Flattening is a measure of the compression of a circle or sphere along a diameter to form an ellipse or an ellipsoid of revolution (spheroid) respectively. Other terms used are ellipticity, or oblateness. The usual notation for flattening is f and its definition in terms of the semi-axes of the resulting ellipse or ellipsoid is
The compression factor is in each case; for the ellipse, this is also its aspect ratio.
In the following, a is the larger dimension (e.g. semimajor axis), whereas b is the smaller (semiminor axis). All flattenings are zero for a circle (a = b).
(First) flattening Fundamental. Geodetic reference ellipsoids are specified by giving Second flattening Rarely used. Third flattening Used in geodetic calculations as a small expansion parameter.
The flattenings are related to other parameters of the ellipse. For example:
where is the eccentricity.
- Earth flattening
- Earth's rotation
- Eccentricity (mathematics) § Ellipses
- Equatorial bulge
- Gravitational field
- Gravity formula
- Planetary flattening
- Roundness (object)
- Darwin–Radau equation
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