Foreign relations of Azerbaijan
The Republic of Azerbaijan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, NATO's Partnership for Peace, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the World Health Organization, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Council of Europe, CFE Treaty, the Community of Democracies; the International Monetary Fund; and the World Bank.
The major trends in the foreign relations of the Republic of Azerbaijan toward both global and regional powers active in Caucasus area. External variables are categorized depending on their original nature into two groups: global and regional. The former category includes global players such as Moscow and Washington, while the latter category rival regional players, namely Ankara and Tehran. Azerbaijan has formal involvement with senior ex-U.S. government officials including James Baker and Henry Kissinger, as they serve on the Honorary Council of Advisors of the U.S.-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce (USACC). USACC is co-chaired by Tim Cejka, President of ExxonMobil and Reza Vaziri, President of R.V. Investment Group and Chairman of the Anglo Asian Mining Plc (LSE Ticker: AAZ).
As of 2019, Azerbaijan maintains diplomatic relations with 182 United Nations member states, the State of Palestine and the Holy See. Azerbaijan lacks diplomatic relations with the following countries:
- Central African Republic
- Republic of the Congo
- Federated States of Micronesia
- Papua New Guinea
- Saint Kitts and Nevis
Information on some of the countries with which Azerbaijan maintains formal relations
|Organization||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|European Union||1996||See Azerbaijan–European Union relations|
|NATO||1992||See Azerbaijan–NATO relations|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Antigua and Barbuda||See Antigua and Barbuda–Azerbaijan relations|
|Argentina||8 November 1992||See Argentina–Azerbaijan relations
|Bahamas||2 May 2017||See Azerbaijan–Bahamas relations|
|Barbados||See Azerbaijan–Barbados relations|
|Belize||See Azerbaijan–Belize relations|
|Bolivia||8 July 1996||See Azerbaijan–Bolivia relations|
|Brazil||21 October 1993||See Azerbaijan–Brazil relations
|Canada||10 July 1992||See Azerbaijan–Canada relations
|Chile||11 January 1995||See Azerbaijan–Chile relations
|Colombia||13 December 1994||See Azerbaijan–Colombia relations
|Costa Rica||15 January 1997||See Azerbaijan–Costa Rica relations|
|Cuba||27 March 1992||See Azerbaijan–Cuba relations
|Dominica||See Azerbaijan–Dominica relations|
|Dominican Republic||12 November 2007||See Azerbaijan–Dominican Republic relations|
|Ecuador||22 March 2004||See Azerbaijan–Ecuador relations|
|El Salvador||See Azerbaijan–El Salvador relations|
|Greenland||See Azerbaijan–Greenland relations|
|Grenada||23 September 2010||See Azerbaijan–Grenada relations|
|Guatemala||1 November 1994||See Azerbaijan–Guatemala relations|
|Guyana||See Azerbaijan–Guyana relations|
|Haiti||See Azerbaijan–Haiti relations|
|Honduras||22 December 1994||See Azerbaijan–Honduras relations|
|Jamaica||See Azerbaijan–Jamaica relations|
|Mexico||14 January 1992||See Azerbaijan–Mexico relations
|Nicaragua||10 February 1994||See Azerbaijan–Nicaragua relations|
|Panama||6 April 1995||See Azerbaijan–Panama relations|
|Paraguay||20 April 2004||See Azerbaijan–Paraguay relations|
|Peru||25 June 1996||See Azerbaijan–Peru relations
|Puerto Rico||See Azerbaijan–Puerto Rico relations|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||See Azerbaijan–Saint Kitts and Nevis relations|
|Saint Lucia||11 March 2010||See Azerbaijan–Saint Lucia relations|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||See Azerbaijan–Saint Vincent and the Grenadines relations|
|Suriname||See Azerbaijan–Suriname relations|
|Trinidad and Tobago||11 April 2011||See Azerbaijan—Trinidad and Tobago relations|
28 February 1992
|See Azerbaijan–United States relations|
|Uruguay||12 January 1995||See Azerbaijan–Uruguay relations
|Venezuela||12 May 1995||See Azerbaijan–Venezuela relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Afghanistan||21 December 1991||See Afghanistan–Azerbaijan relations
|Bahrain||6 November 1996||See Azerbaijan–Bahrain relations|
|Bangladesh||30 December 1991||See Azerbaijan–Bangladesh relations
|Bhutan||7 February 2013||See Azerbaijan–Bhutan relations|
|Brunei||24 November 1995||See Azerbaijan–Brunei relations|
|Cambodia||28 December 1994||See Azerbaijan–Cambodia relations|
|China||2 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–China relations
|East Timor||See Azerbaijan–East Timor relations|
|Hong Kong||See Azerbaijan–Hong Kong relations|
|India||28 February 1992||See Azerbaijan-India relations|
|Indonesia||24 September 1992||See Azerbaijan-Indonesia relations
12 March 1992
|See Azerbaijan–Iran relations
|Iraq||2 January 1992||See Azerbaijan–Iraq relations
|Israel||7 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Israel relations
|Japan||7 September 1992||See Azerbaijan–Japan relations
|Jordan||13 February 1993||See Azerbaijan–Jordan relations|
|Kazakhstan||27 August 1992||See Azerbaijan–Kazakhstan relations
|Kuwait||10 October 1994||See Azerbaijan–Kuwait relations|
|Kyrgyzstan||19 January 1993||See Azerbaijan-Kyrgyzstan relations
|Laos||22 May 1995||See Azerbaijan–Laos relations|
|Lebanon||18 September 1992||See Azerbaijan–Lebanon relations
|Malaysia||31 December 1991||See Azerbaijan–Malaysia relations|
|Maldives||20 January 2019||See Azerbaijan–Maldives relations|
|Mongolia||16 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Mongolia relations|
|Myanmar||2 August 1999||See Azerbaijan–Myanmar relations|
|Nepal||28 February 1995||See Azerbaijan–Nepal relations|
|North Korea||26 December 1991||See Azerbaijan–North Korea relations|
|Oman||10 December 1991||See Azerbaijan–Oman relations|
|Qatar||See Azerbaijan–Qatar relations
|Pakistan||9 June 1992||See Azerbaijan–Pakistan relations
|Palestine||15 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Palestine relations
|Philippines||27 March 1992||See Azerbaijan–Philippines relations|
|Saudi Arabia||24 February 1992||See Azerbaijan–Saudi Arabia relations|
|Singapore||15 August 1994||See Azerbaijan–Singapore relations|
|South Korea||23 March 1992||See Azerbaijan–South Korea relations|
|Sri Lanka||See Azerbaijan–Sri Lanka relations
|Syria||28 March 1992||See Azerbaijan–Syria relations|
|Tajikistan||See Azerbaijan–Tajikistan relations
|Thailand||See Azerbaijan–Thailand relations
|Turkey||14 Jan. 1992||See Azerbaijan–Turkey relations
|Turkmenistan||9 June 1992||See Azerbaijan–Turkmenistan relations
|United Arab Emirates||1 September 1992||See Azerbaijan–United Arab Emirates relations
|Uzbekistan||2 October 1995||See Azerbaijan–Uzbekistan relations
|Vietnam||23 September 1992||See Azerbaijan–Vietnam relations|
|Yemen||See Azerbaijan–Yemen relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Albania||23 September 1992||See Albania–Azerbaijan relations|
|Andorra||30 April 1996||See Andorra–Azerbaijan relations|
Armenia and Azerbaijan do not have diplomatic relations till now.
|See Armenia–Azerbaijan relations, First Nagorno-Karabakh War
The neighboring nations of Armenia and Azerbaijan have had formal governmental relations between 1918 and 1921, when both countries were briefly independent. The two nations have fought two wars in 1918–20 (Armenian–Azerbaijani War) and in 1988–94 (Nagorno-Karabakh War), in the past century, with last one ended with provisional cease fire agreement signed in Bishkek. There are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries, because of the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and dispute. In 2008, Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev declared, "Nagorno Karabakh will never be independent; the position is backed by international mediators as well; Armenia has to accept the reality," and "in 1918, Yerevan was granted to the Armenians. It was a great mistake. The khanate of Iravan was the Azeri territory, the Armenians were guests here."
During the Soviet period, many Armenians and Azeris lived side by side in peace. However, when Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of Glasnost and Perestroika, the majority of Armenians from the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan SSR began a movement to unify with the Armenian SSR. In 1988, the Armenians of Karabakh voted to secede and join Armenia. This, along with mutual massacres in Azerbaijan and Armenia resulted in the conflict that became known as the Nagorno-Karabakh War. The violence resulted in de facto Armenian control of former NKAO and seven surrounding Azerbaijani regions, which was effectively halted when both sides agrees to observe a cease-fire, which has since been in effect since May 1994, and in late 1995 both also agreed to mediation of the OSCE Minsk Group. The Minsk Group is currently co-chaired by the U.S., France, and Russia and comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, and several Western European nations. Despite the cease fire, up to 40 clashes are reported along the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict lines of control each year.
The two countries are still technically at war. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.
In 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, Armenia and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the two sides was brief, with few casualties on either side.
On 27 September 2020, new flare up of violence broke out between Azerbaijan and Armenia. The following day, on 28 September 2020, Azerbaijan's President Ilham Aliyev signed a decree declaring a partial military mobilisation following clashes with Armenian forces over the Nagorno-Karabakh region.
|Austria||20 February 1992||See Austria–Azerbaijan relations
|Belarus||11 June 1993||See Azerbaijan–Belarus relations
|Belgium||17 June 1992||See Azerbaijan–Belgium relations
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||19 February 1995||See Azerbaijan–Bosnia and Herzegovina relations|
|Bulgaria||5 June 1992||See Azerbaijan—Bulgaria relations
|Croatia||26 January 1995||See Azerbaijan–Croatia relations
|Cyprus||Azerbaijan formally recognizes the government of the Republic of Cyprus as the sole representative of the island, but has not yet established diplomatic relations with Cyprus. The parliament of Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic issued a resolution recognizing the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus as a sovereign state. While this recognition is not regarded by Azerbaijan and internationally as 'official state-to-state', Azerbaijan itself maintained cordial unofficial relations with the TRNC. In 2004, Azerbaijan threatened to formally recognize the TRNC if the Annan Plan was voted down by the Greek Cypriots (who rejected the plan in one of twin referendums held 24 April 2004 in both the Greek and Turkish zones simultaneously), but backed off the threat when it was pointed out by Cyprus that doing so would be hypocritical, as a portion of its territory just like that of Cyprus itself is under occupation and would probably result in negative impact on its ongoing dispute with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh.|
|Czech Republic||29 January 1993||See Azerbaijan–Czech Republic relations
|Denmark||2 April 1992||See Azerbaijan-Denmark relations|
|Estonia||20 April 1992||See Azerbaijan-Estonia relations|
|Finland||24 March 1992||See Azerbaijan–Finland relations|
|France||21 February 1992||See Azerbaijan—France relations
18 November 1992
|See Azerbaijan–Georgia relations
|Germany||20 February 1992||See Azerbaijan–Germany relations
|Greece||2 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Greece relations
|Holy See||23 May 1992||See Azerbaijan–Holy See relations
|Hungary||27 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Hungary relations
|Iceland||27 February 1998||See Azerbaijan–Iceland relations|
|Ireland||1 July 1996||See Azerbaijan–Ireland relations
|Italy||8 May 1992||See Azerbaijan–Italy relations
|Kosovo||See Azerbaijan–Kosovo relations|
|Latvia||11 January 1994||See Azerbaijan—Latvia relations
|Liechtenstein||21 January 1992||See Azerbaijan–Liechtenstein relations|
|Lithuania||27 November 1995||See Azerbaijan—Lithuania relations
|Luxembourg||31 December 1991||See Azerbaijan–Luxembourg relations|
|Malta||9 January 1995||See Azerbaijan–Malta relations|
|Moldova||21 December 1991||See Azerbaijan–Moldova relations|
|Monaco||19 December 2007||See Azerbaijan–Monaco relations|
|Montenegro||24 April 2008||See Azerbaijan–Montenegro relations|
|Netherlands||1 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Netherlands relations|
|North Macedonia||28 June 1995||See Azerbaijan—North Macedonia relations
|Norway||2 January 1992||See Azerbaijan–Norway relations|
|Poland||21 February 1992||See Azerbaijan-Poland relations|
|Portugal||5 June 1992||See Azerbaijan–Portugal relations
|Romania||21 June 1992||See Azerbaijan–Romania relations|
|Russia||4 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Russia relations|
|San Marino||19 April 2002||See Azerbaijan–San Marino relations|
|Serbia||21 August 1997||See Azerbaijan–Serbia relations|
|Slovakia||23 November 1993||See Azerbaijan–Slovakia relations
|Slovenia||20 February 1996||See Azerbaijan–Slovenia relations
|Spain||11 February 1992||See Azerbaijan–Spain relations|
|Sweden||8 May 1992||See Azerbaijan–Sweden relations
|Switzerland||21 January 1992||See Azerbaijan–Switzerland relations
6 February 1992
|See Azerbaijan–Ukraine relations
11 March 1992
|See Azerbaijan – United Kingdom relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Australia||19 June 1992||See Australia–Azerbaijan relations
|Cook Islands||See Azerbaijan–Cook Islands relations|
|Fiji||19 March 2010||See Azerbaijan–Fiji relations|
|Marshall Islands||10 March 2010||See Azerbaijan–Marshall Islands relations|
|Micronesia||See Azerbaijan–Micronesia relations|
|Nauru||11 November 2004||See Azerbaijan–Nauru relations|
|New Zealand||29 June 1992||See Azerbaijan—New Zealand relations
|Niue||See Azerbaijan–Niue relations|
|Palau||See Azerbaijan–Palau relations|
|Papua New Guinea||See Azerbaijan–Papua New Guinea relations|
|Samoa||See Azerbaijan–Samoa relations|
|Solomon Islands||8 February 2011||See Azerbaijan–Solomon Islands relations|
|Tonga||See Azerbaijan–Tonga relations|
|Tuvalu||9 September 2009||See Azerbaijan–Tuvalu relations|
|Vanuatu||2017||See Azerbaijan–Vanuatu relations|
AsDB BSEC CE CIS EAPC EBRD ECE ECO ESCAP FAO GUAM IAEA IBRD ICAO ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC, IOM ISO (correspondent) ITU ITUC OAS (observer) OIC OPCW OSCE PFP United Nations UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO(observer)
The frozen conflict over currently largely Armenian-populated region of Nagorno-Karabakh within the Republic of Azerbaijan began when in 1988 the Armenian majority of Nagorno-Karabakh demanded autonomy with demonstrations and persecutions against ethnic Azeris following in Armenia. This led to anti-Armenian rioting in Azerbaijan, with Azerbaijani militias beginning their effort to expel Armenians from the enclave. In 1992 a war broke out and pogroms of Armenians and Azeris forced both groups to flee their homes. In 1994, a Russian-brokered ceasefire ended the war but more than 1 million ethnic Armenians and Azeris are still not able to return home. The conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh remains unresolved despite negotiations, that are ongoing since 1992 under the aegis of the Minsk Group of the OSCE, to resolve the conflict peacefully.
The European Stability Initiative (ESI) has revealed in a report from 2012 with the title "Caviar diplomacy: How Azerbaijan silenced the Council of Europe", that since Azerbaijan's entry into the Council of Europe, each year 30 to 40 deputies are invited to Azerbaijan and generously paid with expensive gifts, including caviar (worth up to 1.400 euro), silk carpets, gold, silver and large amounts of money. In return they become lobbyists for Azerbaijan. This practice has been widely referred to as "Caviar diplomacy".
ESI also published a report on 2013 Presidential elections in Azerbaijan titled "Disgraced: Azerbaijan and the end of election monitoring as we know it". The report revealed the ties between Azerbaijani government and the members of certain observation missions who praised the elections. Azerbaijan's "Caviar diplomacy" at 2013 presidential elections sparked a major international scandal, as the reports of two authoritative organizations Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe/European Parliament and OSCE/ODIHR completely contradicted one another in their assessments of elections.
Non-governmental anti-corruption organization Transparency International has regularly judged Azerbaijan to be one of the most corrupt countries in the world and has also criticized Azerbaijan for the "Caviar diplomacy".
At June 2016 the public prosecutor of Milan has accused the former leader of the (Christian) Union of the center and of the European People's Party of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Luca Volonte of accepting large bribes from representatives of the Azerbaijani government. Two people with high-level experience of the Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly (Pace) have told the Guardian they believe its members have been offered bribes for votes by Azerbaijan. Former Azerbaijani diplomat, Arif Mammadov, alleged that a member of Azerbaijan's delegation at the Council of Europe had €30m (£25m) to spend on lobbying its institutions, including the Council of Europe assembly. PACE ratified the terms of reference of an independent external investigation body to carry out a detailed independent inquiry into the allegations of corruption at the council involving Azerbaijan.
On 6 March 2017, ESISC (European Strategic Intelligence and Security Center) published a scandalous report called "The Armenian Connection" where it veraciously attacked human rights NGOs and research organisations criticising human rights violations and corruption in Azerbaijan, Turkey, and Russia.
ESISC in that report asserted that "Caviar diplomacy" report elaborated by ESI aimed to create climate of suspicion based on slander to form a network of MPs that would engage in a political war against Azerbaijan. In the Second Chapter of the report called "The Armenian Connection: «Mr X», Nils Muižnieks, Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights" that was published on 18 April 2017 ESISC asserted that the network composed of European PMs, Armenian officials and some NGOs: Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, "Human Rights House Foundation", "Open Dialog", European Stability Initiative, and Helsinki Committee for Human Rights, was financed by the Soros Foundation. According to ESISC the key figure of the network since 2012 has been Nils Muižnieks, Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe and the network has served to the interests of George Soros and the Republic of Armenia. "The report is written in the worst traditions of authoritarian propaganda, makes absurd claims, and is clearly aimed at deflecting the wave of criticism against cover-up of unethical lobbying and corruption in PACE and demands for change in the Assembly", said Freedom Files Analytical Centre.
European Stability Initiative said that "ESISC report is full of lies (such as claiming that German PACE member Strasser holds pro-Armenian views and citing as evidence that he went to Yerevan in 2015 to commemorate the Armenian genocide, when Strasser has never in his life been to independent Armenia)".
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