European Union statistics


Statistics in the European Union are collected by Eurostat (European statistics body).

Area and population


EU and UK population cartogram

As of 1 January 2006, the population of the EU was about 493 million people, although in 2020 the EU lost over 10% of its population as a result of the UK leaving the bloc.[1] Many countries are expected to experience a decline in population over the coming decades,[2] though this could be offset with new countries planning to join the EU within the next 20 years. The most populous member state is Germany, with an estimated 80.4 million people. France and Ireland have the highest birth-rates.[3] The most densely populated country is the island of Malta, which is also the smallest, while the largest in area is France. The least densely populated country is Finland.

Population figures in the table below are from 2006 or 2007 estimates. The highest and lowest figures in each column have been marked in bold.

Member StatePopulation
in millions
Population
 % of EU
Area
km2
Area
% of EU
Pop. density
People/km2
 European Union 494.8 100% 4,422,773 100% 112
 Austria 8.3 1.7% 83,858 1.9% 99
 Belgium 10.5 2.1% 30,510 0.7% 344
 Bulgaria 7.7 1.6% 110,912 2.5% 70
 Croatia 4.3 0.9% 56,594 1.3% 75.8
 Cyprus 0.8 0.2% 9,250 0.2% 84
 Czech Republic 10.3 2.1% 78,866 1.8% 131
 Denmark 5.4 1.1% 43,094 1.0% 126
 Estonia 1.3 0.3% 45,226 1.0% 29
 Finland 5.3 1.1% 337,030 7.6% 16
 France[4] 65.03 13.% 643,548 14.6% 111
 Germany 80.4 16.6% 357,021 8.1% 225
 Greece 11.1 2.2% 131,940 3.0% 84
 Hungary 10.1 2.0% 93,030 2.1% 108
 Ireland 4.6 0.9% 70,280 1.6% 60
 Italy 58.8 11.9% 301,320 6.8% 195
 Latvia 2.3 0.5% 64,589 1.5% 35
 Lithuania 3.4 0.7% 65,200 1.5% 45
 Luxembourg 0.5 0.1% 2,586 0.1% 181
 Malta 0.5 0.1% 316 0.0007% 1,261
 Netherlands 17 3.3% 41,526 0.9% 394
 Poland 38.1 7.7% 312,685 7.1% 122
 Portugal 10.6 2.1% 92,931 2.1% 114
 Romania 21.6 4.4% 238,391 5.4% 91
 Spain 44.7 9.0% 504,782 11.4% 87
 Slovakia 5.4 1.1% 48,845 1.1% 111
 Slovenia 2.0 0.4% 20,253 0.5% 99
 Sweden 10 1.8% 449,964 10.2% 20

Economy


For statistics relating to economy, please see Economy of the European Union.

EU budget

The primary resource for funding the European Union is the contributions sought from member states. Each member state contributes to the EU budget, and receives funding back from the EU, depending on the relative wealth of the states, i.e. their ability to pay.

The table below shows the contributions as a percentage of the total budget. This takes into account the special considerations given to the United Kingdom to reduce its contribution through a rebate. Expenditure in Luxembourg, Belgium and France include items for the EU administrative centres in each of those countries.

Member State Total contribution
in Euro
Total contribution
as % of total EU budget
Total expenditure
year 2006 in Euro
Total expenditure
as % of total EU budget
Net contribution
in Euro
Net contribution
in Euro per capita
Total contribution
in Euro per capita
 European Union 105,259,468,772100.00%106,575,500,000100.00%-1,316,031,228-3213
 Germany 22,218,438,94121.11%12,242,400,00011.49%9,976,038,941124276
 France 17,303,107,85916.44%13,496,200,00012.66%3,806,907,85959266
 Italy 14,359,479,15713.64%10,922,300,00010.25%3,437,179,15758244
 United Kingdom 13,739,900,04613.05%8,294,200,0007.78%5,445,700,04690226
 Spain 8,957,286,4888.51%12,883,000,00012.09%-3,925,713,512-88200
 Netherlands 5,552,933,7815.28%2,190,400,0002.06%3,362,533,781198327
 Belgium 4,035,286,8073.83%5,625,100,0005.28%-1,589,813,193-151384
 Sweden 2,832,862,8002.69%1,573,400,0001.48%1,259,462,800126283
 Austria 2,308,432,0302.19%1,830,100,0001.72%478,332,03058278
 Denmark 2,130,860,2122.02%1,501,900,0001.41%628,960,212116395
 Poland 2,099,087,1141.99%5,305,600,0004.98%-3,206,512,886-8455
 Greece 1,882,611,8791.79%6,833,700,0006.41%-4,951,088,121-446170
 Finland 1,544,832,2841.47%1,280,400,0001.20%264,432,28450291
 Portugal 1,443,049,6021.37%3,634,800,0003.41%-2,191,750,398-207136
 Ireland 1,341,281,3131.27%2,461,800,0002.31%-1,120,518,687-244292
 Hungary 1,003,119,4110.95%1,842,200,0001.73%-839,080,589-8399
 Czech Republic 932,392,8590.89%1,330,000,0001.25%-397,607,141-3991
 Slovakia 393,148,7770.37%696,200,0000.65%-303,051,223-5673
 Slovenia 299,993,5720.29%406,000,0000.38%-106,006,428-53150
 Luxembourg 241,439,0110.23%1,194,800,0001.12%-953,360,989-1,907483
 Lithuania 221,997,4050.21%799,800,0000.75%-577,802,595-17065
 Cyprus 144,556,4160.14%239,600,0000.22%-95,043,584-119181
 Latvia 115,205,4310.11%402,600,0000.24%-287,394,569-12550
 Estonia 100,756,3080.10%300,000,0000.28%-199,243,692-14272
 Malta 57,409,2690.05%157,000,0000.14%-99,590,731-249144
 Bulgaria 360,600,0000.34%-360,600,000-47
 Romania 693,100,0000.65%-693,100,000-32

Economic and governance-related rankings


There are many indices available on issues such as corruption, development, and freedom. The rankings below include all EU member states, EU candidates (with the exception of Turkey, cause their accession negotiations have stalled since 2016) and EFTA countries.

Freedom of the press

EU
Rank
Member StateGlobal
Rank
1 Norway1
2 Finland2
3 Denmark3
4 Sweden5
5 Netherlands6
6  Switzerland8
7 Portugal10
8 Germany11
9 Belgium12
10 Ireland13
11 Estonia14
12 Iceland15
13 Luxembourg17
14 Austria18
15 Latvia22
16 Cyprus27
17 Lithuania28
EU
Rank
Member StateGlobal
Rank
18 Spain29
19 Slovenia32
20 Slovakia33
21 France34
22 Czech Republic40
23 Italy41
24 Romania48
25 Croatia59
26 Poland62
27 Greece65
28 Malta81
29 Albania85
30 Hungary89
31 North Macedonia92
32 Serbia93
33 Montenegro105
34 Bulgaria111

Reporters sans frontières (Reporters Without Borders) conducts an annual survey on the freedom of the press and produces scores (not shown here) for each country, resulting in the Press Freedom Index. In 2019 and 2020, Finland was proclaimed as having the freest press in the European Union, and the second in the world behind Norway. Bulgaria was ranked as having the least free press in the European Union in 2019 and 2020.[5]

Colour Codes
Good Situation
Satisfactory Situation
Noticeable problems
Difficult situation

Economic freedom

EU
Rank
Member StateGlobal
Rank
1  Switzerland5
2 Ireland6
3 Denmark8
4 Estonia10
5 Iceland13
6 Netherlands14
7 Lithuania16
8 Luxembourg19
9 Finland20
10 Sweden22
11 Czech Republic23
12 Germany27
13 Norway28
14 Austria29
15 Latvia32
16 Bulgaria36
17 Cyprus37
EU
Rank
Member StateGlobal
Rank
18 Romania38
19 North Macedonia41
20 Malta42
21 Poland46
22 Belgium48
23 Slovenia52
24 Portugal56
25 Albania57
26 Spain58
27 Slovakia60
28 Hungary62
29 France64
30 Serbia65
31 Italy74
32 Croatia84
33 Montenegro91
34 Greece100

An index of Economic Freedom is produced by the Wall Street Journal and the Heritage Foundation. It uses 50 different variables to compile the survey, in areas such as trade policy and government intervention.

A similar index produced by the World Economic Forum is its Global Competitiveness Index.

Source: 2020 Index of Economic Freedom.

Colour Codes
Free
Mostly Free
Moderately Free
Moderately Unfree

Perception of corruption

Global
Rank
CountryScore
1 Denmark88
3 Finland85
3  Switzerland85
3 Sweden84
7 Norway84
8 Netherlands82
9 Luxembourg80
9 Germany80
11 United Kingdom77
15 Austria76
15 Belgium76
17 Estonia75
17 Iceland75
20 Ireland72
23 France68
32 Spain62
33 Portugal61
35 Lithuania60
35 Slovenia60
42 Cyprus57
42 Latvia57
45 Poland56
Global
Rank
CountryScore
45 Georgia56
49 Czech Republic54
52 Malta53
52 Italy53
59 Greece50
60 Slovakia49
60 Armenia49
63 Croatia47
63 Belarus47
67 Montenegro45
69 Bulgaria44
69 Hungary44
69 Romania44
86 Turkey40
94 Serbia38
104 Albania36
111 Bosnia and Herzegovina35
111 North Macedonia35
115 Moldova35
117 Ukraine33
129 Azerbaijan30
129 Russia30

Transparency International is an international NGO publishing an annual Global Corruption Report indicating the perception of corruption around the world. The rankings of the table refer to the Corruption Perceptions Index 2019 . A high ranking means low corruption.

Human development

RankCountryGlobal
Rank
1 Norway1
2 Ireland2
3  Switzerland2
4 Iceland4
5 Germany6
6 Sweden7
7 Netherlands8
8 Denmark10
9 Finland11
10 United Kingdom13
11 Belgium14
12 Austria18
13 Slovenia22
14 Luxembourg23
15 Spain25
16 France26
17 Czech Republic27
18 Malta28
19 Estonia29
20 Italy29
21 Greece32
22 Cyprus33
RankCountryGlobal
Rank
23 Lithuania34
24 Poland35
25 Latvia37
26 Portugal38
27 Slovakia39
28 Hungary40
29 Croatia43
30 Montenegro48
31 Romania49
32 Russia52
33 Belarus53
34 Turkey54
35 Bulgaria56
36 Georgia61
37 Serbia64
38 Albania69
39 Bosnia and Herzegovina73
40 Ukraine74
41 Armenia81
42 North Macedonia82
43 Azerbaijan88
44 Moldova90
Colour Codes
Very High Human Development
High Human Development

The Human Development Index is a measure produced by the United Nations which covers three aspects of human development:

  • poverty (GDP per capita)
  • education (mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling)
  • health (life expectancy)

The rankings of the table refer to the UNDP Human Development Report 2019 (2018 data). The UN lists all EU member states as countries with very high human development.

Ease of doing business

EU
Rank
Member StateGlobal
Rank
1 Denmark4
2 Norway9
3 Sweden10
4 Lithuania11
5 North Macedonia17
6 Estonia18
7 Latvia19
8 Finland20
9 Germany22
10 Ireland24
11 Iceland26
12 Austria27
13 Spain30
14 France32
15  Switzerland36
16 Slovenia37
17 Portugal39
EU
Rank
Member StateGlobal
Rank
18 Poland40
19 Czech Republic41
20 Netherlands42
21 Serbia44
22 Slovakia45
23 Belgium46
24 Montenegro50
25 Croatia51
26 Hungary52
27 Cyprus54
28 Romania55
29 Italy58
30 Bulgaria61
31 Luxembourg72
32 Greece79
33 Albania82
34 Malta88

The Ease of Doing Business Index is created by the World Bank and based on the study of laws and regulations, with the input and verification by more than 3,500 government officials, lawyers, business consultants, accountants and other professionals who routinely advise on or administer legal and regulatory requirements.

The data in the table are from the 2020 report.[6]

Colour Codes
Very Easy
Easy

Legatum Prosperity Index

Global
Rank
CountryScore
1 Denmark84.37
2 Norway83.81
3  Switzerland83.35
4 Sweden83.15
5 Finland83.05
6 Netherlands82.04
8 Germany81.07
9 Luxembourg81.02
10 Austria80.43
11 Iceland80.21
12 Ireland80.18
13 United Kingdom80.07
21 Estonia76.89
22 France76.55
23 Belgium76.13
24 Spain75.84
25 Malta75.48
26 Slovenia74.56
27 Portugal74.07
29 Czech Republic73.12
31 Italy71.83
32 Latvia71.01
Global
Rank
CountryScore
33 Cyprus70.32
34 Lithuania70.24
35 Slovakia69.63
36 Poland69.14
41 Greece67.32
43 Croatia66.61
46 Hungary66.13
47 Romania64.92
48 Bulgaria64.40
50 Montenegro63.68
52 Serbia62.47
53 Georgia61.82
55 Armenia61.41
59 North Macedonia61.01
67 Albania59.57
69 Belarus59.33
76 Russia58.04
77 Bosnia and Herzegovina58.00
78 Azerbaijan57.69
80 Moldova57.13
92 Ukraine55.73
94 Turkey54.94
Colour Codes
75.00-85.00
65.00-75.00
55.00-65.00
55.00 or less


The Legatum Prosperity Index is an annual ranking developed by the Legatum Institute, a division of the private investment firm Legatum. The ranking is based on a variety of factors including wealth, economic growth, education, health, personal well-being, and quality of life.

See also


References


  1. "Total Population as of 01.01.06 Archived 6 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine", EUROSTAT. Retrieved 12 November 2006.
  2. "The EU's baby blues", BBC News, 27 March 2006. Retrieved 10 July 2006.
  3. "France claims EU fertility crown ", BBC News, 16 January 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2007.
  4. Figures for France include the four overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Réunion) which are integral parts of the European Union, but do not include the overseas collectivities and territories, which are not part of the European Union. Figures for Metropolitan France proper are: population 63.6 million, area 551 695 km², and population density 113/km².
  5. World Press Freedom Index 2019 and World Press Freedom Index 2020, Reporters Without Borders
  6. http://www.doingbusiness.org/rankings/