Ferdinand Marcos

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (/ˈmɑːrkɔːs/,[6] September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician, lawyer, and kleptocrat[7][8][9][10] who served as the 10th president of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. Espousing an ideology of "constitutional authoritarianism"[11][12]:414 under the New Society Movement, he ruled as a dictator[13][14][15] under martial law from 1972 until 1981,[16] and kept most of his martial law powers until he was deposed in 1986. One of the most controversial leaders of the 20th century, Marcos' rule was infamous for its corruption,[17][18][19] extravagance,[20][21][22] and brutality.[23][24][25]

Ferdinand E. Marcos

Marcos in 1982 during a ceremony
10th President of the Philippines
In office
December 30, 1965  February 25, 1986
Prime MinisterHimself (1978–1981)
Cesar Virata (1981–1986)
Vice PresidentFernando Lopez (1965–1972)
Preceded byDiosdado Macapagal
Succeeded byCorazon Aquino
3rd Prime Minister of the Philippines
In office
June 12, 1978  June 30, 1981
Preceded byOffice established
(Position previously held by Pedro Paterno in 1899)
Succeeded byCesar Virata
Secretary of National Defense
In office
August 28, 1971  January 3, 1972
Preceded byJuan Ponce Enrile
Succeeded byJuan Ponce Enrile
In office
December 31, 1965  January 20, 1967
Preceded byMacario Peralta
Succeeded byErnesto Mata
11th President of the Senate of the Philippines
In office
April 5, 1963  December 30, 1965
Preceded byEulogio Rodriguez
Succeeded byArturo Tolentino
Senator of the Philippines
In office
December 30, 1959  December 30, 1965
Member of the
Philippine House of Representatives
from Ilocos Norte's 2nd district
In office
December 30, 1949  December 30, 1959
Preceded byPedro Albano
Succeeded bySimeon M. Valdez
Personal details
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos

(1917-09-11)September 11, 1917
Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, Philippine Islands
DiedSeptember 28, 1989(1989-09-28) (aged 72)
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
Resting placeFerdinand E. Marcos Presidential Center, Batac, Ilocos Norte
Libingan ng mga Bayani, Metro Manila
(since November 18, 2016)
Political partyKilusang Bagong Lipunan (1978–1989)
Other political
Liberal Party (1946–1965)
Nacionalista Party (1965–1972)
Independent (1972–1978)
Alma materUniversity of the Philippines
ProfessionLawyer, jurist, politician
Military service
Nickname(s)Macoy, Ferdie
Years of service1942–1945
RankFirst lieutenant
Unit21st Infantry Division (USAFFE)
14th Infantry Regiment (USAFIP-NL)
Battles/warsWorld War II

Throughout his political career, Marcos claimed to have been the "most decorated war hero in the Philippines."[26] A number of his claims have been found to be false,[27][28][29] with United States Army documents describing his wartime claims as "fraudulent" and "absurd."[30][31] After World War II, he became a lawyer, then served in the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965. He was elected the President of the Philippines in 1965, and presided over an economy that grew during the beginning of his 20-year rule,[32] but would end in the loss of livelihood, extreme poverty,[33][34] and a crushing debt crisis.[35][34] He pursued an aggressive program of infrastructure development funded by foreign debt,[36][37] making him popular during his first term, although it would also trigger an inflationary crisis which would lead to social unrest in his second term.[38][39] Marcos placed the Philippines under martial law on September 23, 1972,[40][41] shortly before the end of his second term. Martial law was ratified in 1973 through a fraudulent referendum.[42] The Constitution was revised, media outlets were silenced,[43] and violence and oppression were used[25] against the political opposition,[44][45] Muslims,[46] suspected communists,[47][48] and ordinary citizens.[45]

After being elected for a third term in the 1981 Philippine presidential election, Marcos's popularity suffered greatly due to the economic collapse which began in early 1983, and the public outrage over the assassination of opposition leader, Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr., later that year. This discontent, the resulting resurgence of the opposition in the 1984 Philippine parliamentary election, and the discovery of documents exposing his financial accounts and false war records, led Marcos to call the snap election of 1986. Allegations of mass cheating, political turmoil, and human rights abuses led to the People Power Revolution of February 1986, which removed him from power.[49] To avoid what could have been a military confrontation in Manila between pro- and anti-Marcos troops, Marcos was advised by US President Ronald Reagan through Senator Paul Laxalt to "cut and cut cleanly."[50] Marcos then fled with his family to Hawaii.[51] He was succeeded as president by Aquino's widow, Corazon "Cory" Aquino.[52][53][54]

According to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG),[55] the Marcos family stole US$5 billion–$10 billion from the Central Bank of the Philippines.[56] The PCGG also maintained that the Marcos family enjoyed a decadent lifestyle, taking away billions of dollars[57] from the Philippines[58][59] between 1965 and 1986. His wife Imelda Marcos, made infamous in her own right by the excesses that characterized her and her husband's conjugal dictatorship,[60][61][62] is the source of the term "Imeldific".[63] Two of their children, Imee Marcos and Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr., are still active in Philippine politics. He and his wife currently hold the Guinness World Record for "Greatest Robbery of a Government".[64]