Federation of Nigeria

The Federation of Nigeria was a predecessor to modern-day Nigeria from 1954 to 1963. It was a British protectorate until its independence on 1 October 1960.

Federation of Nigeria
1954–1963
Motto: "Unity and Faith"
Anthem: God Save the Queen (until 1960)
Nigeria, We Hail Thee (from 1960)
StatusBritish protectorate (1954–1960)
Dominion (1960–1963)
CapitalLagos
GovernmentFederation as British protectorate (1954–1960)
Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy (1960–1963)
Monarch 
 1954–1960
Elizabeth II (as Queen of the United Kingdom)
 1960–1963
Elizabeth II (as Queen of Nigeria)
Governor-General 
 1954–1955
Sir John Stuart Macpherson
 1955–1960
Sir James Wilson Robertson
 1960–1963
Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe
Prime Minister 
 1960–1963
Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
LegislatureParliament[1]
 Upper house
Senate
 Lower house
House of Representatives
Historical eraCold War
 Established
1954
1 October 1960
1 October 1963
Area
923,768 km2 (356,669 sq mi)
CurrencyNigerian pound
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria
First Nigerian Republic

British rule of Colonial Nigeria ended in 1960, when the Nigeria Independence Act 1960[2] made the federation an independent sovereign state. Elizabeth II remained head of state as the Queen of Nigeria, as well as other dominions and commonwealth realms. Her constitutional roles in Nigeria were exercisable by the Governor-General of Nigeria. Three people held the office of governor-general during the whole existence of the Federation of Nigeria:

  1. Sir John Stuart Macpherson 1954 - 15 June 1955
  2. Sir James Wilson Robertson 15 June 1955 - 16 November 1960
  3. Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe 16 November 1960 – 1 October 1963

Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa held office as prime minister (and head of government).

The Federal Republic of Nigeria came into existence on 1 October 1963.[3] The monarchy was abolished and Nigeria became a republic within the Commonwealth. Following the abolition of the monarchy, former Governor-General Nnamdi Azikiwe became President of Nigeria, as a ceremonial post under the 1963 constitution.

Elizabeth II visited Nigeria in 1956 (28 January–16 February).