Estonia (Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsʲti] (listen)), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia. The territory of Estonia consists of the mainland and of 2,222 islands on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea,[14] covering a total area of 45,339 km2 (17,505 sq mi), the land area is 43,432 km², and is influenced by a humid continental climate. Estonia belongs to the Baltic states with Latvia and Lithuania, and it is the smallest of the states both in land area and population.[15] Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, and Tartu are the largest cities and urban areas in the country. Other notable cities include Narva, Pärnu, Kohtla-Järve and Viljandi. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second-most-spoken Finnic language.

Republic of Estonia
Eesti Vabariik  (Estonian)
Location of Estonia (dark green)

 in Europe (green & grey)
 in the European Union (green)   [Legend]

and largest city
59°25′N 24°45′E
Official language
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
Kersti Kaljulaid
Kaja Kallas
Jüri Ratas
12 April 1917
24 February 1918
2 February 1920
20 August 1991
 Joined the EU
1 May 2004
45,339[4] km2 (17,505 sq mi) (129thd)
 Water (%)
5.16 (as of 2015)[5]
 2021 estimate
30.9/km2 (80.0/sq mi) (148th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
$49.644 billion[8]
 Per capita
$39,543[8] (37th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
$34.97 billion[8] (97th)
 Per capita
$26,377[8] (35th)
Gini (2020) 30.5[9]
HDI (2019) 0.892[10]
very high · 29th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+02:00 (EET)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Calling code+372
ISO 3166 codeEE
Internet TLD.eee
  1. The Supreme Court and one ministry are based in Tartu.
  2. According to the Constitution of Estonia, Estonian is the sole official language.[11] In southern counties, Võro and Seto are spoken along with it. Russian is spoken in parts of Ida-Virumaa and Tallinn.
  3. Including 5.4% Võros and 0.93% Setos.[12]
  4. 47,549 km2 (18,359 sq mi) were defined according to the Treaty of Tartu in 1920 between Estonia and Soviet Russia (then under communist Bolshevik revolutionary government prior to the founding of the USSR in 1922). Today, the remaining 2,323 km2 (897 sq mi) are part of the Russian Federation. The ceded areas include most of the former Petseri County and areas east of the Narva river including Ivangorod (Jaanilinn).[13] Pechory remains under Russian administration.
  5. Also .eu, shared with other member states of the European Union.

The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 BC. Ancient Estonians became some of the last European pagans to adopt Christianity following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century.[16] After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Danes, Swedes, Poles and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the 19th and early 20th centuries. This culminated in independence from Russia in 1920 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I, where Estonians, led by General Laidoner, had to fight for their newborn freedom. Initially democratic prior to the Great Depression, Estonia experienced authoritarian rule from 1934 during the Era of Silence. During World War II, Estonia was repeatedly contested and occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union, ultimately being incorporated into the latter as the Estonian SSR. After the loss of its de facto independence to the Soviet Union, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. After the peaceful Singing Revolution of 1987, its de facto independence was restored on 20 August 1991.

Estonia is a developed country, with a high-income advanced economy; ranking very high in the Human Development Index. The sovereign state is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. It has a population of 1.3 million, and is one of the least populous members of the European Union, the Eurozone, the OECD, the Schengen Area, NATO, and the United Nations Security Council. Estonia has consistently ranked highly in international rankings for quality of life,[17] education,[18] digitalization of public services[19] and the prevalence of technology companies.[20]