Foreign relations of Azerbaijan


The Republic of Azerbaijan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, NATO's Partnership for Peace, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the World Health Organization, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Council of Europe, CFE Treaty, the Community of Democracies; the International Monetary Fund; and the World Bank.

The major trends in the foreign relations of the Republic of Azerbaijan toward both global and regional powers active in Caucasus area. External variables are categorized depending on their original nature into two groups: global and regional. The former category includes global players such as Moscow and Washington, while the latter category rival regional players, namely Ankara and Tehran. Azerbaijan has formal involvement with senior ex-U.S. government officials including James Baker and Henry Kissinger, as they serve on the Honorary Council of Advisors[1] of the U.S.-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce (USACC). USACC is co-chaired by Tim Cejka, President of ExxonMobil and Reza Vaziri, President of R.V. Investment Group and Chairman of the Anglo Asian Mining Plc (LSE Ticker: AAZ).[2]

Diplomatic relations


Diplomatic relations of Azerbaijan (as of August 2019)

As of 2019, Azerbaijan maintains diplomatic relations with 182 United Nations member states, the State of Palestine and the Holy See.[3][4] Azerbaijan lacks diplomatic relations with the following countries:

Azerbaijan also maintains good relations with the European Union, in the framework of its Eastern European Neighbourhood Policy (See Azerbaijan and the European Union).

Information on some of the countries with which Azerbaijan maintains formal relations


Multilateral

Organization Formal Relations Began Notes
 European Union1996[5] See Azerbaijan–European Union relations
 NATO1992[6] See Azerbaijan–NATO relations

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria22 April 1994[7] See Algeria–Azerbaijan relations
 Angola1 December 1994[8] See Angola–Azerbaijan relations
 Benin14 October 1999[9] See Azerbaijan–Benin relations
 Botswana See Azerbaijan–Botswana relations
 Burkina Faso31 May 2004[10] See Azerbaijan–Burkina Faso relations
 Burundi2 March 1995[11] See Azerbaijan–Burundi relations
 Cameroon24 February 1995 See Azerbaijan–Cameroon relations
 Cape Verde See Azerbaijan–Cape Verde relations
 Central African Republic See Azerbaijan–Central African Republic relations
 Chad5 April 2004[12] See Azerbaijan–Chad relations
 Comoros2 February 2010[13] See Azerbaijan–Comoros relations
 Congo See Azerbaijan–Congo relations
 DR Congo23 October 2011[14] See Azerbaijan–DR Congo relations
 Djibouti22 October 1996[15] See Azerbaijan–Djibouti relations
 Egypt27 March 1992[16] See Azerbaijan–Egypt relations
 Equatorial Guinea11 November 2004[17] See Azerbaijan–Equatorial Guinea relations
 Eritrea20 April 2004[18] See Azerbaijan–Eritrea relations
 Eswatini7 January 2010[19] See Azerbaijan–Eswatini relations
 Ethiopia2 November 1992[20] See Azerbaijan–Ethiopia relations
 Gambia11 November 1994[21] See Azerbaijan–Gambia relations
 Guinea11 March 1992[22] See Azerbaijan–Guinea relations
 Guinea-Bissau27 August 1992[23] See Azerbaijan–Guinea-Bissau relations
 Ivory Coast See Azerbaijan–Ivory Coast relations
 Kenya31 May 2004[10] See Azerbaijan–Kenya relations
 Lesotho28 September 2012[14] See Azerbaijan–Lesotho relations
 Liberia22 May 1996[24] See Azerbaijan–Liberia relations
 Libya See Azerbaijan–Libya relations
 Madagascar26 May 1993[25] See Azerbaijan–Madagascar relations
 Malawi21 May 2004[26] See Azerbaijan–Malawi relations
 Mali26 November 1996[27] See Azerbaijan–Mali relations
 Mauritania29 October 1994[28] See Azerbaijan–Mauritania relations
 Mauritius See Azerbaijan–Mauritius relations
 Morocco25 December 1992[29] See Azerbaijan–Morocco relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Rabat since 2005.
  • Morocco has an embassy in Baku.
 Mozambique20 June 1995[30] See Azerbaijan–Mozambique relations
 Namibia See Azerbaijan–Namibia relations
 Niger10 October 1995[31] See Azerbaijan–Niger relations
 Nigeria11 March 1992[14] See Azerbaijan–Nigeria relations
 Rwanda31 May 2004[10] See Azerbaijan—Rwanda relations
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic See Azerbaijan–Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic relations
 São Tomé and Príncipe See Azerbaijan–São Tomé and Príncipe relations
 Senegal14 March 1996[32] See Azerbaijan—Senegal relations
 Seychelles2 November 1994[33] See Azerbaijan–Seychelles relations
 Sierra Leone13 March 1995[34] See Azerbaijan–Sierra Leone relations
 Somalia See Azerbaijan–Somalia relations
 South Africa29 April 1992[35] See Azerbaijan–South Africa relations
 South Sudan23 October 2012[36] See Azerbaijan–South Sudan relations
 Sudan25 July 1992 See Azerbaijan–Sudan relations
 Tanzania See Azerbaijan–Tanzania relations
 Togo29 December 2010[37] See Azerbaijan–Togo relations
 Tunisia1 July 1998[38] See Azerbaijan–Tunisia relations
 Uganda See Azerbaijan–Uganda relations
 Zambia18 November 1993[39] See Azerbaijan–Zambia relations
 Zimbabwe24 October 2008[40] See Azerbaijan–Zimbabwe relations

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda See Antigua and Barbuda–Azerbaijan relations
 Argentina8 November 1992[41] See Argentina–Azerbaijan relations
 Bahamas2 May 2017[14] See Azerbaijan–Bahamas relations
 Barbados See Azerbaijan–Barbados relations
 Belize See Azerbaijan–Belize relations
 Bolivia8 July 1996[44] See Azerbaijan–Bolivia relations
 Brazil21 October 1993[45] See Azerbaijan–Brazil relations
 Canada10 July 1992[48] See Azerbaijan–Canada relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Ottawa.[49]
  • Canada is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.[50]
 Chile11 January 1995[51] See Azerbaijan–Chile relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Chile has an embassy in Baku.
 Colombia13 December 1994[52] See Azerbaijan–Colombia relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Bogotá.
  • Colombia has an embassy in Baku.[53]
 Costa Rica15 January 1997 See Azerbaijan–Costa Rica relations
 Cuba27 March 1992[54] See Azerbaijan–Cuba relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Havana.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Baku.
 Dominica See Azerbaijan–Dominica relations
 Dominican Republic12 November 2007[55] See Azerbaijan–Dominican Republic relations
 Ecuador22 March 2004[56] See Azerbaijan–Ecuador relations
 El Salvador See Azerbaijan–El Salvador relations
 Greenland See Azerbaijan–Greenland relations
 Grenada23 September 2010[57] See Azerbaijan–Grenada relations
 Guatemala1 November 1994[58] See Azerbaijan–Guatemala relations
 Guyana See Azerbaijan–Guyana relations
 Haiti See Azerbaijan–Haiti relations
 Honduras22 December 1994 See Azerbaijan–Honduras relations
 Jamaica See Azerbaijan–Jamaica relations
 Mexico14 January 1992[59] See Azerbaijan–Mexico relations
 Nicaragua10 February 1994[62] See Azerbaijan–Nicaragua relations
  • Azerbaijan is represented in Nicaragua through its embassy in Havana, Cuba.
  • Nicaragua is represented in Azerbaijan through its embassy in Moscow, Russia.[63]
 Panama6 April 1995[64] See Azerbaijan–Panama relations
 Paraguay20 April 2004[65] See Azerbaijan–Paraguay relations
 Peru25 June 1996[66] See Azerbaijan–Peru relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Baku.[67]
 Puerto Rico See Azerbaijan–Puerto Rico relations
 Saint Kitts and Nevis See Azerbaijan–Saint Kitts and Nevis relations
 Saint Lucia11 March 2010[68] See Azerbaijan–Saint Lucia relations
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines See Azerbaijan–Saint Vincent and the Grenadines relations
 Suriname See Azerbaijan–Suriname relations
 Trinidad and Tobago11 April 2011[69] See Azerbaijan—Trinidad and Tobago relations
 United States1919,
28 February 1992
See Azerbaijan–United States relations

On 25 December 1991 President George H. W. Bush announced that the United States recognized the independence of all 12 former Soviet republics, including Azerbaijan.[70]

 Uruguay12 January 1995[73] See Azerbaijan–Uruguay relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Tehran, Iran.
 Venezuela12 May 1995[74] See Azerbaijan–Venezuela relations
  • Azerbaijan does not have an accreditation to Venezuela.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Baku.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan21 December 1991[75] See Afghanistan–Azerbaijan relations
  • The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan recognized the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan on December 21, 1991.
  • Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on November 16, 1994.
  • Azerbaijan plans to open an embassy in Afghanistan.
  • Afghanistan has an embassy in Baku, Azerbaijan.
 Bahrain6 November 1996[76] See Azerbaijan–Bahrain relations
 Bangladesh30 December 1991[77] See Azerbaijan–Bangladesh relations
  • On December 30, 1991, Bangladesh recognized the independence of Azerbaijan.
  • Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on February 26, 1992.
  • Azerbaijan is accredited to Bangladesh from its embassy in New Delhi, India.
  • Bangladesh has a consulate in Baku.
 Bhutan7 February 2013[78] See Azerbaijan–Bhutan relations
 Brunei24 November 1995[79] See Azerbaijan–Brunei relations
 Cambodia28 December 1994[80] See Azerbaijan–Cambodia relations
 China2 April 1992 See Azerbaijan–China relations
 East Timor See Azerbaijan–East Timor relations
 Hong Kong See Azerbaijan–Hong Kong relations
 India28 February 1992 See Azerbaijan-India relations
  • India recognized the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan on December 26, 1991.
  • Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on February 28, 1992.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in New Delhi.
  • India has an embassy in Baku.
 Indonesia24 September 1992 See Azerbaijan-Indonesia relations
  • On September 28, 1991, the Republic of Indonesia recognized the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
  • On September 24, 1992, diplomatic relations were established between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Indonesia.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Baku.
 Iran1918,
12 March 1992
See Azerbaijan–Iran relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Tehran. and a consulate general in Tabriz.
  • Iran has an embassy in Baku. and a consulate general in Nakhchivan.
  • Both countries are full members of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
  • Iran recognized Azerbaijan on 4 January 1992, upgraded its consulate in Baku to establish full diplomatic relations.[70][82]
 Iraq2 January 1992 See Azerbaijan–Iraq relations
  • On January 2, 1992, Iraq recognized the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
  • On March 30, 1992, diplomatic relations between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Iraq were established.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Baku.
 Israel7 April 1992 See Azerbaijan–Israel relations
  • Azerbaijan is one of the few majority Muslim countries to develop bilateral strategic and economic relations with Israel.[83]
  • Israel was one of the first countries to recognize Azerbaijan on 25 December 1991.[84][circular reference]
 Japan7 September 1992 See Azerbaijan–Japan relations
 Jordan13 February 1993[87][88] See Azerbaijan–Jordan relations
  • On December 28, 1991, Jordan recognized the independence of Azerbaijan.
  • On February 13, 1993, a protocol on establishing diplomatic relations between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan was signed.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Amman.
  • Jordan has an embassy in Baku.
 Kazakhstan27 August 1992 See Azerbaijan–Kazakhstan relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Baku since 16 December 1994.
 Kuwait10 October 1994[89] See Azerbaijan–Kuwait relations
 Kyrgyzstan19 January 1993 See Azerbaijan-Kyrgyzstan relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Bishkek.
  • Kyrgyzstan has an embassy in Baku.
 Laos22 May 1995 See Azerbaijan–Laos relations
 Lebanon18 September 1992[90] See Azerbaijan–Lebanon relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Beirut
 Malaysia31 December 1991 See Azerbaijan–Malaysia relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Baku [91]
  • Malaysia recognizes the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan on 31 December 1991 and on 5 April 1993 diplomatic relations were established.
 Maldives20 January 2019[92] See Azerbaijan–Maldives relations
 Mongolia16 April 1992[93] See Azerbaijan–Mongolia relations
 Myanmar2 August 1999[94] See Azerbaijan–Myanmar relations
   Nepal28 February 1995[95] See Azerbaijan–Nepal relations
 North Korea26 December 1991[96] See Azerbaijan–North Korea relations
 Oman10 December 1991[97] See Azerbaijan–Oman relations
 Qatar See Azerbaijan–Qatar relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Baku.
 Pakistan9 June 1992See Azerbaijan–Pakistan relations
 Palestine15 April 1992 See Azerbaijan–Palestine relations
  • Palestine has an embassy in Baku since 2011.
 Philippines27 March 1992[102] See Azerbaijan–Philippines relations
  • Azerbaijan has a consulate in Manila.
  • Philippines is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Ankara.
 Saudi Arabia24 February 1992[103] See Azerbaijan–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Riyadh since 1994.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Baku since 1999.
  • Due to its support of Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Saudi Arabia refuses to establish diplomatic relations with Armenia.[104]
 Singapore15 August 1994[105] See Azerbaijan–Singapore relations
 South Korea23 March 1992 See Azerbaijan–South Korea relations
  • Azerbaijani embassy in Seoul.[106]
  • South Korean embassy in Baku.[107]
  • Bilateral Trade agreement was signed in 2014
    • Exports US$269.5 million.
    • Imports US$0.54 million.
 Sri Lanka See Azerbaijan–Sri Lanka relations
  • Sri Lanka is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Tehran, Iran.
 Syria28 March 1992[108] See Azerbaijan–Syria relations

Syria is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Tehran, Iran.

 Tajikistan See Azerbaijan–Tajikistan relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Dushanbe.
  • Tajikistan has an embassy in Baku.
 Thailand See Azerbaijan–Thailand relations
  • Azerbaijan is accredited to Thailand from its embassy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Thailand has a consulate in Baku.
 Turkey14 Jan. 1992[109]See Azerbaijan–Turkey relations
 Turkmenistan9 June 1992[111] See Azerbaijan–Turkmenistan relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Ashgabat.
  • Turkmenistan has an embassy in Baku.
  • The Azerbaijan-Turkmenistan inter-parliamentary friendship group functions in the Milli Majlis (Parliament) of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Turkmenistan-Azerbaijan inter-parliamentary friendship group works in the Majlis of Turkmenistan.[112]
 United Arab Emirates1 September 1992[113] See Azerbaijan–United Arab Emirates relations
  • The United Arab Emirates recognized the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan on December 26, 1991.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • The United Arab Emirates have an embassy in Baku.
 Uzbekistan2 October 1995[114] See Azerbaijan–Uzbekistan relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Tashkent.
  • Uzbekistan has an embassy in Baku.
 Vietnam23 September 1992[115] See Azerbaijan–Vietnam relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Moscow.
 Yemen See Azerbaijan–Yemen relations
  • Yemen is accredited to Azerbaijan via its embassy in Ankara.

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania23 September 1992[116]See Albania–Azerbaijan relations
 Andorra30 April 1996[117] See Andorra–Azerbaijan relations
 Armenia1918–1921

Armenia and Azerbaijan do not have diplomatic relations till now.

See Armenia–Azerbaijan relations, First Nagorno-Karabakh War

The neighboring nations of Armenia and Azerbaijan have had formal governmental relations between 1918 and 1921, when both countries were briefly independent. The two nations have fought two wars in 1918–20 (Armenian–Azerbaijani War) and in 1988–94 (Nagorno-Karabakh War), in the past century, with last one ended with provisional cease fire agreement signed in Bishkek. There are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries, because of the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and dispute. In 2008, Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev declared, "Nagorno Karabakh will never be independent; the position is backed by international mediators as well; Armenia has to accept the reality," and "in 1918, Yerevan was granted to the Armenians. It was a great mistake. The khanate of Iravan was the Azeri territory, the Armenians were guests here."[118]

During the Soviet period, many Armenians and Azeris lived side by side in peace. However, when Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of Glasnost and Perestroika, the majority of Armenians from the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan SSR began a movement to unify with the Armenian SSR. In 1988, the Armenians of Karabakh voted to secede and join Armenia. This, along with mutual massacres in Azerbaijan and Armenia resulted in the conflict that became known as the Nagorno-Karabakh War. The violence resulted in de facto Armenian control of former NKAO and seven surrounding Azerbaijani regions, which was effectively halted when both sides agrees to observe a cease-fire, which has since been in effect since May 1994, and in late 1995 both also agreed to mediation of the OSCE Minsk Group. The Minsk Group is currently co-chaired by the U.S., France, and Russia and comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, and several Western European nations. Despite the cease fire, up to 40 clashes are reported along the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict lines of control each year.[citation needed]

The two countries are still technically at war. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.

If a person's passport shows any evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh, they are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.[119]

In 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, Armenia and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the two sides was brief, with few casualties on either side.[120]

As of July 2020, the new round of military escalation along the border between Armenia and Azerbaijan continued, thus making it one of the most explosive regions in Eurasia.[121]

On 27 September 2020, new flare up of violence broke out between Azerbaijan and Armenia.[122] The following day, on 28 September 2020, Azerbaijan's President Ilham Aliyev signed a decree declaring a partial military mobilisation following clashes with Armenian forces over the Nagorno-Karabakh region.[123]

 Austria20 February 1992 See Austria–Azerbaijan relations
 Belarus11 June 1993 See Azerbaijan–Belarus relations
 Belgium17 June 1992 See Azerbaijan–Belgium relations
 Bosnia and Herzegovina19 February 1995[128] See Azerbaijan–Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina recognized the independence of Azerbaijan on February 9, 1995. Diplomatic relations were established between the two countries on the same day.[129]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Ankara.
 Bulgaria5 June 1992 See Azerbaijan—Bulgaria relations
 Croatia26 January 1995 See Azerbaijan–Croatia relations
 Cyprus Azerbaijan formally recognizes the government of the Republic of Cyprus as the sole representative of the island, but has not yet established diplomatic relations with Cyprus. The parliament of Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic issued a resolution recognizing the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus as a sovereign state. While this recognition is not regarded by Azerbaijan and internationally as 'official state-to-state', Azerbaijan itself maintained cordial unofficial relations with the TRNC. In 2004, Azerbaijan threatened to formally recognize the TRNC if the Annan Plan was voted down by the Greek Cypriots (who rejected the plan in one of twin referendums held 24 April 2004 in both the Greek and Turkish zones simultaneously), but backed off the threat when it was pointed out by Cyprus that doing so would be hypocritical, as a portion of its territory just like that of Cyprus itself is under occupation and would probably result in negative impact on its ongoing dispute with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh.[133]
 Czech Republic29 January 1993 See Azerbaijan–Czech Republic relations
 Denmark2 April 1992[135] See Azerbaijan-Denmark relations
  • The Kingdom of Denmark recognized the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan on December 31, 1991.
  • Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on April 2, 1992.[136]
  • Denmark has a consulate in Baku.
  • Azerbaijan is accredited to Denmark from its embassy in London.
 Estonia20 April 1992 See Azerbaijan-Estonia relations
  • Estonia recognized the independence of Azerbaijan on February 20, 1992.
  • Diplomatic relations between Azerbaijan and Estonia have been established since April 20, 1992.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Tallinn.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Baku.
 Finland24 March 1992 See Azerbaijan–Finland relations
  • The Republic of Finland recognized the independence of Azerbaijan on December 30, 1991.[137]
  • Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on March 24, 1992.[137]
  • Azerbaijan is accredited to Finland from its embassy in Stockholm.
  • Finland has a consulate in Baku.
 France21 February 1992 See Azerbaijan—France relations
 Georgia1918,
18 November 1992
See Azerbaijan–Georgia relations
 Germany20 February 1992[140] See Azerbaijan–Germany relations
 Greece2 April 1992 See Azerbaijan–Greece relations
  Holy See23 May 1992 See Azerbaijan–Holy See relations
  • Diplomatic relations with the Holy See were established on May 23, 1992.[144]
  • Azerbaijan is accredited to the Holy See through its embassy in Paris, France.[144]
  • The Holy See is accredited to Azerbaijan through its nunciature in Ankara, Turkey.[144]
Hungary27 April 1992 See Azerbaijan–Hungary relations
 Iceland27 February 1998[146] See Azerbaijan–Iceland relations
  • Iceland recognized the independence of Azerbaijan on January 19, 1992.[146]
  • Diplomatic relations were established between the two countries on February 27, 1998.[146]
  • Iceland is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Moscow.
  • Azerbaijan is accredited to Iceland from its embassy in London.
Ireland1 July 1996 See Azerbaijan–Ireland relations
  • Azerbaijan is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).[147]
  • Ireland is represented in Azerbaijan through its embassy in Ankara (Turkey).
 Italy8 May 1992 See Azerbaijan–Italy relations
 Kosovo See Azerbaijan–Kosovo relations
 Latvia11 January 1994 See Azerbaijan—Latvia relations
 Liechtenstein21 January 1992[151] See Azerbaijan–Liechtenstein relations
 Lithuania27 November 1995 See Azerbaijan—Lithuania relations
 Luxembourg31 December 1991[152] See Azerbaijan–Luxembourg relations
 Malta9 January 1995[152] See Azerbaijan–Malta relations
 Moldova21 December 1991[153] See Azerbaijan–Moldova relations
 Monaco19 December 2007[154] See Azerbaijan–Monaco relations
 Montenegro 24 April 2008 See Azerbaijan–Montenegro relations

Azerbaijan recognized the independence of Montenegro on 24 July 2006. On 24 April 2008, diplomatic relations between these two countries were established.

 Netherlands1 April 1992 See Azerbaijan–Netherlands relations
 North Macedonia28 June 1995[157] See Azerbaijan—North Macedonia relations
  • North Macedonia has an economic office in Baku.
 Norway2 January 1992[158] See Azerbaijan–Norway relations
 Poland21 February 1992 See Azerbaijan-Poland relations
 Portugal 5 June 1992[159] See Azerbaijan–Portugal relations
  • Portugal recognized the independence of Azerbaijan on January 7, 1992.[159]
  • Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on June 5, 1992.[159]
  • Azerbaijan is accredited to Portugal from its embassy in Rabat, Morocco.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Baku.
 Romania21 June 1992 See Azerbaijan–Romania relations
 Russia4 April 1992 See Azerbaijan–Russia relations
 San Marino19 April 2002[161] See Azerbaijan–San Marino relations
 Serbia21 August 1997 See Azerbaijan–Serbia relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Baku.
 Slovakia23 November 1993[162] See Azerbaijan–Slovakia relations
  • Azerbaijan has a consulate in Bratislava.
  • Slovakia has an embassy in Baku.
 Slovenia20 February 1996[163] See Azerbaijan–Slovenia relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has a consulate in Baku.
 Spain11 February 1992 [164] See Azerbaijan–Spain relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy office in Baku.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 Sweden8 May 1992 See Azerbaijan–Sweden relations
  Switzerland21 January 1992 See Azerbaijan–Switzerland relations
 Ukraine1919,
6 February 1992
See Azerbaijan–Ukraine relations
 United Kingdom1918,
11 March 1992
See Azerbaijan – United Kingdom relations

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia19 June 1992[174] See Australia–Azerbaijan relations
  • Australia is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Canberra.
 Cook Islands See Azerbaijan–Cook Islands relations
 Fiji19 March 2010[175] See Azerbaijan–Fiji relations
 Marshall Islands10 March 2010[176] See Azerbaijan–Marshall Islands relations
 Micronesia See Azerbaijan–Micronesia relations
 Nauru11 November 2004[17] See Azerbaijan–Nauru relations
 New Zealand29 June 1992[177] See Azerbaijan—New Zealand relations
  • Azerbaijan is accredited to New Zealand from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
 Niue See Azerbaijan–Niue relations
 Palau See Azerbaijan–Palau relations
 Papua New Guinea See Azerbaijan–Papua New Guinea relations
 Samoa See Azerbaijan–Samoa relations
 Solomon Islands8 February 2011[14] See Azerbaijan–Solomon Islands relations
 Tonga See Azerbaijan–Tonga relations
 Tuvalu9 September 2009[178] See Azerbaijan–Tuvalu relations
 Vanuatu2017[179] See Azerbaijan–Vanuatu relations

International organizations


AsDB BSEC CE CIS EAPC EBRD ECE ECO ESCAP FAO GUAM IAEA IBRD ICAO ICRM IDA IDB IFAD IFC IFRCS ILO IMF IMO Interpol IOC, IOM ISO (correspondent) ITU ITUC OAS (observer) OIC OPCW OSCE PFP United Nations UNCTAD UNESCO UNIDO UPU WCO WFTU WHO WIPO WMO WToO WTrO(observer)


Other entities

Disputes


Nagorno-Karabakh/Azerbaijan

The frozen conflict over currently largely Armenian-populated region of Nagorno-Karabakh within the Republic of Azerbaijan began when in 1988 the Armenian majority of Nagorno-Karabakh demanded autonomy with demonstrations and persecutions against ethnic Azeris following in Armenia. This led to anti-Armenian rioting in Azerbaijan, with Azerbaijani militias beginning their effort to expel Armenians from the enclave. In 1992 a war broke out and pogroms of Armenians and Azeris forced both groups to flee their homes. In 1994, a Russian-brokered ceasefire ended the war but more than 1 million ethnic Armenians and Azeris are still not able to return home. The conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh remains unresolved despite negotiations, that are ongoing since 1992 under the aegis of the Minsk Group of the OSCE, to resolve the conflict peacefully.[180][181]

Caviar diplomacy

The European Stability Initiative (ESI) has revealed in a report from 2012 with the title "Caviar diplomacy: How Azerbaijan silenced the Council of Europe", that since Azerbaijan's entry into the Council of Europe, each year 30 to 40 deputies are invited to Azerbaijan and generously paid with expensive gifts, including caviar (worth up to 1.400 euro), silk carpets, gold, silver and large amounts of money.[182][183] In return they become lobbyists for Azerbaijan. This practice has been widely referred to as "Caviar diplomacy".[184]

ESI also published a report on 2013 Presidential elections in Azerbaijan titled "Disgraced: Azerbaijan and the end of election monitoring as we know it". The report revealed the ties between Azerbaijani government and the members of certain observation missions who praised the elections.[185] Azerbaijan's "Caviar diplomacy" at 2013 presidential elections sparked a major international scandal, as the reports of two authoritative organizations Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe/European Parliament and OSCE/ODIHR completely contradicted one another in their assessments of elections.[186][187][188][189]

Non-governmental anti-corruption organization Transparency International has regularly judged Azerbaijan to be one of the most corrupt countries in the world[189][190] and has also criticized Azerbaijan for the "Caviar diplomacy".[184][191]

At June 2016 the public prosecutor of Milan has accused the former leader of the (Christian) Union of the center and of the European People's Party of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Luca Volonte of accepting large bribes from representatives of the Azerbaijani government.[192] Two people with high-level experience of the Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly (Pace) have told the Guardian they believe its members have been offered bribes for votes by Azerbaijan. Former Azerbaijani diplomat, Arif Mammadov, alleged that a member of Azerbaijan's delegation at the Council of Europe had €30m (£25m) to spend on lobbying its institutions, including the Council of Europe assembly.[193] PACE ratified the terms of reference of an independent external investigation body to carry out a detailed independent inquiry into the allegations of corruption at the council involving Azerbaijan.[194]

ESISC report

On 6 March 2017, ESISC (European Strategic Intelligence and Security Center) published a scandalous report called "The Armenian Connection" where it veraciously attacked human rights NGOs and research organisations criticising human rights violations and corruption in Azerbaijan, Turkey, and Russia.[195]

ESISC in that report asserted that "Caviar diplomacy" report elaborated by ESI aimed to create climate of suspicion based on slander to form a network of MPs that would engage in a political war against Azerbaijan.[196] In the Second Chapter of the report called "The Armenian Connection: «Mr X», Nils Muižnieks, Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights" that was published on 18 April 2017 ESISC asserted that the network composed of European PMs, Armenian officials and some NGOs: Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, "Human Rights House Foundation", "Open Dialog", European Stability Initiative, and Helsinki Committee for Human Rights, was financed by the Soros Foundation. According to ESISC the key figure of the network since 2012 has been Nils Muižnieks, Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe and the network has served to the interests of George Soros and the Republic of Armenia.[197] "The report is written in the worst traditions of authoritarian propaganda, makes absurd claims, and is clearly aimed at deflecting the wave of criticism against cover-up of unethical lobbying and corruption in PACE and demands for change in the Assembly", said Freedom Files Analytical Centre.[195]

According Robert Coalson (Radio Free Europe), ESISC is a part of Baku's lobbying efforts to extend to the use of front think tanks to shift public opinion.[198]

European Stability Initiative said that "ESISC report is full of lies (such as claiming that German PACE member Strasser holds pro-Armenian views and citing as evidence that he went to Yerevan in 2015 to commemorate the Armenian genocide, when Strasser has never in his life been to independent Armenia)".[199]

See also


Further reading


  • Valiyev, Anar: "Azerbaijan and the North Caucasus: A Pragmatic Relationship" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 27
  • Hübner, Gerald: "Foreign Direct Investment in Azerbaijan—the Quality of Quantity" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 28
  • Abbasov, Shahin: "Azerbaijan's Eurovision Story: Great Chances to Improve, But No Political Will" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 32
  • Mazziotti, Marius; Sauerborn, Djan; Scianna, Bastian Matteo: "Multipolarity is key: Assessing Azerbaijan's foreign policy"

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