Elections in Italy

National-level elections in Italy are called periodically to form a parliament consisting of two houses: the Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati) with 630 members; and the Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) with 315 elected members, plus a few appointed senators for life. Italy is a parliamentary republic: the President of the Republic is elected for a seven-year term by the two houses of Parliament in joint session, together with special electors appointed by the Regional Councils.

During its history, Italy has had many political parties, both national and regional, with different party systems.

The most recent Italian general election was held on 4 March 2018.

2018 election

The last general election was held on 4 March 2018.

The centre-right alliance, in which Matteo Salvini's League emerged as the main political force, won a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate of the Republic. The anti-establishment Five Star Movement led by Luigi Di Maio became the party with the largest number of votes, and the centre-left coalition, led by former Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, came third.[1][2] However, no political group or party won an outright majority, resulting in a hung parliament.

After three months of negotiation, a coalition was finally formed on 1 June between the M5S and the League, whose leaders both became Deputy Prime Ministers in a government led by the M5S-linked independent Giuseppe Conte as Prime Minister.

Chamber of Deputies

Summary of the 4 March 2018 Chamber of Deputies election results
Coalition Party Proportional First-past-the-post Italians abroad Total
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Centre-right coalition League (Lega)5,698,68717.357312,152,34537.0049240,07221.432125+109
Forza Italia (FI)4,596,95614.0059461104+1
Brothers of Italy (FdI)1,429,5504.351912032+25
Us with ItalyUdC (NcI–UdC)427,1521.300411,845 1.0904New
Total seats1511113265+140
Five Star Movement (M5S)10,732,06632.6813310,732,06632.6893197,34617.571227+119
Centre-left coalition Democratic Party (PD)6,161,89618.76867,506,72322.8521297,15326.45 5112−180
More Europe (+Eu)841,4682.560264,3505.73 13New
Together (IEI)190,6010.5801N/AN/A01New
Popular Civic List (CP)178,1070.540232.071 2.8502New
Total seats88286122−223
Free and Equal (LeU)1,114,7993.38141,114,7993.39064,5235.74014New
Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE)N/AN/A0N/AN/A0107,2369.5511−1
South American Union Italian Emigrants (USEI)N/AN/A0N/AN/A068,2916.0811±0

Senate of the Republic

Summary of the 4 March 2018 Senate of the Republic election results
Coalition Party Proportional First-past-the-post Italians abroad Total
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Centre-right coalition League (Lega)5,321,53717.613711,327,54937.5021226,88521.98058+39
Forza Italia (FI)4,358,00414.433323257–41
Brothers of Italy (FdI)1,286,6064.2679018+18
Us with ItalyUdC (NcI–UdC)361,4021.200410,4041.0404New
Total seats77582137+20
Five Star Movement (M5S)9,733,92832.22689,733,92832.2244174,94817.640112+58
Centre-left coalition Democratic Party (PD)5,783,36019.14436,947,19923.008279,48927.08253–57
More Europe (+Eu)714,8212.370155,6255.3901New
Together (IEI)163,4540.5401N/AN/AN/A1New
Popular Civic List (CP)157,2820.520131,2933.1501New
Aosta Valley (VdA)N/AN/AN/A1N/AN/AN/A1±0
Total seats4414260–63
Free and Equal (LeU)991,1593.284991,1593.28055,2795.5704New
Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE)N/AN/A0N/AN/A0110,87910.7411±0
South American Union Italian Emigrants (USEI)N/AN/A0N/AN/A068,2336.6111±0

Voter turnout

Year Voter turnout Voters Registered voters Population Invalid votes
1946 89.08% 24,947,187 28,005,449 44,994,000 7.70%
1948 92.23% 26,854,203 29,117,554 45,706,000 2.20%
1953 93.87% 28,410,851 30,267,080 47,756,000 4.30%
1958 93.72% 30,399,708 32,436,022 49,041,000 2.80%
1963 92.88% 31,766,058 34,201,660 50,498,000 3.20%
1968 92.79% 33,003,249 35,566,681 52,910,000 3.60%
1972 93.18% 34,524,106 37,049,654 54,410,000 3.20%
1976 93.37% 37,741,404 40,423,131 55,701,000 2.70%
1979 90.35% 38,112,228 42,181,664 56,292,000 3.90%
1983 89.02% 39,114,321 43,936,534 56,836,000 5.70%
1987 88.86% 40,599,490 45,689,829 57,345,000 4.90%
1992 87.44% 41,479,764 47,435,964 56,859,000 5.40%
1994 86.14% 41,461,260 48,135,041 57,049,000 5.90%
1996 82.91% 40,496,438 48,846,238 57,239,000 7.80%
2001 81.44% 40,195,500 49,358,947 57,684,294 7.20%
2006 83.62% 39,298,497 46,997,601 58,103,033 2.90%
2008 80.54% 37,954,253 47,126,326 58,147,733 5.10%
2013 75.19% 35,271,541 46,905,154 61,482,297 3.59%
2018 72.93% 33,923,321 46,505,499 60,589,445 4.33%

Graph of general election results

This graph shows the results of elections held in Italy from 1946 to today, with the percentages of consensus gathered by the various parties and movements displayed by color. Passing your mouse over the different colored sections will display the name of the grouping and the percentage in the corresponding election. Clicking on a region will direct you to the article on the party or election selected. Italian Communist Party 18,93Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity 20,68Action Party 1,45Italian Republican Party 4,36OthersChristian Democracy 35,21National Democratic Union 6,78National Bloc of Freedom 2,77Common Man's Front 5,27Popular Democratic Front 30,98Italian Democratic Socialist Party 7,07Italian Republican Party 2,48OthersChristian Democracy 48,51National Bloc 3,82Monarchist National Party 2,78Italian Social Movement 2,01Italian Communist Party 22,6Italian Socialist Party 12,7OthersItalian Democratic Socialist Party 4,52Italian Republican Party 1,62Christian Democracy 40,1Italian Liberal Party 3,01Monarchist National Party 6,85Italian Social Movement 5,84Italian Communist Party 22,68Italian Socialist Party 14,23OthersItalian Democratic Socialist Party 4,55Italian Republican Party-Radical Party 1,37Italian Republican Party-Radical Party 1,37Christian Democracy 42,36Italian Liberal Party 3,54People's Monarchist Party 2,63Monarchist National Party 2,23Italian Social Movement 4,76Italian Communist Party 25,26Italian Socialist Party 13,84OthersItalian Democratic Socialist Party 6,10Italian Republican Party 1,37Christian Democracy 38,29Italian Liberal Party 6,97Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity 1,75Italian Social Movement 5,11Italian Communist Party 26,91Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity 4,45OthersUnified Socialist Party 14,48Italian Republican Party 1,97Christian Democracy 39,12Italian Liberal Party 5,82Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity 1,30Italian Social Movement 4,45Communist Party of Italy Marxist-Leninist 0,26Manifesto 0,67Political Movement of Workers 0,36Italian Communist Party 27,15Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity 1,94Italian Socialist Party 9,61OthersItalian Democratic Socialist Party 5,14Italian Republican Party 2,86Christian Democracy 38,66Italian Liberal Party 3,88Italian Social Movement 8,67Proletarian Democracy 1,51Italian Communist Party 34,37Italian Socialist Party 9,65OthersItalian Democratic Socialist Party 3,37Radical Party 1,07Italian Republican Party 3,09Christian Democracy 38,71Italian Liberal Party 1,30Italian Social Movement 6,11Proletarian Unity Party 1,37New Left United 0,80Italian Communist Party 30,38Italian Socialist Party 9,81OthersItalian Democratic Socialist Party 3,84Radical Party 3,45Italian Republican Party 3,03Christian Democracy 38,30Italian Liberal Party 1,94National Democracy 0,63Italian Social Movement 5,26Proletarian Democracy 1,47Italian Communist Party 29,89Italian Socialist Party 11,44OthersItalian Democratic Socialist Party 4,09Radical Party 2,19Italian Republican Party 5,08Christian Democracy 32,93Italian Liberal Party 2,89Italian Social Movement 6,81Proletarian Democracy 1,66Italian Communist Party 26,57Italian Socialist Party 14,27Federation of Green Lists 2,51OthersItalian Democratic Socialist Party 2,96Radical Party 2,56Italian Republican Party 3,70Christian Democracy 34,31Italian Liberal Party 2,10Italian Social Movement 5,91Communist Refoundation Party 5,62Democratic Party of the Left 16,11Italian Socialist Party 13,62Greens 2,79OthersThe Network 1,86Italian Democratic Socialist Party 2,71Pannella List 1,24Italian Republican Party 4,39Christian Democracy 29,66Northern League 8,65Italian Liberal Party 2,86Italian Social Movement 5,37Communist Refoundation Party 6,05Democratic Party of the Left 20,36Italian Socialist Party 2,19Greens 2,70Democratic Alliance 1,18The Network 1,86OthersSegni Pact 4,68Italian People's Party 11,07Pannella List 3,51Northern League 8,36Forza Italia 21,01National Alliance 13,47Communist Refoundation Party 8,6Democratic Party of the Left 21,1Greens 2,5Italian Renewal 4,3Populars for Prodi 6,8OthersNorthern League 10,1Pannella-Sgarbi List 1,9CCD - CDU 5,8CCD - CDU 5,8Forza Italia 20,6National Alliance 15,7Tricolour Flame 0,9Communist Refoundation Party 5,03Party of Italian Communists 1,67Democrats of the Left 16,57The Daisy 14,52The Sunflower 2,17Italy of Values 3,89Bonino List 2,24European Democracy 2,39OthersNew PSI 0,95Northern League 3,94White Flower 3,22Forza Italia 29,43National Alliance 12,02Tricolour Flame 0,39Communist Refoundation Party 5,84Party of Italian Communists 2,31L'Ulivo 31,27Greens 2,05Rose in the Fist 2,59Italy of Values 2,29UDEUR 1,39Others of UnionOthersOthers of House of FreedomsNorthern League 4,58Union of Christian and Centre Democrats 6,76Forza Italia 23,71National Alliance 12,33Social Alternative 0,66Tricolour Flame 0,60Workers' Communist Party 0,57Critical Left 0,45The Left – The Rainbow 3,08Democratic Party 33,17Italy of Values 4,37Socialist Party 0,97OthersUnion of the Centre 5,62Movement for Autonomy 1,12Northern League 8,29The People of Freedom 37,38The Right–Tricolour Flame 2,428Left Ecology Freedom 3,16Democratic Party 25,52Civil Revolution 2,19Others 4,00Civic Choice 8,58Union of the Centre 1,74Five Star Movement 25,14Northern League 3,98The People of Freedom 21,37


The constitution of Italy provides for two kinds of binding referendums.

A legislative referendum can be called in order to abrogate a law totally or partially, if requested by 500,000 electors or five regional councils. This kind of referendum is valid only if at least a majority of electors goes to the polling station. It is forbidden to call a referendum regarding financial laws or laws relating to pardons or the ratification of international treaties.

A constitutional referendum can be called in order to approve a constitutional law or amendment only when it has been approved by the Houses (Chamber of Deputies and Senate of the Republic) with a majority of less than two thirds in both or either House, and only at the request of one fifth of the members of either House, or 500,000 electors or five Regional Councils. A constitutional referendum is valid no matter how many electors go to the polling station. Any citizen entitled to vote in an election to the Chamber of Deputies may participate in a referendum.

See also