Foreign relations of Austria


The 1955 Austrian State Treaty ended the four-power occupation and recognized Austria as an independent and sovereign state. In October 1955, the Federal Assembly passed a constitutional law in which "Austria declares of her own free will her perpetual neutrality." The second section of this law stated that "in all future times Austria will not join any military alliances and will not permit the establishment of any foreign military bases on her territory." Since then, Austria has shaped its foreign policy on the basis of neutrality.

In recent years, however, Austria has begun to reassess its definition of neutrality, granting overflight rights for the UN-sanctioned action against Iraq in 1991, and, since 1995, contemplating participation in the EU's evolving security structure. Also in 1995, it joined the Partnership for Peace, and subsequently participated in peacekeeping missions in Bosnia. Discussion of possible Austrian NATO membership intensified during 1996. ÖVP and Team Stronach aim at moving closer to NATO or a European defense arrangement. SPÖ and FPÖ, in turn, believe continued neutrality is the cornerstone of Austria's foreign policy, and a majority of the population generally supports this stance.

In February 2000, Austria's foreign relations underwent controversy when the ÖVP formed a coalition with the FPÖ after the 1999 election. European governments imposed diplomatic sanctions, and the United States recalled its ambassador.[1] Sanctions were lifted in September 2000 after a three-member panel assessed human rights and political life in Austria.[2] In November 2000, the United States and Austria normalized their relations.[3]

Austrian leaders emphasize the unique role the country plays as an East-West hub and as a moderator between industrialized and developing countries. Austria is active in the United Nations and experienced in UN peacekeeping efforts. It attaches great importance to participation in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and other international economic organizations, and it has played an active role in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

Vienna hosts the Secretariat of the OSCE and the headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, and the United Nations Drug Control Programme. Other international organizations based in Vienna include the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, the Organization for International Economic Relations (OiER) and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Recently, Vienna added the preparatory commission for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization and the Wassenaar Arrangement (a technology-transfer control agency) to the list of international organizations it hosts. Furthermore, the Permanent Secretariat of an international territorial treaty for the sustainable development of the Alps called the Alpine Convention is located in Tyrol's capital Innsbruck.

Austria traditionally has been active in "bridge-building to the east," increasing contacts at all levels with Eastern Europe and the states of the former Soviet Union. Austrians maintain a constant exchange of business representatives, investment, trade, political leaders, students, cultural groups, and tourists with the countries of central and eastern Europe. In addition, the Austrian Government and various Austrian organizations provide assistance and training to support the changes underway in the region.

Bilateral relationships


Austria maintains significant bilateral relations with several countries.

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria
  • Algeria has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Austria has an embassy in Algiers.
 Burkina Faso
  • Austria is accredited to Burkina Faso from its embassy in Dakar, Senegal[4]
  • Burkina Faso has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1960.[5]
 Egypt1929 See Austria–Egypt relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Cairo.
  • Egypt has an embassy in Vienna.
 Kenya1908 See Austria–Kenya relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Nairobi.
  • Kenya has an embassy in Vienna.
 Mauritania
  • Austria is accredited to Mauritania from its embassy in Rabat, Morocco.
  • Mauritania is accredited to Austria from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
 Morocco
  • Austria has an embassy in Rabat.
  • Morocco has an embassy in Vienna.
 Namibia
  • Austria is accredited to Namibia from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
  • Namibia has an embassy in Vienna.
 Nigeria
  • Austria has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Vienna.
 South Africa
  • Austria has an embassy in Pretoria.
  • South Africa has an embassy in Vienna.
 Tunisia
  • Austria has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Vienna.
 Uganda
  • Austria is accredited to Uganda from its embassy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • Uganda is accredited to Austria from its embassy in Berlin, Germany and an honorary consulate in Vienna.

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina1864 See Argentina–Austria relations
 Belize1989
  • Austria is accredited to Belize from its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.
 Bolivia
  • Austria is accredited to Bolivia from its embassy in Lima, Peru.
  • Bolivia has an embassy in Vienna.
 BrazilSee Austria–Brazil relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Vienna.
 Canada1929 See Austria–Canada relations
  • Permanent embassies were exchanged in 1958.
  • Austria has an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canada has an embassy in Vienna.
 Chile1846 See Austria–Chile relations
 Colombia1920see Austria–Colombia relations
  • Austrian has an embassy Bogotá.
  • Colombia has an embassy in Vienna.
 Cuba
  • Austria has an embassy in Havana.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Vienna.
 Dominica
  • Austria is accredited to Dominica from its embassy in Bogotá, Colombia.
  • Dominica does not have an accreditation to Austria.
 El Salvador
  • Austria is accredited to El Salvador from its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Vienna.
 Grenada
  • Austria is accredited to Grenada from its embassy in Bogotá, Colombia.
  • Grenada does not have an accreditation to Austria.
 Haiti
  • Austria is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Havana, Cuba.
  • Haiti is accredited to Austria from its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland.
 Honduras
  • Austria is accredited to Honduras from its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.
  • Honduras has an embassy in Vienna.
 Mexico1842See Austria–Mexico relations

During the French intervention in Mexico between 1864 and 1867, with French backing Maximilian I of Mexico, member of Austria's Imperial Habsburg-Lorraine family was proclaimed Emperor of Mexico.

  • Austria has an embassy in Mexico City.
  • Mexico has an embassy in Vienna.
 Paraguay
  • Austria is accredited to Paraguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Paraguay has an embassy in Vienna.
 Peru
  • Austria has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Vienna.
 United States1921See Austria–United States relations
 UruguaySee Austria–Uruguay relations
  • Austria is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Vienna.
 Venezuela
  • Austria is accredited to Venezuela from its embassy in Havana, Cuba.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Vienna.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia1992-01-24 See Armenia–Austria relations
  • Austria is accredited to Armenia from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Vienna and maintains an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • Armenia has and embassy in Vienna.
 AzerbaijanSee Austria–Azerbaijan relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Baku.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Vienna.
 China1971-05-28 See Austria–China relations
 Georgia1992See Austria–Georgia relations

Georgia opened its embassy in Vienna in 1996.[6]

  • Austria has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Vienna.
 India1949See Austria–India relations
  • Austria has an embassy in New Delhi.
  • India has an embassy in Vienna.
 IranSee Austria–Iran relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Vienna.
  • On July 3, 2018, Austria announced it was revoking the diplomatic immunity of an Iranian diplomat in Vienna, due to his alleged role in a French bomb plot.[7]
 Israel1949See Austria–Israel relations

See also History of the Jews in Austria.

 Japan1869-10See Austria–Japan relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Vienna.
 KazakhstanSee Austria–Kazakhstan relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Vienna.
 Lebanon
  • Austria has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Vienna.
 Malaysia1962-08-06See Austria–Malaysia relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Malaysia is one of Austria's most important trading partners in Southeast Asia.[8]
 North Korea1974[9]
  • Austria is accredited to North Korea from its embassy in Beijing, China.
  • North Korea has an embassy in Vienna.
 Pakistan1956 See Austria–Pakistan relations

Relations between the two countries are generally friendly. The diplomatic ties between Pakistan and Austria were established in 1956 when Pakistan formally recognized Austria.

  • Austria also has an embassy in Islamabad.
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Vienna.
 Philippines1946-10-17 See Austria–Philippines relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Manila
  • Philippines has an embassy in Vienna.
 Saudi Arabia1957-09-10See Austria – Saudi Arabia relations
  • Both countries had diplomatic contact since July 7, 1880, with the opening of an Austrian consulate in Jeddah (then under Ottoman occupation).
  • Austria has an embassy in Riyadh
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Vienna.
 South Korea1892 As Chosun Dynasty/1963-05-22[10] See Austria–South Korea relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Austria in German (Republik Österreich) and the Republic of Korea in Korean (대한민국) Started on 1892. In April 2007 the President of Austria Heinz Fischer paid a state visit to South Korea. It was the first ever state visit of an Austrian President to South Korea.[11]

  • Austria has an embassy in Seoul.
  • South Korea has an embassy in Vienna.
 TurkeySee Austria–Turkey relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate-general in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Vienna and consulates-general in Bregenz and Salzburg.
 United Arab Emirates
  • Austria has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Vienna.
 VietnamSee Austria–Vietnam relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Vienna.
 Yemen See Austria–Yemen relations

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania1912 See Albania–Austria relations

Austria-Hungary supported Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912.

 Belarus1992-02
  • Austria has an embassy in Minsk.
  • Belarus has an embassy in Vienna.
 Belgium1833
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Austria has an embassy in Sarajevo.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Vienna.
 Bulgaria1878 See Austria–Bulgaria relations
 Croatia1992-01-15See Austria–Croatia relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Croatia has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Cyprus1960 See Austria–Cyprus relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Nicosia.
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Austria was one of the first countries that participated in the United Nations Peace-Keeping Force in Cyprus
  • Austria actively supports Republic of Cyprus over the Turkish occupation of the island.
 Czech Republic1920-01-20See Austria–Czech Republic relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Prague.
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Vienna.

Both countries are full members of the European Union. They share 362 km of common border, which can be crossed anywhere without border control due to the Schengen Agreement.

 Denmark1925-12-19See Austria–Denmark relations
 Estonia1921-06-26
  • After the Soviet occupation, Austria re-recognised Estonia on August 28, 1991. Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on January 8, 1992.
  • Austria has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Finland1918-07-19 See Austria–Finland relations
  • Austria recognized Finland on January 13, 1918.
  • Austria has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Finland has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 France1535 See Austria–France relations
  • Both countries have diplomatic relations since the Middle Ages.
  • Austria has an embassy in Paris and a consulate-general in Strasbourg.
  • France has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 GermanySee Austria–Germany relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 GreeceSee Austria–Greece relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Athens.
  • Greece has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  Holy See
  • Austria has an embassy to the Holy See in Rome.
  • Holy See has an apostolic nunciature in Vienna.
 Hungary1921See Austria–Hungary relations
  • Both countries have a long common history since the ruling dynasty of Austria, the Habsburgs, inherited the Hungarian throne in the 16th century. Both were part of the now-defunct Austro-Hungarian Monarchy from 1867 to 1918.
  • Austria has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Iceland1928
  • Austria is accredited to Iceland from its embassy in Copenhagen, Denmark and has an honorary consulate in Reykjavík.
  • Iceland is accredited to Austria from its embassy in Berlin, Germany and maintains an honorary consulate in Vienna.
 Ireland1951
  • Austria has an embassy in Dublin.
  • Ireland has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 ItalySee Austria–Italy relations
  • The Italian regions of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lombardy, Trentino, Veneto, and South Tyrol were part of the Austrian Empire.
  • Austria has an embassy in Rome and a consulate-general in Milan.
  • Italy has an embassy in Vienna and a consulate in Innsbruck.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Kosovo2008 See Austria–Kosovo relations
  • Austria recognized Kosovo on 28 February 2008.
  • Austria has an embassy in Pristina.
  • Kosovo has an embassy in Vienna.
 Latvia1921-02-17
  • Austria has an embassy in Riga.
  • Latvia has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Liechtenstein
  • Austria is accredited to Liechtenstein from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Vienna and maintains an honorary consulate in Vaduz.
  • Liechtenstein has an embassy in Vienna.
 Lithuania1991
  • Austria has an embassy in Vilnius.
  • Lithuania has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Luxembourg1792
 Malta
  • Austria is accredited to Malta from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Vienna and maintains an honorary consulate in Valletta.
  • Malta has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Moldova1992-03-25See Austria–Moldova relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Chișinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Vienna.
 Montenegro2006-07-12 See Austria–Montenegro relations
  • Austria recognized Montenegro on June 12, 2006.
  • Austria has an embassy in Podgorica.
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Vienna.
 Netherlands
  • Austria has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands have an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 North MacedoniaSee Austria–North Macedonia relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Skopje.
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Vienna.
 Norway
  • Austria has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Norway has an embassy in Vienna.
 Poland1921 See Austria–Poland relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Warsaw and a consulate-general in Kraków.
  • Poland has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Romania1878-09-22
 RussiaSee Austria–Russia relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Moscow.
  • Russia has an embassy in Vienna and a consulate-general in Salzburg.
 Serbia1874See Austria–Serbia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1874.

 SlovakiaSee Austria–Slovakia relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Bratislava.
  • Slovakia has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Both countries share 91 km of common borders.
  • There are about 35.000 Slovak nationals living in Austria.
  • There are about 10.000 Austrians living in Slovakia.
 SloveniaSee Austria–Slovenia relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 SpainSee Austria–Spain relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 SwedenSee Austria–Sweden relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  SwitzerlandSee Austria–Switzerland relations
  • Austria has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Vienna.
 TurkeySee Turkey in Asia Above
 Ukraine1992See Austria–Ukraine relations
 United Kingdom1799See Austria–United Kingdom relations
  • Austria has an embassy in London.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Vienna.

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia1948 See Australia–Austria relations
 New ZealandSee Austria–New Zealand relations
  • Austria is accredited to New Zealand from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • New Zealand has an embassy in Vienna.
 Solomon IslandsOctober 2005

Both countries established diplomatic relations in October 2005.[15]

See also


References


  1. Watson, Paul; Dahlburg, John-Thor (2000-02-05). "Austria's Far Right Is Sworn Into Office". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
  2. Daley, Suzanne (2000-09-13). "Europe Lifts Sanctions on Austria, but Vows Vigilance". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-02-17.
  3. "U.S., Austria Normalize Ties as Reaction to Rightists Eases". Los Angeles Times. 2000-11-09. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
  4. "Embassy of Georgia to Austria". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 2007-07-09. Retrieved 2009-06-11. Diplomatic relations between Georgia and Republic of Austria were established in 1992. Georgia opened its Embassy in Vienna in 1996. The relations between the two countries are close and friendly. Georgia appreciates Support of Austrian Government in different fields of bilateral relations. In addition the commercial and cultural ties are also very important, but do not reflect its full potential and has a big prospective to develop.
  5. "Austria To Lift Iranian Diplomat's Immunity Over Alleged Bomb Plot". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. July 3, 2018. Austria is stripping the immunity of an Iranian diplomat suspected of involvement in an alleged plot to bomb a meeting of exiled Iranian opposition groups in France.
  6. Reinhart Zimmermann (2008). "Österreichs Wirtschaftsbeziehungen in Südostasien (Austrian Economic Relations to South-East Asia)" (PDF) (in German). Society for South-East Asian Studies. p. 80. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-05-24. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  7. "북한 오스트리아 수교 : 네이버 통합검색". Search.naver.com. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
  8. "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea-Europe". Mofa.go.kr (in Korean). Archived from the original on 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
  9. "Bundespräsident Heinz Fischer zu Staatsbesuch in Südkorea eingetroffen" (in German). Federal President of the Republic of Austria. Archived from the original on 7 November 2007. Retrieved 18 November 2008.
  10. "Bulgariens Präsident von pünktlichem EU-Beitritt 2007 überzeugt" (in German). Federal President of the Republic of Austria. Archived from the original on 22 August 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
  11. "Bilateral Relations between Austria and Australia". Austrian Embassy Canberra. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
  12. "Austria-born" (PDF). Department of Immigration and Citizenship (Australia). Retrieved 19 November 2008.
  13. "SOLOMONS, AUSTRIA SIGN DIPLOMATIC TIES - Pacific Islands Report". Pireport.org. Retrieved 24 March 2019.

Further reading


  • Horn, David Bayne. Great Britain and Europe in the eighteenth century (1967) covers 1603-1702; pp 111-43.