Emirate of Granada

The Emirate of Granada (Arabic: إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ, romanized: Imārat Ġarnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Spanish: Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an Islamic realm in southern Iberia during the Late Middle Ages. It was the last independent Muslim state in Western Europe.[2]

Emirate of Granada
إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ
Imarat Gharnāṭah
1230–1492
Flag
Coat of arms
Motto: Wa lā gāliba illā-llāh [fr] (Arabic: ولا غالب إلا الله, lit.'There is no victor but God')
Territory of the Nasrid Kingdom from the 13th to 15th centuries
StatusTributary state of the Crown of Castile (intermittent)
CapitalGranada
Common languagesOfficial language:
Classical Arabic
Other languages: Andalusi Arabic, Mozarabic, Berber, Ladino
Religion
Majority religion:
Sunni Islam
Minority religions:
Roman Catholicism
Judaism
GovernmentHereditary monarchy
Sultan 
 1238–1273
Muhammad I
 1487–1492
Muhammad XII
Historical eraLate Middle Ages
 Established
1230
1492
Population
 1314[1]
200,000
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Almohad Caliphate
Kingdom of Granada (Crown of Castile)
Today part of

Muslims had been present in the Iberian Peninsula, which they called Al-Andalus, since the early eighth century. At its greatest geographical extent, Muslim-controlled territory occupied most of the peninsula and part of present-day southern France.[3] From the ninth to the tenth century, under the Caliphate of Córdoba, the region was one of the most prosperous and advanced in Europe. Conflict with the northern Christian kingdoms was recurrent, while mounting civil strife led to a fragmenting of Muslim states in the early eleventh century. This marked a precipitous decline in Muslim power and facilitated the centuries-long Christian Reconquista.

By 1230, the Almohad Caliphate in Morocco ruled the remaining Muslim territories in southern Iberia, which roughly corresponded to the modern Spanish provinces of Granada, Almería, and Málaga. Exploiting the Almohad's dynastic strife, the ambitious Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar rose to power and established the Nasrid dynasty over these lands. By 1250, the emirate was the last Muslim polity in the peninsula. Although effectively a vassal of the rising Crown of Castile, for over two centuries, Granada enjoyed considerable cultural and economic prosperity; much of the famed Alhambra palace complex was built during this period, and the Nasrids would be the longest-lived Muslim dynasty in Iberia.

Nascent Christian power in Iberia meant that Granada's existence was always precarious. In 1491, after a decade of intermittent warfare known as the Granada War, the emirate was forced to capitulate to the Catholic Monarchs. The following year, Muhammad XII, the last Nasrid ruler of Granada, formally relinquished his sovereignty and surrendered his territories to Castile, eventually moving to North Africa in exile. This marked the end of independent Muslim rule in Iberia.


Share this article:

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Emirate of Granada, and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.