Foreign relations of Antigua and Barbuda


Antigua and Barbuda maintains diplomatic relations with the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the People's Republic of China, as well as with many Latin American countries and neighbouring Eastern Caribbean states. It is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, Petrocaribe and the Eastern Caribbean's Regional Security System (RSS).

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Antigua and Barbuda

As a member of CARICOM, Antigua and Barbuda supported efforts by the United States to implement UN Security Council Resolution 940, designed to facilitate the departure of Haiti's de facto authorities from power. The country agreed to contribute personnel to the multinational force which restored the democratically elected government of Haiti in October 1994.

In May 1997, Prime Minister Bird joined 14 other Caribbean leaders and President Clinton for the first-ever US-regional summit in Bridgetown, Barbados. The summit strengthened the basis for regional co-operation on justice and counter-narcotics issues, finance and development, and trade.

Antigua and Barbuda is also a member of the International Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US-military (as covered under Article 98).

Disputes – international: none

Illicit drugs: considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as a drug-money-laundering center.

Bilateral relations


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Andorra3 June 2011

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 June 2011.[1]

 Armenia14 May 1993

The establishment of diplomatic relations between Armenia and Antigua and Barbuda started on 14 May 1993.

 Australia
 Barbados1 November 1981

The establishment of diplomatic relations between Barbados and Antigua and Barbuda started on 1 November 1981.

  • Antigua and Barbuda has a non-resident High Commissioner from St. Johns, Antigua.
  • Barbados has a non-resident High Commissioner from Bridgetown, Barbados.
 Belize4 February 1983
 Canada
 China

Both countries have established diplomatic relations.[6]

 Cook Islands7 November 2017

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 November 2017.[7]

 Cyprus21 July 2004
 Denmark

Denmark is represented in Antigua and Barbuda by its Consulate General in New York and an honorary consulate in St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda.[9]

 Finland

Finland has an honorary consulate in St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda.[10]

 Georgia7 April 2010

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 April 2010.[11]

 Guyana3 February 1982
 India

Both countries have established diplomatic relations and have an Extradition Arrangement.[13][14]

 Indonesia2011

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 2011.[15]

 Ireland

Ireland is represented in Antigua and Barbuda through its embassy in Washington DC, United States.[16][17]

 Israel

Israel is represented in Antigua and Barbuda through its embassy in Dominican Republic.[18]

 Japan1982

Both countries established diplomatic relations in October 1982.[19][20]

 Kosovo 24 June 2019 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 June 2019.[21] Kosovo and Antigua and Barbuda enjoy excellent relationships.
 Latvia19 March 1993

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 March 1993.[22]

 Lithuania23 September 2004

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 September 2004.[23]

 Maldives25 May 2002

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 May 2002.[20]

 Malta23 July 2004
 Mexico14 September 1984
  • Antigua and Barbuda has a non-resident ambassador accredited to Mexico from its capital in St. John's.[25]
  • Mexico is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda from its embassy in Castries, Saint Lucia and maintains an honorary consulate in St. John's.[26]
 Mongolia2014

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 2014.[27]

 Montenegro11 April 2011

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 April 2011.[28]

 New Zealand
 Philippines16 July 2010

Both nations established diplomatic relations on 16 July 2010.

 Romania5 April 2018

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 April 2018.[30]

 Singapore12 December 2016

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 December 2016.[31]

 South Africa
 South Korea1 November 1981

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and Antigua and Barbuda began on 1 November 1981.[33]

 Spain1988

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1988.

 Turkey1999

Both countries have established diplomatic relations[34] since June 1999.[20]

United Kingdom| United Kingdom 1999 Both countries have established diplomatic relations.

Both countries are full members of Commonwealth of Nations.

 United States1981

Relations between Antigua and Barbuda and the United States have been friendly since Antigua and Barbuda's independence from the United Kingdom in 1981.

The United States has supported the Government of Antigua and Barbuda's effort to expand its economic base and to improve its citizens' standard of living. However, concerns over the lack of adequate regulation of the financial services sector prompted the US Government to issue a financial advisory for Antigua and Barbuda in 1999. The advisory was lifted in 2001, but the US Government continues to monitor the Government of Antigua and Barbuda's regulation of financial services.

The United States also has been active in supporting post-hurricane disaster assistance and rehabilitation through the US Agency for International Development's (USAID) Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance and the Peace Corps. US assistance is primarily channelled through multilateral agencies such as the World Bank and the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), as well as through the USAID office in Bridgetown, Barbados.

Antigua and Barbuda is strategically situated in the Leeward Islands near maritime transport lanes of major importance to the United States. Antigua has long hosted a US military presence. A former US Navy support facility, turned over to the Government of Antigua and Barbuda in 1995, is now being developed as a regional coast guard training facility.

Antigua and Barbuda's location close to the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico makes it an attractive transshipment point for narcotics traffickers. To address these problems, the United States and Antigua and Barbuda have signed a series of counter-narcotic and counter-crime treaties and agreements, including a maritime law enforcement agreement (1995), subsequently amended to include overflight and order-to-land provisions (1996); a bilateral extradition treaty (1996); and a mutual legal assistance treaty (1996). In addition, Antigua and Barbuda receives counter-narcotics assistance and benefits from US military exercise-related and humanitarian civic assistance construction projects.

In 2005, Antigua and Barbuda had 239,804 stay-over visitors, with nearly 28% of Antigua and Barbuda's visitors coming from the United States. It is estimated that 4,500 Americans reside in the country.

In 2005 both countries disputed a World Trade Organization ruling over gambling law. In 2007 relations were strained when Antigua and Barbuda demanded sanctions worth $3.4bn imposed on the US for its failure to obey the WTO gambling ruling stating that "while we realise this is a significant step for Antigua and Barbuda to take, we feel we have no choice in the matter".[35] Nevertheless, relations between the two countries are still strong.

 Venezuela

Antigua and Barbuda enjoys close relations with Venezuela. As of June 2009 it became a formal member of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA) international co-operation organisation and the Caribbean oil alliance Petrocaribe. In 2009 Antigua and Barbuda received US$50 million from Venezuela because of the country's membership of these initiatives.

"We have benefited from these relationships and so we will continue to forge these alliances, whether it is with Venezuela, Cuba or whoever else that we feel is in the interest of Antigua and Barbuda and the sub-region," said the Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda Baldwin Spencer.[36]

 Vietnam8 November 2013

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 November 2013.[37]

See also


References


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  4. Government of Canada, Global Affairs Canada. "Canada and Antigua and Barbuda". International.gc.ca.
  5. Government of Canada, Global Affairs Canada. "Canada and Antigua and Barbuda relations". International.gc.ca.
  6. "Antigua and Barbuda". Fmprc.gov.cn.
  7. "Antigua and Barbuda Establishes Diplomatic Relations with the Cook Islands – ABHCUK". Antigue-barbuda.com.
  8. "Joint Communiqué concerning the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Republic of Cyprus and Antigua and Barbuda" (PDF). Olc.gov.cy. New York. 22 July 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
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  12. "Countries with which Guyana has Establishment Diplomatic Relations – Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Co-operative Republic of Guyana". Minfor.gov.gy.
  13. "MEA - List of Extradition Treaties/Arrangements". Mea.gov.in.
  14. "MINISTRY OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS ORDER" (PDF). Mea.gov.in. New Delhi. 3 August 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  15. "Annual Press Statement by H.E. Dr. R. M. Marty M. Natalegawa, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia" (PDF). Kemlu.go.id. Jakarta. 4 January 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
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  17. "Antigua and Barbuda - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". Dfa.ie.
  18. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  20. "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Antigua and Barbuda". 17 May 2010. Archived from the original on 17 May 2010.
  21. "Twitter". mobile.twitter.com. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  22. Lobzova, Liene. "Establishment and renewal of diplomatic relations". Mfa.gov.lv.
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  26. "Inicio". Embamex.sre.gob.mx. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  27. "Mongolia ties diplomatic relations with nine more countries - The UB Post". Ubpost.mongolnews.mn.
  28. "Tabela priznanja i uspostavljanja diplomatskih odnosa". Mvp.gov.me.
  29. Trade, New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and. "Caribbean". Mfat.govt.nz.
  30. "Romania and Antigua & Barbuda have agreed to establish diplomatic relations - Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Mae.ro.
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  32. "Antigua and Barbuda". Dirco.gov.za.
  33. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  34. "Antigua and Barbuda and the UK". www.gov.uk.
  35. "Antigua hits back at US on gaming". News.bbc.co.uk. 21 June 2007.
  36. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  37. "- VN establish diplomatic ties Antigua and Barbuda". Mofa.gov.vn.