Enver Pasha

İsmail Enver, better known as Enver Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: اسماعیل انور پاشا; Turkish: İsmail Enver Paşa; 22 November 1881 – 4 August 1922) was an Ottoman military officer, revolutionary, and convicted war criminal[2][3] who formed one-third of the dictatorial triumvirate known as the "Three Pashas" (along with Talaat Pasha and Cemal Pasha) in the Ottoman Empire.

İsmail Enver

Enver Bey in 1911
Minister of War
In office
4 January 1914  13 October 1918
Prime MinisterMehmed Talaat Pasha
Said Halim Pasha
Preceded byAhmet Izzet Pasha
Succeeded byAhmet Izzet Pasha
Personal details
Born(1881-11-22)22 November 1881
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
(present-day Istanbul, Turkey)
Died4 August 1922(1922-08-04) (aged 40)
Bukharan People's Soviet Republic
(present-day Tajikistan)
Resting placeMonument of Liberty, Istanbul, Turkey
41°04′05″N 28°58′55″E
Political partyUnion and Progress Party
Spouse(s)Naciye Sultan
ChildrenMahpeyker Hanımsultan
Türkan Hanımsultan
Sultanzade Ali Bey
Alma materArmy War College (1903)[1]
Military service
Branch/serviceOttoman Army
Years of service1903–1918
RankMirliva and the de facto Commander-in-Chief
CommandsArmy of Islam
Yildirim Army Group
Third Army

Enver was a member of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), a Young Turk organization that agitated against Abdul Hamid II's absolute rule. He was a leader of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which reestablished the Constitution and parliamentary democracy in the Ottoman Empire, and along with Ahmed Niyazi was hailed as "hero of the revolution". However multiple crisis in the Empire including the 31 March Incident, the Balkan Wars, and the power struggle with the Freedom and Accord Party made Enver and the Unionists disillusioned of political pluralism. After the 1913 Ottoman coup d’état that brought the CUP directly to power, Enver Pasha became (4 January 1914) the Minister of War, and was part of the "Three Pashas" which held de facto rule over the Ottoman Empire from 1913 until the end of World War I in 1918.

As war minister and de facto Commander-in-Chief (despite his role as the de jure Deputy Commander-in-Chief, as the Sultan formally held the title), Enver Pasha was one of the most powerful figures of the government of the Ottoman Empire.[4][5][6] Enver Pasha lead a disasterous attack on Russian forces in the Battle of Sarikamish, after which he blamed Armenians for his defeat. Along with Talaat, he was one of the principal perpetrators of the Late Ottoman Genocides[7][8][9] and thus is held responsible for the death of between 800,000 and 1,800,000[10][11][12][13] Armenians, 300,000 Assyrians and 750,000 Greeks. Following defeat in World War I, Enver, along with other leading Unionists, escaped the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Military Tribunal convicted Enver Pasha and other Unionists to death in absentia for bringing the Empire into World War I and organizing massacres against Greeks and Armenians. Enver ended up in Central Asia, where he was killed leading the Basmachi Revolt against the Bolsheviks.

In the course of his career he was known by increasingly elevated titles as he rose through military ranks, including Enver Efendi (انور افندي), Enver Bey (انور بك), and finally Enver Pasha, "pasha" being the honorary title Ottoman military officers gained on promotion to the rank of Mirliva (major general).