File Transfer Protocol

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard communication protocol used for the transfer of computer files from a server to a client on a computer network. FTP is built on a client–server model architecture using separate control and data connections between the client and the server.[1] FTP users may authenticate themselves with a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that protects the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS (FTPS) or replaced with SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP).

File Transfer Protocol
Communication protocol
PurposeFile transfer
Developer(s)Abhay Bhushan for RFC 959
IntroducedApril 16, 1971; 50 years ago (1971-04-16)
OSI layerApplication layer
Port(s)21 for control, 20 for data transfer
RFC(s)RFC 959

The first FTP client applications were command-line programs developed before operating systems had graphical user interfaces, and are still shipped with most Windows, Unix, and Linux operating systems.[2][3] Many FTP clients and automation utilities have since been developed for desktops, servers, mobile devices, and hardware, and FTP has been incorporated into productivity applications, such as HTML editors.

In January 2021, support for the FTP protocol was disabled in Google Chrome 88,[4] and disabled in Firefox 88.0.[5] In July 2021, Firefox 90 dropped FTP entirely.[6] In October 2021, Google Chrome 95 is planned to remove FTP support entirely.[7]