Soviet Census (1926)


The 1926 Soviet Census took place in December 1926. It was an important tool in the state-building of the USSR, provided the government with important ethnographic information, and helped in the transformation from Imperial Russian society to Soviet society. The decisions made by ethnographers in determining the ethnicity (narodnost) of individuals, whether in the Asiatic or European parts of the former Russian Empire, through the drawing up of the "List of Ethnicities of the USSR", and how borders were drawn in mixed areas had a significant influence on Soviet policies. Ethnographers, statisticians, and linguists were drawing up questionnaires and list of ethnicities for the census. However, they also had the more ambitious goal of deliberately transforming their identities according to the principles of Marxism-Leninism. As Anastas Mikoyan put it, the Soviet Union was: "creating and organising new nations".[1]

Promotional poster to the 1926 Census

Previous censuses


The First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union followed two partial censuses carried out by the Bolsheviks following their seizure of power in Russia. The first, the general census of 1920, took place during the Civil War and the Soviet-Polish War. It was thus unable to deal with the Crimea, much of Transcaucasia, Ukraine, Byelorussia, Far Eastern, Siberian, and Central Asian parts of the Soviet Union as well as with its Far Northern parts. Yet it is worth to note that there was only 15,000,000 population increase between 1920 and 1926 constituting in some 131,304,931 people according to the TIME magazine while is still undisclosed in Russian history.[2] The 1923 Census was restricted to cities. Prior to the Russian Revolution, the only Russian Empire Census was done in 1897.

Methodology


By classifying the population in terms of narodnosti (nationalities)—as opposed to tribe or clan—along with policies which gave these nations land, resources, and rights, experts and local elites were encouraged to interfere with the information collecting.

List of ethnicities


This list, called Programmy i posobiya po razrabotke Vsesoyuznoy perepisi naseleniya 1926 goda, vol. 7, Perechen i slovar narodnostey, Moscow 1927, was developed by the Central Statistical Administration of the USSR.[3]

  1. Russian – 77 791 124
  2. Ukrainian – 31 194 976
  3. Belarusian – 4 738 923
  4. Polish – 782 334
  5. Czech
  6. Slovak
  7. Serb
  8. Bulgarian – 111 296
  9. Latvian – 151 410
  10. Lithuanian – 41 463
  11. Latgalian
  12. Samogitian (Zhmud)
  13. German – 1 238 549
  14. British
  15. Swedish
  16. Dutch
  17. Italian
  18. French
  19. Romanian – 278 903
  20. Moldovan – 278 903
  21. Greek – 213 765
  22. Albanian (Arnaut)
  23. Jewish (Ashkenazi) – 2,599,973[4]
  24. Crimean Jewish – 6,383
  25. Mountain Jewish (Dag Chufut) – 25,974
  26. Georgian Jewish – 21,471
  27. Bukharan Jewish (Dzhugur) – 18,698
  28. Karaim – 8,324
  29. Finnish
  30. Leningrad Finnish (Chukhon)
  31. Karelian
  32. Tavastian
  33. Estonian – 154 666
  34. Vepsian (Chud)
  35. Vod (Vote)
  36. Izhorian (Ingrian)
  37. Kven
  38. Lopar (Sami people)
  39. Zyrian
  40. Permyak
  41. Udmurt (Votiak)
  42. Besermyan
  43. Mari (Cheremis)
  44. Mordva (Moksha, Erzya, Teryukhan, Karatai)
  45. Magyar (Hungarian)
  46. Gagauz
  47. Chuvash – 1 117 419
  48. Tatar – 2 916 536
  49. Mishar (Meshcheriak)
  50. Bashkir – 713 693
  51. Nagaybak
  52. Nogai
  53. Gypsy
  54. Kalmyk
  55. Mongol
  56. Buryat
  57. Sart-Kalmyk
  58. Mansi (Vogul)
  59. Khanty (Ostyak)
  60. Selkup (Ostyak-Samoyed)
  61. Nenets (Samoyed)
  62. Yurak
  63. Soyot (Uriankhai)
  64. Barabin (Barbara Tartar)
  65. Bukharan (Bukharlyk)
  66. Chernevyy Tatar (Tubalar, Tuba-Kizhi)
  67. Altai (Altai-Kizhi, Mountain or White Kalmyk)
  68. Teleut
  69. Telengit (Telengut)
  70. Kumandin (Lebedin, Ku-Kohzi)
  71. Shors
  72. Kharagas (Tuba, Kharagaz)
  73. Kızıl (Kyzyl)
  74. Kachin
  75. Sagai
  76. Koybal
  77. Beltir
  78. Dolgan (Dolgan-Iakut)
  79. Yakut (Sakha, Urangkhai-Sakha) – 240 709
  80. Tungus (Ovenk, Murchen)
  81. Lamut
  82. Orochon
  83. Goldai (Nanai)
  84. Olchi (Mangun, Ulchi)
  85. Negidal (Negda, Eleke Beye)
  86. Orochi
  87. Udegei (Ude)
  88. Orok
  89. Manegir
  90. Samogir
  91. Manchurian
  92. Chukchi
  93. Koryaks
  94. Kamchadal (Itel'men)
  95. Gilyak (Nivkhi)
  96. Yukagir
  97. Chuvan
  98. Aleut
  99. Eskimo
  100. Enisei (Ket, Enisei Ostiak)
  101. Aino (Ainu, Kuchi)
  102. Chinese
  103. Korean
  104. Japanese
  105. Georgian (Kartvelian) – 1 821 184
  106. Ajar
  107. Megeli (Mingrelian)
  108. Laz (Chan)
  109. Svan (Svanetian)
  110. Abkhaz (Abkhazian) – 56 957
  111. Cherkess (Adyghe)
  112. Beskesek-Abaza (Abazin)
  113. Kabard
  114. Ubykh
  115. Chechen (Nakh, Nakhchuo)
  116. Ingush (Galgai, Kist)
  117. Batsbi (Tsova-Tish, Batswa)
  118. Maistvei
  119. Lezgin
  120. Tabasaran
  121. Agul
  122. Archi
  123. Rutul (Mykhad)
  124. Tsakhur
  125. Khinalug
  126. Dzhek (Dzhektsy)
  127. Khaput (Gaputlin,Khaputlin)
  128. Kryz
  129. Budukh (Budug)
  130. Udin
  131. Dargin
  132. Kubachin (Ughbug)
  133. Lak (Kazi-Kumukh)
  134. Avar (Avartsy, Khunzal)
  135. Andi (Andiitsy, Kwanally)
  136. Botlog (Buikhatli)
  137. Godoberi
  138. Karatai
  139. Akhvakh
  140. Bagulal (Kvanandin)
  141. Chamalal
  142. Tindi (Tindal, Idera)
  143. Didoi (Tsez)
  144. Kvarshi
  145. Kapuchin (Bezheta)
  146. Khunzal (Enzebi, Nakhad)
  147. Armenian – 1 567 568
  148. Hemshin
  149. Arab
  150. Aisor (Assyrian, Syriac, Chaldean)
  151. Kaytak (Karakaitak)
  152. Bosha (Karachi, Armenian Gypsy)
  153. Ossetian – 272 272
  154. Kurd
  155. Yazid
  156. Talysh
  157. Tat
  158. Persian
  159. Karachai
  160. Kumyk
  161. Balkar (Mountain Tartar, Malkar)
  162. Karakalpak
  163. Turk
  164. Ottoman Turk (Osmanli)
  165. Samarkand and Fergana Turk
  166. Turkmen – 763 940
  167. Kirgiz (Kyrgyz, Kara-Kirgiz)
  168. Karakalpak – 146 317
  169. Kypchak
  170. Kashgar
  171. Taranchi
  172. Kazakh (Kirgiz-Kazakh, Kirgiz-Kaisak) – 3 968 289
  173. Kurama
  174. Uzbek – 3 904 622
  175. Dungan
  176. Afghan
  177. Tajik – 978 680
  178. Vakhan
  179. Ishkashim
  180. Shugnan
  181. Yagnob
  182. Yazgul
  183. Iranian
  184. Jemshid
  185. Beludji
  186. Berber
  187. Khazara
  188. Hindu (Indian)
  189. Other Ethnicities
  190. Ethnicities not noted or noted inexactly
a) Tavlin
b) Kryashen
c) Teptyar
d) Uigar
e) Oirot
f) Khakass
g) Others

191. Foreign subjects

Composition of the USSR

No. Soviet
Republic
Territory (km2) Population Urban Population Male Population Ethnic Russians Ethnic Ukrainians Titular Ethnicity
1 RSFSR 19 651 446 100 891 244 17 442 655 48 170 635 74 072 096 7 873 331
2 UkSSR 451 584 29 018 187 5 373 553 14 094 592 2 677 166 23 218 860
3 BSSR 126 792 4 983 240 847 830 2 439 801 383 806 34 681 4 017 301
4 Transcaucasian SFSR 185 191 5 861 529 1 410 876 3 009 046 336 178 35 423 1 797 960
5 Uzbek SSR 311 476 5 272 801 1 102 218 2 797 420 246 521 25 804 3 475 340
6 Turkmen SSR 449 698 1 000 914 136 982 531 858 75 357 6877 719 792
Total 21 176 187 147 027 915 26 314 114 71 043 352 77 791 124 31 194 976

For the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, Georgians were considered the Titular Nationality.

Population of the USSR sorted by most common nationalities in 1926

     USSR          RSFSR     Ukrainian SSRByelorussian SSR     TSFSR     Uzbek SSRTurkmen SSR
Total147,027,915100,623,00029,018,1874,983,2405,861,5295,272,8011,000,914
Russians77,791,12474,072,0002,677,166383,806336,178246,52175,357
Ukrainians31,194,9767,873,00023,218,86034,68135,42325,8046,877
Belorussians4,738,923638,00075,8424,017,0313,7673,515864
Georgians1,821,18421,0001,265521,797,960697258
Armenians1,567,568195,00010,631991,332,59314,97613,859
Turks1,706,60528,0005601,652,76821,5654,229
Uzbeks3,904,622325,000230723,475,340104,971
Turkmen763,94018,00021110225,954719,792
Kazakhs3,968,2893,852,000981861106,9809,471
Kirghiz762,736672,0003611090,7430
Tatars2,916,5362,846,73422,2813,77710,57428,4014,769
Chuvash1,117,4191,114,81390573992315555
Bashkirs713,693712,000114814765426
Yakuts240,709240,687141034
Karakalpaks146,317118,21700026,5631,537
Tajiks978,68010,385001967,728566
Ossetians272,272157,00018418114,45023438
Talysh77,32300077,32300
Tats28,70522335028,44304
Kurds69,18414,7011052,17312,308
Mordva1,340,4151,334,7001,1711,0511,2381,805491
Mari428,192428,00012218141918
Karelians248,120248,0306019713
Udmurts514,187514,00091456198
Komi226,383226,30042211855
Permyaks149,488149,400363100
Buryats237,501237,00031201
Kalmyks132,114131,7579218182
Germans1,238,549806,301393,9247,07525,3274,6461,276
Jews2,599,973566,9171,574,391407,05931,17519,6111,820
Poles782,334197,827476,43597,4986,3243,411839
Greeks213,76550,649104,6665557,935347113
Vainakhs392,600390,0005178452
Moldavians278,90320,525257,7946331617324
Bulgarians111,29618,64492,0782220332128
Latvians151,410126,2779,13114,061951737232
Lithuanians41,46326,8566,7956,85357231165
Abkhazians56,957988056,85100

Population by republics


References


  1. "Национальный вопрос и национальная култура в Северо-Кавказском крае (Итоги и перспективы): К предстоящему съезду горских народов" (Natsionalny vopros i natsionalnaya kultura v Severo-Kavkazskom kraye (Itogi i perspektivy): K predstoyashchemu syezdu gorskikh narodov), Rostov-on-Don, 1926.
  2. Russia:Decennial. Overview of Russian life 10 years after the revolution by the TIME magazine (in English)
  3. Empire of Nations: Ethnographic Knowledge and the Making of the Soviet Union by Francine Hirsch, Cornell University Press, 2005, pp. 329–333
  4. The total population of the six different Jewish recognized groups was 2,680,823; Ashkenazim were listed simply as "Jewish", being seen as default. James Stuart Olson, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994. pp. 317-321 etc.

Further reading


  • Henry Joachim Dubester (1948). "USSR: Census of 1926". National Censuses and Vital Statistics in Europe, 1918–1939: An Annotated Bibliography, with 1940–1948 Supplement. USA: Gale Research Company.