Elections in Bulgaria
Bulgaria elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected for a five-year term directly by the people. The National Assembly (Narodno Sabranie) has 240 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies with a 4% threshold. Bulgaria has a multi-party system, in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each to form governments.
Parliamentary elections have been held in Bulgaria since 1879. There was a period when partisan politics was banned from 1934 to 1944; in the wake of the Bulgarian coup d'état of 1934 and the sequential personal rule of Tsar Boris III. There was also period of single party system between 1945 and 1989, during the People's Republic of Bulgaria, during which only candidates sanctioned by authorities could run. This, in practice, gave the Bulgarian Communist Party and its collaborators a monopoly on power.
Until 1945 there was no universal suffrage for the women. The table below show the elections since 1990, when the government became a democratic republic.
All elections since 1991 have had 240 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies with a 4% threshold. The two elections that differed from this model was the 1990 Grand National Assembly election, where 400 representatives were elected: half by proportional representation and half by first-past-the-post voting. The other exception was the 2009 election when 209 representatives were elected by proportional representation and 31 through first past the post; seats corresponding to the provinces and the largest cities.
Five parties crossed the 4% threshold required to gain seats. GERB maintained their position as the largest party.
|BSP for Bulgaria||955,490||27.19||+11.8||80||+41|
|Movement for Rights and Freedoms||315,976||8.99||–5.9||26||–12|
|Alternative for Bulgarian Revival–Movement 21||54,412||1.55||–2.6||0||–11|
|Party of the Greens||10,159||0.29||–0.3||0||0|
|Forward Bulgaria Movement||6,644||0.19||New||0||New|
|Coalition of the Dissatisfied||5,945||0.17||New||0||New|
|Movement for an Equal Public Model||4,989||0.14||New||0||New|
|Bulgarian National Association||3,921||0.11||New||0||New|
|Bulgarian Democratic Center||3,130||0.09||New||0||New|
|National Republican Party||2,325||0.07||New||0||New|
|None of the above||87,850||2.50||–||–||–|
Presidential elections have been held since 1992. From 1996 onwards, presidential elections have been held every five years.
|Candidate||Running mate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Rumen Radev||Iliana Iotova||Independent (Bulgarian Socialist Party)||973,754||25.44||2,063,032||59.37|
|Tsetska Tsacheva||Plamen Manushev||GERB||840,635||21.96||1,256,485||36.16|
|Krasimir Karakachanov||Yavor Notev||United Patriots||573,016||14.97|
|Veselin Mareshki||Petar Petrov||Independent||427,660||11.17|
|Plamen Oresharski||Danail Papazov||Independent||253,726||6.63|
|Traycho Traykov||Sabi Sabev||Reformist Bloc||224,734||5.87|
|Ivailo Kalfin||Lyubomir Halachev||Alternative for Bulgarian Revival||125,531||3.28|
|Tatyana Doncheva||Mincho Spasov||Movement 21–NDSV||69,372||1.81|
|George Ganchev||Kolyo Paramov||Christian Social Union||27,928||0.73|
|Velizar Enchev||Bilyana Grancharova||Movement for Radical Change Bulgarian Spring||18,213||0.48|
|Dimitar Marinov||Radoslav Petrov||Bulgarian National Unification||14,974||0.39|
|Rumen Galabinov||Veska Voleva||Independent||10,286||0.27|
|Plamen Paskov||Svetozar Saev||Independent||10,103||0.26|
|Aleksandar Tomov||Radoslav Radoslavov||Bulgarian Socialdemocratic-Euroleft||9,513||0.25|
|Gospodin Tonev||Andrey Andreev||Bulgarian Democratic Community||6,855||0.18|
|Kemil Ramadan||Momchil Dobrev||Balkanic Democratic League||6,089||0.16|
|Kamen Popov||Georgi Nedelchev||Independent||5,212||0.14|
|Diana Dimitrova||Gabriel Gerasimov||Independent||4,362||0.11|
|Nikolay Banev||Sali Ibrayim||Independent||4,196||0.11|
|Yordanka Koleva||Veselin Hristov||Independent||4,182||0.11|
|Biser Milanov||Krasimir Nastev||Independent||3,215||0.08|
|None of the above||214,094||5.59||155,411||4.47|
|Source: Electoral Commission of Bulgaria|
European Parliament elections
Four nationwide referendums have been held in Bulgaria since it gained its De Facto independence in 1878:
- On 19 November 1922 the question was if criminals from the three previous wars were to be prosecuted;
- On 8 September 1946 the question was if Bulgaria was to remain a monarchy to become a republic;
- On 16 May 1971 the nation's approval of a new constitution was asked;
- On 27 January 2013 the question was if Bulgaria should develop its nuclear power by building a new nuclear power plant.
- On 25 October 2015 the question was if Bulgaria should introduce electronic voting.
- On 6 November 2016 voters were asked three questions. The questions were: Whether they supported limiting public funding of political parties; the introduction of compulsory voting in elections and referendums; and changing the electoral system for the National Assembly to the two-round system.
Several regional referendums have been held as well.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February 2017)
- Bulgarien, 19. November 1922 : Anklage gegen Kriegsverbrecher Direct Democracy
- Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p368 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
- Nohlen & Stöver, p368
- Q&A: Bulgaria's nuclear energy referendum BBC News, 25 January 2013
- Bulgarians vote in referendum on nuclear energy Deutsche Welle