First Mexican Empire

The Mexican Empire (Spanish: Imperio Mexicano, pronounced [ĩmˈpeɾjo mexiˈkano] (listen)) was a constitutional monarchy, the first independent government of Mexico and the only former colony of the Spanish Empire to establish a monarchy after independence. It is one of the few modern era, independent monarchies that have existed in the Americas, along with the Brazilian Empire, and the First and Second Haitian Empires.

Mexican Empire
Imperio Mexicano (in Spanish)
Motto: Independencia, Unión, Religión
"Independence, Union, Religion"
Anthem: "Veni Creator Spiritus"
CapitalMexico City
Common languagesSpanish
Roman Catholicism
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
Agustín I
Agustín de Iturbide
Prime Minister[1] 
José Manuel de Herrera
LegislatureProvisional Government Junta (1821–1822)
Constituent Congress (1822)
National Institutional Junta (1822–1823)
February 24, 1821
September 28, 1821
 Abdication of Agustín I of Mexico
March 19, 1823
1821[2]4,429,000 km2 (1,710,000 sq mi)
CurrencyMexican real
ISO 3166 codeMX
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Viceroyalty of New Spain
Provisional Government of Mexico
Federal Republic of Central America
British Honduras
Mosquito Coast

Agustín de Iturbide, the sole monarch of the empire, was originally a Mexican military commander under whose leadership independence from Spain was gained in September 1821. His popularity culminated in mass demonstrations on May 18, 1822, in favor of making him emperor of the new nation, and the very next day congress hastily approved the matter. A sumptuous coronation ceremony followed in July.

The empire was plagued throughout its short existence by questions about its legality, conflicts between congress and the emperor, and a bankrupt treasury. Iturbide shut down the congress in October 1822, and by December of that year had begun to lose support of the army, which revolted in favor of restoring congress. After failing to put down the revolt, Iturbide reconvened congress in March 1823, and offered his abdication, upon which power passed to a provisional government which ultimately abolished the monarchy.