct election Direct election and appointments
Timor-Leste see East Timor
Togo Direct election Direct election
Tokelau Monarchy[160] Rotation of village leaders[160] Direct election[160]
Tonga Monarchy Partially direct election, partially by limited suffrage, partially ex officio
Transnistria Direct election Direct election
Trinidad and Tobago Election by legislature Direct election Appointments
Tunisia Direct election Direct election
Turkey Direct election Direct election
Turkmenistan Direct election Direct election
Turks and Caicos Islands Monarchy[161] Election by legislature[161] Direct election[161]
Tuvalu Monarchy[162] Election by legislature[162] Direct election[162]

U


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Uganda Direct election[163] Direct election and appointments[163]
Ukraine Direct election[164] Election by legislature[164] Direct election[164]
United Arab Emirates Indirect election by heads of constituent states[165] Indirect election by heads of constituent states[165] Appointments and indirect election[165]
United Kingdom Monarchy[166] Election by legislature[166] Direct election[166] Appointments, hereditary peers, and indirect election[166]
United States Indirect Election, Election by electoral college[167] Direct election[167] Direct election[167]
Uruguay Direct election Direct election Direct election
Uzbekistan Direct election Direct election Indirect election and appointments

V


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Vanuatu Election by electoral college[168] Election by legislature[168] Direct election[168]
Vatican City Election by college of cardinals[169] Appointment by head of state[169] Appointment by head of state[169]
Venezuela Direct election Direct election
Vietnam Election by legislature Direct election
Virgin Islands President of the United States[170] Direct election[170] Direct election

W


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Wallis and Futuna President of France[171] Appointment by president[171] Direct election[171]

Y


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Yemen Direct election[172] Appointment by head of state[172] Direct election[172] Appointment by head of state[172]

Z


Country Head of state Head of government Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Zambia Direct election[173] Mostly direct election, some appointments[173]
Zimbabwe Direct election[174] Direct election[174] Mix of direct and indirect election[174]

See also


References


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  134. Nepal. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
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  138. Nicaragua. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  139. Niger. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  140. Niue. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  141. Norfolk Island. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  142. North Korea's parliament elects the Head of State
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  144. Northern Mariana Islands. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  145. Oman. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  146. Papua New Guinea. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  147. Pitcairn Islands. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  148. Puerto Rico. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  149. Qatar. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  150. Romania. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  151. Rwanda. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  152. Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  153. Saint Kitts and Nevis. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  154. Saint Pierre and Miquelon. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  155. Saudi Arabia. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  156. Sint Maarten[dead link]. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  157. Solomon Islands. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  158. South Africa. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  159. Sweden. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  160. Tokelau. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  161. Turks and Caicos Islands. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  162. Tuvalu. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  163. Uganda. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  164. Ukraine. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  165. United Arab Emirates. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  166. United Kingdom. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  167. United States. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  168. Vanuatu. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  169. Holy See[dead link]. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  170. Virgin Islands. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  171. Wallis and Futuna. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  172. Yemen. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  173. Zambia. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  174. Zimbabwe. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.