Elections in Denmark


There are three types of elections in Denmark: elections to the national parliament (the Folketing), local elections (to municipal and regional councils), and elections to the European Parliament. Referendums may also be called to consult the Danish citizenry directly on an issue of national concern.

Parliamentary elections are called by the Monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, usually three to four years after the last election, although early elections may occur. Elections to local councils (municipal or regional) and to the European Parliament are held on fixed dates. Elections use the party-list proportional representation system. All Danish citizens, living in the Kingdom of Denmark and at least 18 years of age, are eligible to vote in parliamentary elections and long-time residents may vote in local elections.

Parliamentary elections


The voter turnout for the Danish general elections 1953-present

The Kingdom of Denmark (including the Faroe Islands and Greenland) elects a unicameral parliament, the Folketing, on a national level. Of the 179 members of parliament, the Faroe Islands and Greenland elect two members each, 135 are elected from ten multi-member constituencies on a party list PR system using the d'Hondt method and the remaining 40 seats are allocated to ensure proportionality at a national level. To get a share of supplementary seats a party needs to get at least 2% of the total number of votes.

Denmark has a multi-party system, with numerous parties in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments and/or minority cabinets.

Elections to the Folketing must be held at least every four years.

Latest general election


2019 Danish general election

Overall the election was a win for the "red bloc" – the parties that supported Mette Frederiksen, leader of the Social Democrats, as Prime Minister. In total, the Social Democrats, the Social Liberals, Socialist People's Party and the Red–Green Alliance won 91 seats. Green party The Alternative chose to go into opposition as a "green bloc".[1]

The Social Democrats defended their position as the largest party, and won an additional seat despite a slightly reduced voter share. They were closely followed by Venstre, who saw the largest gains in seats, picking up an extra nine. In the "blue bloc", only Venstre and the Conservative People's Party saw gains, the latter doubling their seats. The Danish People's Party's vote share fell by 12.4 percentage points (pp), well over half of their support. Leader Kristian Thulesen Dahl speculated that the bad result was due to an extraordinary good election in 2015, and that some voters felt they could "gain [their] policy elsewhere".[2] The Liberal Alliance saw their vote share fall by over two-thirds and became the smallest party in the Folketing, only 0.3pp above the 2% election threshold. Their leader Anders Samuelsen was not reelected and he subsequently resigned as leader, succeeded by Alex Vanopslagh.[3][4]

Of the new parties, only the New Right won seats, with Hard Line, the Christian Democrats and Klaus Riskær Pedersen failing to cross the national 2% threshold, although the Christian Democrats were within 200 votes of winning a direct seat in the western Jutland constituency.[5] On election night, Klaus Riskær Pedersen announced that he would dissolve his party.[6]

In the Faroe Islands, Republic (which had finished first in the 2015 elections)[7] dropped to fourth place and lost their seat. The Union Party replaced them as the first party while the Social Democratic Party finished in second place again, retaining their seat.[8] In Greenland, the result was a repeat of the 2015 elections, with Inuit Ataqatigiit and Siumut winning the two seats. Siumut regained parliamentary representation after their previous MP, Aleqa Hammond, was expelled from the party in 2016.[9][10] Hammond later joined Nunatta Qitornai,[11] which finished fourth and failed to win a seat.[10][12]

Popular vote in Denmark
A
25.9%
V
23.4%
O
8.7%
B
8.6%
F
7.7%
Ø
6.9%
C
6.6%
Å
3.0%
D
2.4%
I
2.3%
P
1.8%
K
1.7%
E
0.8%
Others
0.1%
Largest party in each nomination district.
Party Votes % Seats +/–
Denmark proper
Social Democrats (A)914,88225.948+1
Venstre (V)826,16123.443+9
Danish People's Party (O)308,5138.716–21
Danish Social Liberal Party (B)304,7148.616+8
Socialist People's Party (F)272,3047.714+7
Red–Green Alliance (Ø)245,1006.913–1
Conservative People's Party (C)233,8656.612+6
The Alternative (Å)104,2783.05–4
The New Right (D)83,2012.44New
Liberal Alliance (I)82,2702.34–9
Hard Line (P)63,1141.80New
Christian Democrats (K)60,9441.700
Klaus Riskær Pedersen (E)29,6000.80New
Independents2,7740.100
Invalid/blank votes37,801
Total3,569,5211001750
Registered voters/turnout4,219,53784.6
Faroe Islands
Union Party7,34928.31+1
Social Democratic Party6,63025.510
People's Party6,18123.800
Republic4,83018.60–1
Progress6392.500
Self-Government Party3331.300
Invalid/blank votes244
Total26,20610020
Registered voters/turnout37,26470.3
Greenland
Inuit Ataqatigiit6,88133.410
Siumut6,05829.410
Democrats2,26211.000
Nunatta Qitornai1,6167.80New
Partii Naleraq1,5657.600
Atassut1,0995.300
Cooperation Party5202.50New
Invalid/blank votes614
Total20,61510020
Registered voters/turnout41,34449.9
Source: Statistics Denmark, Kringvarp Føroya, Qinersineq

Results by constituency

Constituency A B C D E F I K O P V Ø Å
Copenhagen 17.2 16.4 5.3 1.4 1.0 11.5 2.6 0.7 4.2 1.3 15.0 16.8 6.5
Greater Copenhagen 25.8 10.9 9.4 2.3 0.8 9.4 2.6 0.9 8.2 1.9 17.2 7.2 3.1
North Zealand 21.3 11.2 11.2 3.3 1.0 6.9 3.3 1.1 7.5 1.5 23.4 5.6 2.7
Bornholm 34.0 3.3 1.8 1.7 0.9 4.3 1.0 4.1 10.4 1.9 25.3 8.1 3.3
Zealand 28.2 5.8 5.8 2.6 1.0 8.8 1.8 0.8 10.9 2.7 24.3 5.2 2.0
Funen 30.2 7.3 6.2 1.9 0.8 6.7 1.9 1.1 8.9 1.9 23.4 6.8 3.0
South Jutland 26.1 5.9 5.1 4.1 0.7 5.2 2.1 2.2 12.5 1.8 28.5 4.1 1.6
East Jutland 25.8 9.9 5.7 2.0 0.7 8.2 2.9 2.1 7.8 1.5 22.6 7.1 3.4
West Jutland 24.6 5.3 9.2 1.7 0.6 6.2 2.2 5.3 8.4 1.6 29.8 3.4 1.7
North Jutland 33.9 5.1 4.9 2.0 0.8 5.4 1.9 1.6 9.5 1.7 26.8 4.3 2.0

Seat distribution

The following is the number of constituency seats for each party with parenteses indicating levelling seats.[13]

Constituency A B C D F I O V Ø Å Total
Copenhagen 3 3 1 2 (1) (1) (1) 3 3 (1) 1 16 (4)
Greater Copenhagen 4 1 (1) 1 1 1 2 (1) 1 (1) 11 (3)
North Zealand 3 1 (1) 1 (1) (1) 1 1 3 (1) 10 (4)
Bornholm 1 1 2
Zealand 7 (1) 1 (1) 1 (1) (1) 2 (1) 2 (1) 6 (1) 1 (1) (1) 20 (9)
Funen 4 (1) 1 1 1 1 (1) 3 (1) 1 12 (3)
South Jutland 6 1 1 (1) 1 (1) 3 6 (1) 18 (3)
East Jutland 6 (1) 2 (1) 1 (1) 2 (1) 1 (1) 5 (1) 1 (1) 18 (7)
West Jutland 4 1 1 (1) 1 (1) 1 5 (1) 13 (3)
North Jutland 6 (1) 1 1 1 1 (1) 5 (1) (1) 15 (4)
Total 44 (4) 12 (4) 9 (3) (4) 12 (2) (4) 11 (5) 39 (4) 7 (6) 1 (4) 135 (40)

Local elections


The latest elections for the ninety-eight municipal councils and the five regional councils were held on 21 November 2017.

European elections


The Denmark constituency directly elects thirteen members to the European Parliament every five years. The d'Hondt method of proportional representation is used. The last elections took place in May 2019:

Referendums


The Constitution of Denmark requires a referendum to be held in the following three cases:

  • if one third of the members of the Parliament demands a referendum on a law that has been passed in the previous 30 days (excluding some ) (Section 42 of the Constitution),[14] or
  • a law that transfers sovereignty to an international organisation has not received a majority of five-sixths of the MPs (Section 20 of the Constitution),[14] or
  • in case of changing the electoral age (Section 29 of the Constitution).[14]

The option for one third of the members of the Parliament to put a law to a referendum has a number of restrictions. Finance Bills, Supplementary Appropriation Bills, Provisional Appropriation Bills, Government Loan Bills, Civil Servants (Amendment) Bills, Salaries and Pensions Bills, Naturalization Bills, Expropriation Bills, Taxation (Direct and Indirect) Bills, as well as Bills introduced for the purpose The Work of Parliament of discharging existing treaty obligations shall not be decided by a referendum. (Section 42, Subsection 6 of the Constitution)[14]

Even though the Constitution of Denmark requires referendum to be held only if super-majority of five-sixths of members of Parliament cannot be obtained, in practice, referendums have been held every time new treaties of the European Union have been approved, even when more than five-sixths can be found. Recently, the Danish government was highly criticized when it did not hold a referendum regarding the controversial Lisbon treaty.

In all three cases, to defeat the proposition the no votes must not only outnumber the yes votes, they must also number at least 30% of the electorate.

The Constitution of Denmark can be changed only after a referendum, after a complicated procedure (Section 88 of the Constitution).[14] First a government proposes a change in constitution, then a parliamentary election is held. After the new parliament approves the same text of the constitutional changes, the proposal is put to a referendum. To pass, the yes votes must not only outnumber the no votes, they must also number at least 40% of the electorate.

As of 2013, 16 referendums had been held in Denmark, the most recent being Danish euro referendum in 2000 and Danish Act of Succession referendum in 2009.

Past elections


2015 elections

Party Votes % Seats +/–
Denmark proper
Social Democrats924,94026.347+3
Danish People's Party741,74621.137+15
Venstre685,18819.534–13
Red–Green Alliance274,4637.814+2
Liberal Alliance265,1297.513+4
The Alternative168,7884.89New
Danish Social Liberal Party161,0094.68–9
Socialist People's Party147,5784.27–9
Conservative People's Party118,0033.46–2
Christian Democrats29,0770.800
Independents3,0660.10
Invalid/blank votes41,073
Total3,560,0601001750
Registered voters/turnout4,145,10585.9
Faroe Islands
Republic5,73024.51+1
Social Democratic Party5,66624.310
Union Party5,50023.50–1
People's Party4,36818.700
Progress7493.20New
Centre Party6052.600
Self-Government Party4031.700
Independents3451.500
Total23,36610020
Registered voters/turnout65.6
Greenland
Inuit Ataqatigiit7,90438.510
Siumut7,83138.210
Atassut1,5267.400
Democrats1,7538.500
Partii Naleraq9624.70New
Invalid/blank votes538
Total20,51410020
Registered voters/turnout41,04850.0
Source: DST, KVF, Qinersineq

2011 elections

Party Votes % Seats +/–
Denmark proper
Venstre947,72526.747+1
Social Democrats (A)879,61524.844−1
Danish People's Party (O)436,72612.322−3
Danish Social Liberal Party (B)336,6989.517+8
Socialist People's Party (F)326,1929.216−7
Red-Green Alliance (Ø)236,8606.712+8
Liberal Alliance (I)176,5855.09+4
Conservative People's Party (C)175,0474.98−10
Christian Democrats (K)28,0700.800
Independents1,8500.100
Invalid/blank votes34,307
Total3,545,3681001750
Registered voters/turnout4,079,91087.7
Faroe Islands
Union Party (B)6,36130.810
Social Democratic Party (C)4,32821.01+1
Republic (E)3,99819.40−1
People's Party (A)3,93219.000
Centre Party (H)8724.200
Self-Government Party (D)4812.300
Independents6723.300
Invalid/blank votes301
Total20,64410020
Registered voters/turnout35,04458.9
Greenland
Inuit Ataqatigiit9,78042.710
Siumut8,49937.110
Democrats2,88212.600
Atassut1,7287.500
Independents240.100
Invalid/blank votes612
Total22,91310020
Registered voters/turnout40,93557.4
Source:[15][16][17][18][19]

2007 elections

Party Votes % Seats +/–
Denmark proper
Venstre908,47226.246–6
Social Democrats881,03725.545–2
Danish People's Party479,53213.925+1
Socialist People's Party450,97513.023+12
Conservative People's Party359,40410.418±0
Danish Social Liberal Party177,1615.19–8
New Alliance97,2952.85New
Red-Green Alliance74,9822.24–2
Christian Democrats30,0130.90±0
Independents5490.00±0
Invalid/blank votes24,113
Total3,483,5331001750
Faroe Islands
Republic5,84925.41±0
Union Party5,41423.51+1
People's Party4,72820.50–1
Social Democratic Party4,70220.40±0
Centre Party1,5736.80±0
Self-Government Party7993.500
Invalid/blank votes149
Total23,21410020
Greenland
Inuit Ataqatigiit8,06832.51±0
Siumut8,06832.51±0
Democrats4,58418.50±0
Atassut4,09416.50±0
Invalid/blank votes500
Total25,58910020
Source: Nohen & Stöver[20]
PartyVotes % of votesMPsswing % of MPsMPs %/votes %
Total 100 179 0 100 1.00
3 biggest 65.6 116 7 64.8 0.99
The cabinet 50.5 90 5 50.3 0.98
The opposition 49.5 89 5 49.7 1.02
Popular vote
V
26.26%
A
25.47%
O
13.86%
F
13.04%
C
10.39%
B
5.12%
I
2.81%
Ø
2.17%
K
0.87%
Others
0.02%

See also


References


  1. Kildegaard, Kasper (6 June 2019). "På en varm dag i juni blev Danmark malet rødt: Nu venter benhårde forhandlinger". Berlingske (in Danish). Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  2. "Thulesen: Vi har fået en vælgerlussing". Politiken (in Danish). 5 June 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  3. Ingvorsen, Emil Søndergård; Nielsen, Kevin Ahrens (9 June 2019). "Alex Vanopslagh bliver Liberal Alliances nye politiske leder". DR (in Danish). Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  4. Thomsen, Per Bang; Toft, Emma (5 June 2019). "Katastrofevalg til Liberal Alliance: Samuelsen er ude af Folketinget". DR (in Danish). Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  5. Søe, Carl-Emil (5 June 2019). "Kristendemokraterne under 200 stemmer fra at komme i Folketinget". TV2 (in Danish). Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  6. Josevski, Aleksandar (5 June 2019). "Klaus Riskær Pedersen opløser sit parti". TV2 (in Danish). Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  7. Tjóðveldi og Javnaðarflokkurin størstir KVF, 18 June 2015
  8. Af Andreas Krog | 6. juni 2019 kl. 9:05 | Print (6 June 2019). "Løsrivelsespartier ryger ud af Folketinget". Altinget.dk. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  9. "Omstridte Aleqa Hammond smides ud af rødt valgforbund". DR (in Danish). 19 December 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  10. "Røde partier vinder valget på Grønland". TV 2 (in Danish). 6 June 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  11. "Grønlandsk løsrivelsesparti er Løkkes sikkerhedsnet". BT. Ritzau. 26 April 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  12. "Kalaallit Nunaanni Qinersinerit – Valg i Greenland". Valg.gl. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  13. "Folketingsvalget den 5. juni 2019". Danmarks Statistik. September 2020. p. 84. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  14. "The Constitution of Denmark". Archived from the original on 2013-11-03. Retrieved 2013-11-01.
  15. "Folketingsvalg torsdag 15. september 2011". dst.dk. Statistics Denmark. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  16. "Kringvarp.fo - Valúrslit". kringvarp.fo. Kringvarp Føroya. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  17. "Letter to Statistics Denmark regarding the Faroese election results" (PDF). dst.dk. Statistics Denmark. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  18. "Folketingimut qinersineq 2011-mi inernerit". knr.gl. KNR. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  19. "Letter to Statistics Denmark regarding the Greenlandic election results" (PDF). dst.dk. Statistics Denmark. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  20. Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7