Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east and northeast, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west, and Sudan to the northwest. Ethiopia has a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 sq mi). It is home to 117 million inhabitants and is the 12th-most populous country in the world and the 2nd-most populous in Africa after Nigeria.[15][16][17] The national capital and largest city, Addis Ababa, lies several kilometres west of the East African Rift that splits the country into the African and Somali tectonic plates.[18]

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Name in national languages
  • Amharic:የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ
    Ye-Ītyōṗṗyā Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk
    Oromo:Rippabliikii Federaalawaa Dimokraatawaa Itiyoophiyaa
    Somali:Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiga Federaalka Itoobiya
    Tigrinya:ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ ኢትዮጵያ
    Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīki Ítiyop'iya
    Afar:Itiyoppiya Federaalak Demokraatik Rippeblikih
ወደፊት ገስግሺ ፣ ውድ እናት ኢትዮጵያ
(English: "March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia")
and largest city
Addis Ababa
9°1′N 38°45′E
Official languagesAfar
Ethnic groups
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic[8]
Sahle-Work Zewde
Abiy Ahmed
LegislatureFederal Parliamentary Assembly
House of Federation
House of Peoples' Representatives
7 May 1769
11 February 1855
9 May 1936
31 January 1942
12 September 1974
28 May 1991
21 August 1995
1,104,300[9] km2 (426,400 sq mi) (26th)
 Water (%)
 2021 estimate
117,876,227[10] (12th)
 2007 census
92.7/km2 (240.1/sq mi) (123rd)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
$278 billion[11] (58th)
 Per capita
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
$122.591 billion[12] (65th)
 Per capita
Gini (2015) 35.0[13]
HDI (2019) 0.485[14]
low · 173rd
CurrencyBirr (ETB)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+251
ISO 3166 codeET

Anatomically modern humans emerged from modern-day Ethiopia and set out to the Near East and elsewhere in the Middle Paleolithic period.[19][20][21][22][23] Ethiopia or greater Northeast Africa has been proposed as a likely urheimat for the Afroasiatic language family, which according to this theory was dispersed to the Fertile crescent prior to the Neolithic era by a population that had developed subsistence patterns of intensive plant collection and pastoralism. These subsistence patterns would also develop into the indigenous subsistence patterns of agriculture and pastoralism practiced in modern Ethiopia.[24][25] In 980 BC, the Kingdom of D'mt extended its realm over Eritrea and the northern region of Ethiopia, while the Kingdom of Aksum maintained a unified civilization in the region for 900 years. Christianity arrived in the 4th century and Islam was introduced in the 7th century. After the collapse of Aksum in 960, a variety of kingdoms, largely tribal confederations, existed in the land of Ethiopia. The Zagwe dynasty ruled the north-central parts until being overthrown by Yekuno Amlak in 1270; inaugurating the Ethiopian Empire and its Solomonic line dynasty claimed descent from the biblical Solomon and Queen of Sheba under their son Menelik I. By the 14th century, the empire grew in prestige through territorial expansion, fighting against adjacent territories, most notably the Ethiopian–Adal War (1529–1543) contributed to fragmentation of the empire and finally fell under a decentralization known as Zemene Mesafint in mid-18th century. Emperor Tewodros II ended Zemene Mesafint at the beginning of his reign in 1855, marking the reunification and modernization of Ethiopia.[26]

From 1878 onwards, Emperor Menelik II launched series of conquests known as Menelik's Expansions, resulted in the formation of current border of Ethiopia. Externally, the controversial Treaty of Wuchale in 1889 culminating in series of war by which Ethiopia defeated Italy in 1896 during the Scramble for Africa; leaving Ethiopia and Liberia as independent African nations. In 1935, Ethiopia was occupied by Fascist Italy and annexed with Italian-possessed Eritrea and Somaliland, later forming Italian East Africa. In 1941, the British army together with the Ethiopian Arbegnoch unit liberated Ethiopia amidst the Second World War. The Derg, a Soviet-backed military junta, took power in 1974 after deposing Emperor Haile Selassie and the Solomonic dynasty, ruled the country nearly 17 years, initiating the Ethiopian Civil War. Following defeating the Derg in 1991, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) dominated the country with a new constitution and ethnic-based federalism. Since then, Ethiopia suffered from prolonged and unsolved inter-ethnic clashes and political instability marked by democratic backsliding.

Ethiopia is a multi-ethnic state with over 80 different ethnic groups. Christianity and Islam are the main faiths observed in Ethiopia. This sovereign state is a founding member of the UN, the Group of 24 (G-24), the Non-Aligned Movement, the G77 and the Organisation of African Unity. Addis Ababa is the headquarters of the African Union, the Pan African Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, the African Standby Force and many of the global NGOs focused on Africa. Ethiopia is considered an emerging power[27][28] and developing country, having the fastest economic growth in Sub-Saharan African countries due to foreign direct investment in expansion of agricultural and manufacturing industries.[29] However, in terms of per capita income and the Human Development Index,[30] the country regarded as poor with high rates of poverty,[31] poor respect for human rights, and a literacy rate of only 49%.[32] Agriculture is the largest sector in Ethiopia; it accounted for 36 percent of the country's GDP as of 2020.[33][34]

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