Elections in Brazil


Brazil elects on the national level a head of state—the president—and a legislature. The president is elected to a four-year term by absolute majority vote through a two-round system. The National Congress (Congresso Nacional) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) has 513 members, elected to a four-year term by proportional representation. The Federal Senate (Senado Federal) has 81 members, elected to an eight-year term, with elections every four years for alternatively one-third and two-third of the seats. Brazil has a multi-party system, with such numerous parties that often no one party has a chance of gaining power alone, and so they must work with each other to form coalition governments.

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Brazil
 Brazil portal

Schedule


Election

Position201420152016201720182019202020212022
Type Presidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
NoneMayors (October)
City Councils (October)
NonePresidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
NoneMayors (October)
City Councils (October)
NonePresidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
President and
vice president
President and vice presidentNonePresident and vice presidentNonePresident and vice president
National Congress All seats (Chamber of Deputies)
One third (Federal Senate)
NoneAll seats (Chamber of Deputies)
Two thirds (Federal Senate)
NoneAll seats (Chamber of Deputies)
One third (Federal Senate)
States, cities and municipalities All positions (States and Federal District)NoneAll positions (Municipalities)NoneAll positions (States and Federal District)NoneAll positions (Municipalities)NoneAll positions (States and Federal District)

Inauguration

Position201520162017201820192020202120222023
Type Presidential (January)
National Congress (February)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
NoneMayors (January)
City Councils (January)
NonePresidential (January)
National Congress (February)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
NoneMayors (January)
City Councils (January)
NonePresidential (January)
National Congress (February)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
President and
vice president
1 JanuaryNone1 JanuaryNone1 January
National Congress 1 FebruaryNone1 FebruaryNone1 February
States, cities and municipalities 1 JanuaryNone1 JanuaryNone1 JanuaryNone1 JanuaryNone1 January

Electoral systems


Deputies are elected to the Chamber of Deputies using a form of party-list proportional representation known as the "open list."[1]

Senators are elected to the Federal Senate with a plurality of the vote in a first-past-the-post system, which is not proportional.[2] Three senators are elected for each state and for the Federal District.[3]

In municipal governments, the city council is elected using an open list proportional representation system. Seats are allocated using a version of the D'Hondt method where only parties (or coalitions) who receive at least V/n votes (where V is the total number of votes cast and n is the total number of seats to be filled) may win seats in the legislature.[4][5] A presidential candidate in Brazil needs to gain fifty per cent plus one of votes to be named as winner.[6]

Voting in Brazil is compulsory for all literate citizens over 18 and under 70, and optional for citizens who are aged 16 and 17, older than 70 or illiterate. Brazil introduced compulsory voting into its Electoral Code in 1932 and lowered the voting age from 18 to 16 in the 1988 constitution.[7] The 1988 constitution also granted voluntary suffrage to the illiterate citizens of Brazil.[8]

Brazilian voting machines


2018 general election


Presidential election

Candidate Running mate Coalition First round Second round
Valid Votes % Valid Votes %
Jair Bolsonaro (PSL)Hamilton Mourão (PRTB)Brazil Above Everything, God Above Everyone49,276,99046.0357,797,84755.13
Fernando Haddad (PT)Manuela d'Ávila (PCdoB)The People Happy Again31,342,00529.2847,040,90644.87
Ciro Gomes (PDT)Kátia Abreu (PDT)Sovereign Brazil13,344,36612.47
Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB)Ana Amélia (PP)To Unite Brazil5,096,3494.76
João Amoêdo (NOVO)Christian Lohbauer (NOVO)2,679,7442.50
Cabo Daciolo (PATRI)Suelene Balduíno (PATRI)1,348,3231.26
Henrique Meirelles (MDB)Germano Rigotto (MDB)This is the Solution1,288,9481.20
Marina Silva (REDE)Eduardo Jorge (PV)United to Transform Brazil1,069,5771.00
Alvaro Dias (PODE)Paulo Rabello de Castro (PSC)Real Change859,6010.80
Guilherme Boulos (PSOL)Sônia Guajajara (PSOL)Let's Go Without Fear of Changing Brazil617,1220.58
Vera Lúcia (PSTU)Hertz Dias (PSTU)55,7620.05
José Maria Eymael (DC)Hélvio Costa (DC)41,1700.04
João Vicente Goulart (PPL)Léo Dias (PPL)30,1760.03
Valid votes107,050,13391.21104,838,75390.43
Null votes7,206,2056.148,608,1057.43
Blank votes3.106.9362.652,486,5932.14
Total votes117,363,274100.00115,933,451100.00
Registered voters/turnout117,363,27479.67115,933,45178.70
Source: Tribunal Superior Eleitoral.

Parliamentary election

Party Chamber of Deputies Senate
Votes % Seats +/– Votes % Elected Total +/–
Social Liberal Party11,457,87811.752+4419,413,86911.344+4
Workers' Party10,126,61110.356–1324,785,67014.546–6
Brazilian Social Democracy Party5,905,5416.029–2520,310,55811.948–2
Social Democratic Party5,749,0085.834–28,202,3424.847+4
Progressistas5,480,0675.637–17,529,9014.456+1
Brazilian Democratic Movement5,439,1675.534–3212,800,2907.5712–6
Brazilian Socialist Party5,386,4005.532–28,234,1954.822–5
Republic Party5,224,5915.333–13,130,0821.812–2
Brazilian Republican Party4,992,0165.130+91,505,6070.911
Democrats4,581,1624.729+89,218,6585.446+2
Democratic Labour Party4,545,8464.628+97,737,9824.525–3
Socialism and Liberty Party2,783,6692.810+55,273,8533.100–1
New Party2,748,0792.88New3,467,7462.000
Podemos2,243,3202.311+75,494,1253.215+5
Republican Party of the Social Order2,042,6102.18–31,370,5130.811
Brazilian Labour Party2,022,7192.110–151,899,8381.123
Solidariedade1,953,0672.013–24,001,9032.311
Avante1,844,0481.97+5713,3790.400
Social Christian Party1,765,2261.88–54,126,0682.411+1
Green Party1,592,1731.64–41,226,3920.700–1
Popular Socialist Party1,590,0841.68–22,954,8001.722+2
Patriota1,432,3041.55+360,5890.000
Humanist Party of Solidarity1,426,4441.56+14,228,9732.522+2
Communist Party of Brazil1,329,5751.49–11,673,1901.000–1
Progressive Republican Party851,3680.94+11,974,0611.211+1
Sustainability Network816,7840.81New7,166,0034.255New
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party684,9760.70–1886,2670.500
Party of National Mobilization634,1290.63329,9730.200
Christian Labour Party601,8140.62222,9310.101+1
Free Homeland Party385,1970.41+1504,2090.300
Christian Democracy369,3860.41–1154,0680.100
Party of Brazilian Women228,3020.2051,0270.000
Brazilian Communist Party61,3430.10256,6550.100
United Socialist Workers Party41,3040.00413,9140.200
Workers Cause Party2,7850.0038,6910.000
Invalid/blank votes18,771,73761,995,824
Total117,111,476100.05130117,111,478100.054810
Registered voters/turnout146,750,52979.8146,750,52979.8
Source: Election Resources

Election results 1982–2018


Brazilian legislative elections (Chamber of Deputies), 1982–2018

Parties 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 2018
Workers' Party 3.5 6.9 10.2 12.8 13.2 18.4 15.0 16.9 14.0 10.3
Brazilian Democratic Movement 43.0 48,1 19.3 20.3 15.2 13.4 14.6 13.0 11.1 5.5
Brazilian Social Democracy Party - - 8.7 13.9 17.5 14.3 13.6 11.9 11.4 6.0
Liberal Front Party/Democrats - 17.7 12.4 12.9 17.3 13.4 10.9 7.6 4.2 4.7
Liberal Party / Party of the Republic - 2.8 4.3 3.5 2.5 4.3 4.4 7.6 5.8 5.3
Brazilian Socialist Party - 0.9 1.9 2.2 3.4 5.3 6.2 7.1 6.5 5.5
Progressistas - - - 6.9 11.3 7.8 7.1 6.6 6.4 5.6
Democratic Labour Party 5.8 6.5 10.0 7.2 5.7 5.1 5.2 5.0 3.6 4.6
Brazilian Labour Party 4.5 4.5 5.6 5.2 5.7 4.6 4.7 4.2 4.0 2.1
Green Party - - - 0.1 0.4 1.3 3.6 3.8 2.1 1.6
Social Christian Party - - 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.6 1.9 3.2 2.5 1.8
Communist Party of Brazil - 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.3 2.2 2.1 2.8 2.0 1.4
Popular Socialist Party - 0.9 1.0 0.6 1.3 3.1 3.9 2.6 2.0 1.6
Brazilian Republican Party - - - - - - 0.3 1.7 4.5 5.1
Socialism and Liberty Party - - - - - - 1.2 1.2 1.8 2.8
Party of National Mobilization - - 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.9 1.1 0.5 0.6
Democratic Social / Reform Progressive Party 43.2 7.8 8.9 9.4 - - - - - -
National Reconstruction Party / Christian Labour Party - - 8.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.6
Christian Democratic Party / Christian Social Democratic Party / Christian Democracy - 1.2 3.0 - 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.4
Party of the Reconstruction of the National Order - - - 0.7 0.9 2.1 1.0 - - -
Social Democratic Party - - - - - - - - 6.2 5.8
Republican Party of the Social Order - - - - - - - - 2.0 2.1
Solidariedade - - - - - - - - 2.7 2.0
National Labor Party / Podemos - - - - 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 2.3
National Ecologic Party / Patriota - - - - - - - - 0.7 1.5
Labour Party of Brazil / Avante - - 0.2 - 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.8 1.9
Humanist Party of Solidarity - - - - - 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.5
Progressive Republican Party - - 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.9
Social Liberal Party - - - - 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.8 11.7
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party - - - 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7
New Party - - - - - - - - - 2.8
Sustainability Network - - - - - - - - - 0.8
Others 0.0 2.8 3.7 0.7 1.7 1.5 0.4 0.0 0.7 0.7

Source: Source:

Referendums

Brazil has held three national referendums in its history. In the first, held on January 6, 1963, the people voted for the re-establishment of the presidential system of government (82% of valid ballots), which had been modified by a constitutional amendment in 1961. A second referendum, as ordered by the Federal Constitution of 1988, was held on April 21, 1993, when the voters voted for a republican form of government and reaffirmed the presidential system.

A third national referendum, on the prohibition of the commerce of personal firearms and ammunition, was held on October 23, 2005. The ban proposal was rejected by 64% of the electorate.

See also


References


  1. "Grumpy about voting reform". The Economist. 2011-02-22. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  2. "The Federal Senate". Portal da Câmara dos Deputados. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  3. Andrianantoandro, Andy (2010-10-14). "Brazil's Presidential Hopefuls Face Runoff, National Congress Needs Reform". FairVote.org. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  4. "Como funciona o sistema proporcional?". Tribunal Superior Eleitoral (Superior Electoral Court). Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  5. Romao, Mauricio (2010-05-05). "PARLAMENTARES "ELEITOS POR MÉDIA"". Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  6. Brazil: Lula renounces candidacy ahead of presidential poll
  7. ""Voting is compulsory for Brazilians aged 18 to 70"". Tribunal Superior Eleitoral (Superior Electoral Court). Retrieved 2019-04-08.
  8. Power, Timothy J. (2009). "Compulsory for Whom? Mandatory Voting and Electoral Participation in Brazil, 1986-2006". Journal of Politics in Latin America. 1 (1): 97–122. doi:10.1177/1866802x0900100105. Retrieved 2019-12-13.