Executive agency


An executive agency is a part of a government department that is treated as managerially and budgetarily separate, to carry out some part of the executive functions of the United Kingdom government, Scottish Government, Welsh Government or Northern Ireland Executive. Executive agencies are "machinery of government" devices distinct both from non-ministerial government departments and non-departmental public bodies (or "quangos"), each of which enjoy a real legal and constitutional separation from ministerial control. The model was also applied in several other countries.

Size and scope


Agencies with jurisdiction over all four countries with head offices outside of London — green=state agency, orange=state-owned company (Hover mouse over pog to popup clickable link)

Agencies[1] include well-known organisations such as Her Majesty's Prison Service and the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency. The annual budget for each agency, allocated by Her Majesty's Treasury ranges from a few million pounds for the smallest agencies to £700m for the Court Service. Virtually all government departments have at least one agency.

Issues and reports


The initial success or otherwise of executive agencies was examined in the Sir Angus Fraser's Fraser Report of 1991. Its main goal was to identify what good practices had emerged from the new model and spread them to other agencies and departments. The report also recommended further powers be devolved from ministers to chief executives.

A series of reports and white papers examining governmental delivery were published throughout the 1990s, under both Conservative and Labour governments. During these the agency model became the standard model for delivering public services in the United Kingdom. By 1997 76% of civil servants were employed by an agency. The new Labour government in its first such report the 1998 Next Steps Report endorsed the model introduced by its predecessor. The most recent review (in 2002, linked below) made two central conclusions (their emphasis):

"The agency model has been a success. Since 1988 agencies have transformed the landscape of government and the responsive and effectiveness of services delivered by Government."
"Some agencies have, however, become disconnected from their departments ... The gulf between policy and delivery is considered by most to have widened."

The latter point is usually made more forcefully by Government critics, describing agencies as "unaccountable quangos".

List by department


Attorney General's Office

Non-ministerial department
Other
  • HM Crown Prosecution Service Inspectorate

Cabinet Office

Ministerial department
Executive agency
Executive non-departmental public body
Advisory non-departmental public body
Other
Civil Service

Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy

Non-ministerial department
Executive agency
Executive non-departmental public body
Advisory non-departmental public body
Tribunal non-departmental public body
Other

Department for Communities and Local Government

Executive agency
Executive non-departmental public body
Advisory non-departmental public body
Tribunal non-departmental public body
  • Valuation Tribunal for England
Public corporation
Other

Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport

Non-ministerial department
Executive agency
Executive non-departmental public body
Advisory non-departmental public body
Public corporation

Department for Education

Non-ministerial department
  • Ofqual
  • Ofsted
Executive agency
  • Education and Skills Funding Agency
  • National College for Teaching and Leadership
  • Standards and Testing Agency
Executive non-departmental public body
  • Construction Industry Training Board
  • Engineering Construction Industry Training Board
  • Equality and Human Rights Commission
  • Higher Education Funding Council for England
  • Institute for Apprenticeships
  • Office for Fair Access
  • Office of the Children's Commissioner
  • Student Loans Company
Advisory non-departmental public body
  • School Teachers' Review Body
  • Social Mobility Commission
Other
  • Government Equalities Office
  • Office of the Schools Adjudicator

Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs

Non-ministerial department
  • Forestry Commission
    • Forestry England
    • Forest Research
  • The Water Services Regulation Authority
Executive agency
  • Animal and Plant Health Agency
  • Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science
  • Rural Payments Agency
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate
Executive non-departmental public body
  • Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board
  • Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew
  • Consumer Council for Water
  • Environment Agency
  • Joint Nature Conservation Committee
  • Marine Management Organisation
  • National Forest Company
  • Natural England
  • Sea Fish Industry Authority
Advisory non-departmental public body
  • Advisory Committee on Releases to the Environment
  • Independent Agricultural Appeals Panel
  • Science Advisory Council
  • Veterinary Products Committee
Tribunal non-departmental public body
  • Plant Varieties and Seeds Tribunal
Other
  • Broads Authority
  • Covent Garden Market Authority
  • Dartmoor National Park Authority
  • Drinking Water Inspectorate
  • Exmoor National Park Authority
  • Lake District National Park Authority
  • New Forest National Park Authority
  • North York Moors National Park Authority
  • Northumberland National Park Authority
  • Peak District National Park Authority
  • South Downs National Park Authority
  • UK Co-ordinating Body
  • Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority

Department for Exiting the European Union

Department for International Development

Executive non-departmental public body
  • Commonwealth Scholarship Commission in the UK
Advisory non-departmental public body
  • Independent Commission for Aid Impact

Department for International Trade

Department for Transport

Non-ministerial department
Executive agency
Executive non-departmental public body
Advisory non-departmental public body
  • Disabled Persons Transport Advisory Committee
Tribunal non-departmental public body
  • Traffic Commissioners for Great Britain
Public corporation
Other

Department for Work and Pensions

Executive non-departmental public body
  • Disabled People’s Employment Corporation
  • Health and Safety Executive
  • National Employment Savings Trust (NEST) Corporation
  • The Pensions Advisory Service
  • The Pensions Regulator
Advisory non-departmental public body
  • Industrial Injuries Advisory Council
  • Social Mobility Commission
  • Social Security Advisory Committee
Tribunal non-departmental public body
  • Pension Protection Fund Ombudsman
  • Pensions Ombudsman
Public corporation
  • Office for Nuclear Regulation
  • Pension Protection Fund
Other
  • Independent Case Examiner

Department of Health

Executive agency
  • Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency
  • Public Health England
Executive non-departmental public body
  • Care Quality Commission
  • Health Education England
  • Health Research Authority
  • Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority
  • Human Tissue Authority
  • NHS Blood and Transplant
  • NHS Business Services Authority
  • NHS Digital
  • NHS England
  • NHS Litigation Authority
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
Advisory non-departmental public body
  • Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee
  • Advisory Committee on Clinical Excellence Awards
  • British Pharmacopoeia Commission
  • Commission on Human Medicines
  • Committee on Mutagenicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment
  • Independent Reconfiguration Panel
  • NHS Pay Review Body
  • Review Body on Doctors' and Dentists' Remuneration
Other
  • Accelerated Access Review
  • Morecambe Bay Investigation
  • NHS Improvement
  • National Data Guardian
  • National Information Board
  • Porton Biopharma Limited

Foreign & Commonwealth Office

Executive agency
Executive non-departmental public body
  • British Council
  • Great Britain-China Centre
  • Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission
  • Westminster Foundation for Democracy
Public corporation
  • BBC World Service
Other

HM Treasury

Non-ministerial department
Executive agency
  • Government Internal Audit Agency
  • UK Debt Management Office
Executive non-departmental public body
  • Office for Budget Responsibility
Advisory non-departmental public body
  • Royal Mint Advisory Committee
Other
  • The Crown Estate
  • Financial Conduct Authority
  • National Infrastructure Commission
  • Payment Systems Regulator
  • Royal Mint
  • UK Financial Investments Limited
  • UK Government Investments

Home Office

Executive non-departmental public body
Advisory non-departmental public body
  • Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs
  • Animals in Science Committee
  • Biometrics and Forensics Ethics Group
  • Migration Advisory Committee
  • Police Advisory Board for England and Wales
  • Police Remuneration Review Body
  • Technical Advisory Board
Tribunal non-departmental public body
  • Investigatory Powers Tribunal
  • Office of Surveillance Commissioners
  • Police Discipline Appeals Tribunal
Independent monitoring body
  • Independent Anti-slavery Commissioner
Other
  • Biometrics Commissioner
  • Forensic Science Regulator
  • Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services
  • Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration
  • Independent Family Returns Panel
  • Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation
  • Intelligence Services Commissioner
  • Interception of Communications Commissioner
  • National Counter Terrorism Security Office
  • National Crime Agency Remuneration Review Body
  • The Security Service
  • Surveillance Camera Commissioner

Ministry of Defence

Executive agency
Executive non-departmental public body
Advisory non-departmental public body
  • Advisory Committee on Conscientious Objectors
  • Armed Forces' Pay Review Body
  • Defence Nuclear Safety Committee
  • Independent Medical Expert Group
  • National Employer Advisory Board
  • Nuclear Research Advisory Council
  • Scientific Advisory Committee on the Medical Implications of Less-Lethal Weapons
  • Veterans Advisory and Pensions Committees
Public corporation
  • The Oil and Pipelines Agency
Ad-hoc advisory group
  • Central Advisory Committee on Compensation
Other
  • Advisory Group on Military Medicine
  • Defence Academy of the United Kingdom
  • Defence Sixth Form College
  • Defence and Security Media Advisory Committee
  • Fleet Air Arm Museum
  • Reserve Forces' and Cadets' Associations
  • Royal Marines Museum
  • Royal Navy Submarine Museum
  • Service Complaints Ombudsman
  • Service Prosecuting Authority
  • United Kingdom Reserve Forces Association
  • United Kingdom Special Forces Association

Ministry of Justice

Executive agency
  • Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority
  • HM Courts & Tribunals Service
  • HM Prison Service
  • Legal Aid Agency
  • Office of the Public Guardian
Executive non-departmental public body
  • Cafcass
  • Criminal Cases Review Commission
  • Judicial Appointments Commission
  • Legal Services Board
  • Parole Board
  • Youth Justice Board for England and Wales
Advisory non-departmental public body
  • Advisory Committees on Justices of the Peace
  • Civil Justice Council
  • Civil Procedure Rule Committee
  • Criminal Procedure Rule Committee
  • Family Justice Council
  • Family Procedure Rule Committee
  • Independent Advisory Panel on Deaths in Custody
  • Law Commission
  • Prison Service Pay Review Body
  • Sentencing Council for England and Wales
  • Tribunal Procedure Committee
Other
  • Academy for Social Justice Commissioning
  • HM Inspectorate of Prisons
  • HM Inspectorate of Probation
  • Independent Monitoring Boards
  • Judicial Appointments and Conduct Ombudsman
  • Judicial Office
  • The Legal Ombudsman
  • Official Solicitor and Public Trustee
  • Prisons and Probation Ombudsman
  • Victims' Commissioner

Northern Ireland Office

Executive non-departmental public body
  • Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission
  • Parades Commission for Northern Ireland
Advisory non-departmental public body
  • Boundary Commission for Northern Ireland

Office of the Advocate General for Scotland

Office of the Leader of the House of Commons

Office of the Leader of the House of Lords

Office of the Secretary of State for Wales

Scotland Office

Advisory non-departmental public body
  • Boundary Commission for Scotland

UK Export Finance

Advisory non-departmental public body
  • Export Guarantees Advisory Council

Non ministerial departments

  • The Charity Commission
  • Competition and Markets Authority
  • Crown Prosecution Service
  • Food Standards Agency
    • Advisory Committee on Animal Feedingstuffs
    • Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes
    • Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food
    • Committee on Mutagenicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment
    • Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment
    • General Advisory Committee on Science
    • Social Science Research Committee
  • Government Actuary's Department
  • Government Legal Department
  • HM Land Registry
  • HM Revenue & Customs
    • Valuation Office
    • The Adjudicator’s Office
  • NS&I
  • The National Archives
  • National Crime Agency
  • Office of Rail and Road
  • Ofgem
  • Ofqual
  • Ofsted
  • Ordnance Survey
  • Serious Fraud Office
  • Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
  • UK Statistics Authority
    • Office for National Statistics
  • The Water Services Regulation Authority

Other countries


Several other countries have an executive agency model.

In the United States, the Clinton administration imported the model, but with a modification of the name to "performance-based organizations."[2]

In Canada, executive agencies were adopted on a limited basis under the name "special operating agencies."[3]

Executive agencies were also established in Australia, Jamaica, Japan and Tanzania.

See also


References


  1. Cabinet Office - UK Government executive agencies (Archived Page, retrieved 29 August 2014)
  2. Roberts, Alasdair. Performance-Based Organizations: Assessing the Gore Plan. Public Administration Review, Vol. 57, No. 6, pp. 465-478, December 1997.
  3. Roberts, Alasdair. Public Works and Government Services: Beautiful Theory Meets Ugly Reality. HOW OTTAWA SPENDS, G. Swimmer, ed., pp. 171-203 Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1996