Felix Frankfurter

Felix Frankfurter (November 15, 1882 – February 22, 1965) was an American lawyer, professor, and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Frankfurter served on the Supreme Court from 1939 to 1962 and was a noted advocate of judicial restraint in the judgments of the Court.

Felix Frankfurter
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
In office
January 20, 1939  August 28, 1962[1]
Nominated byFranklin Roosevelt
Preceded byBenjamin Cardozo
Succeeded byArthur Goldberg
Personal details
Born(1882-11-15)November 15, 1882
Vienna, Austria-Hungary
DiedFebruary 22, 1965(1965-02-22) (aged 82)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political partyIndependent[2][full citation needed]
Spouse(s)
Marion Denman
(m. 1919)
EducationCity College of New York (BA)
Harvard University (LLB)
Awards Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction (1963)[3]
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Army
Years of service1917–1918
Rank Major

Frankfurter was born in Vienna, Austria, and immigrated to New York City at the age of 12. After graduating from Harvard Law School, Frankfurter worked for Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson. During World War I, Frankfurter served as Judge Advocate General. After the war, he helped found the American Civil Liberties Union and returned to his position as professor at Harvard Law School. He became a friend and adviser of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who appointed him to fill the Supreme Court vacancy caused by the death of Benjamin Cardozo.

Frankfurter served on the Court until his retirement in 1962, and was succeeded by Arthur Goldberg. Frankfurter wrote the Court's majority opinions in cases such as Minersville School District v. Gobitis, Gomillion v. Lightfoot, and Beauharnais v. Illinois. He wrote dissenting opinions in notable cases such as Baker v. Carr, West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, Glasser v. United States, and Trop v. Dulles.