Finland

Finland (Finnish: Suomi [ˈsuo̯mi] (listen); Swedish: Finland [ˈfɪ̌nland] (listen)), officially the Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta; Swedish: Republiken Finland (listen to all)),[note 1] is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland across Estonia to the south. Finland covers an area of 338,455 square kilometres (130,678 sq mi) with a population of 5.5 million. Helsinki is the capital and largest city, forming a larger metropolitan area with the neighbouring cities of Espoo, Kauniainen, and Vantaa. The vast majority of the population are ethnic Finns; Finnish, alongside Swedish, are the official languages.[11] Finland's climate varies from humid continental in the south to the boreal in the north. The land cover is primarily a boreal forest biome, with more than 180,000 recorded lakes.[12]

Republic of Finland
Anthem: 
Maamme  (Finnish)
Vårt land  (Swedish)
(English: "Our Land")
Location of Finland (dark green)

 in Europe (green & dark grey)
 in the European Union (green)   [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Helsinki
60°10′15″N 24°56′15″E
Official languages
Recognized national languages
Ethnic groups
(2020)[1][2]
Religion
(2020)[3]
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic[4]
 President
Sauli Niinistö
Sanna Marin
Matti Vanhanen
LegislatureParliament
Independence 
from Russia
29 March 1809
6 December 1917
January – May 1918
17 July 1919
30 November 1939 – 13 March 1940
25 June 1941 – 19 September 1944
 Joined the EU
1 January 1995
Area
 Total
338,455 km2 (130,678 sq mi) (65th)
 Water (%)
9.71 (2015)[5]
Population
 2020 estimate
5,536,146[6] (116th)
 Density
16/km2 (41.4/sq mi) (213th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
$321.2 billion[7] (60th)
 Per capita
$58,010[7] (23th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
 Total
$267.61 billion[7] (46th)
 Per capita
$53,745[7] (16th)
Gini (2020) 26.5[8]
low
HDI (2019) 0.938[9]
very high · 11th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy[10]
Driving sideright
Calling code+358
ISO 3166 codeFI
Internet TLD.fi, .axa
  1. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Finland was first inhabited around 9000 BC after the Last Glacial Period.[13] The Stone Age introduced several different ceramic styles and cultures. The Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterized by extensive contacts with other cultures in Fennoscandia and the Baltic region.[14] From the late 13th century, Finland gradually became an integral part of Sweden as a consequence of the Northern Crusades. In 1809, as a result of the Finnish War, Finland became part of the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, during which Finnish art flourished and the idea of independence began to take hold. In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant universal suffrage, and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office.[15][16] Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia, tried to russify Finland and terminate its political autonomy, but after the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared independence from Russia. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by the Finnish Civil War. During World War II, Finland fought the Soviet Union in the Winter War and the Continuation War, and Nazi Germany in the Lapland War. It subsequently lost parts of its territory, including the culturally and historically significant town of Vyborg,[17] but maintained its independence.

Finland largely remained an agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, it rapidly industrialized and developed an advanced economy, while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model; the country soon enjoyed widespread prosperity and a high per capita income.[18] Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and adopted an official policy of neutrality; it joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994,[19] the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997,[19] and the Eurozone at its inception in 1999. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life and human development.[20][21][22][23] In 2015, Finland ranked first in the World Human Capital,[24] topped the Press Freedom Index, and was the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016, according to the Fragile States Index;[25] it is second in the Global Gender Gap Report,[26] and has ranked first in every annual World Happiness Report since 2018.[27][28][29]


Share this article:

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Finland, and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.