Ferdinand VII of Spain

Ferdinand VII (Spanish: Fernando VII; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was a King of Spain during the early 19th century. He reigned briefly in 1808 and then again from 1813 to his death in 1833. He was known to his supporters as el Deseado (the Desired) and to his detractors as el Rey Felón (the Felon/Criminal King).

Ferdinand VII
Portrait by Vicente López Portaña, 1814–1815
King of Spain
1st reign19 March 1808 – 6 May 1808
PredecessorCharles IV
2nd reign11 December 1813 – 29 September 1833
SuccessorIsabella II
Prime Ministers
Born14 October 1784
El Escorial, Spain
Died29 September 1833(1833-09-29) (aged 48)
Madrid, Spain
    (m. 1802; died 1806)
      (m. 1816; died 1818)
        (m. 1819; died 1829)
          Isabella II of Spain
          Infanta Luisa Fernanda, Duchess of Montpensier
          Spanish: Fernando Francisco de Paula Domingo Vincente Ferrer Antonio José Joaquín Pascual Diego Juan Nepomuceno Januario Francisco Javier Rafael Miguel Gabriel Calisto Cayetano Fausto Luis Raimundo Gregorio Lorenzo Jerónimo de Borbón y Borbón-Parma
          FatherCharles IV of Spain
          MotherMaria Luisa of Parma
          ReligionRoman Catholicism
          SignatureFerdinand VII's signature

          Born in Madrid at El Escorial, Ferdinand VII was heir apparent to the Spanish throne in his youth. Following the 1808 Tumult of Aranjuez, he ascended the throne. That year Napoleon overthrew him; he linked his monarchy to counter-revolution and reactionary policies that produced a deep rift in Spain between his forces on the right and liberals on the left. Back in power in December 1813, he re-established the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. A revolt in 1820 led by Rafael del Riego forced him to restore the constitution, starting the Liberal Triennium, a three-year period of liberal rule. In 1823 the Congress of Verona authorized a successful French intervention, restoring him to absolute power for the second time. He suppressed the liberal press from 1814 to 1833, jailing many of its editors and writers.

          Under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, and the country entered into a large-scale civil war upon his death. His political legacy has remained contested since his death; some historians regard him as incompetent, despotic, and short-sighted.[1][2]

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