Forced labour

Forced labour, or unfree labour, is any work relation, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence including death, or other forms of extreme hardship to either themselves or members of their families.[note 1]

Clergy on forced labour, by Ivan Vladimirov (Soviet Russia, 1919)
Unfree labour workers from Plovdiv during WW2

Unfree labour includes all forms of slavery, penal labour and the corresponding institutions, such as debt slavery, serfdom, corvée and labour camps.

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