Foreign relations of Georgia (country)


Georgia's location, nestled between the Black Sea, Russia, and Turkey, renders it strategically important. It is developing as the gateway from the Black Sea to the Caucasus and the larger Caspian region, but also serves as a buffer between Russia and Turkey. Georgia has a long and tumultuous relationship with Russia, but it is reaching out to its other neighbours and looking to the West in search of alternatives and opportunities. It signed a partnership and cooperation agreement with the European Union, participates in the Partnership for Peace, and encourages foreign investment. France, Germany, South Korea the United Kingdom and the United States all have embassies in Tbilisi. Georgia in 2004-2008 sought to become a member of NATO, but did not succeed in the face of strong Russian opposition.[1]

Georgia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the OSCE. Because of its strategic location, Georgia is in both the Russian and American spheres of influence,[2] however Georgia's relationship with Russia is at its lowest point since 1921 due to controversies regarding espionage and the 2008 South Ossetia war. As a result, Georgia broke off diplomatic relations with Russia and has left the Commonwealth of Independent States.[3] From 2008 until 2012, Georgia established diplomatic relations with about 50 states.[4][5]

Relations by country


Multilateral

Organization Formal Relations Began Notes
 European Union See Georgia–European Union relations
 NATO See Georgia–NATO relations

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria27 May 1993See Algeria–Georgia relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 May 1993.
  • Algeria is represented in Georgia through its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
  • Georgia is represented in Algeria through its embassy in Madrid, Spain.
 Angola10 March 1997[6]See Angola–Georgia relations
 Botswana15 January 2010[7]See Botswana–Georgia relations
 Burkina Faso10 October 2012See Burkina Faso–Georgia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 October 2012.[8]

 Burundi21 March 1993See Burundi–Georgia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 March 1993.

 Cameroon26 September 2013[9] See Cameroon–Georgia relations
 Cape Verde22 January 2010See Cape Verde–Georgia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 January 2010.

 Central African Republic22 December 2010[10]See Central African Republic–Georgia relations
 Comoros26 March 2010[11]See Comoros–Georgia relations
 Congo3 March 2011[12] See Congo–Georgia relations
 Democratic Republic of the Congo14 January 2011[13]See Democratic Republic of the Congo–Georgia relations
 Djibouti22 November 2000See Djibouti–Georgia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 November 2000.[14]

 Egypt11 May 1992[15] See Egypt–Georgia relations
 Equatorial Guinea23 June 2010[17]See Equatorial Guinea–Georgia relations
 Eritrea24 February 2012[18]See Eritrea–Georgia relations
 Eswatini See Eswatini–Georgia relations
 Ethiopia See Ethiopia–Georgia relations
 Gabon19 September 2011[19] See Gabon–Georgia relations
 Gambia21 April 2010[20]See Gambia–Georgia relations
 Ghana See Ghana–Georgia relations
 Guinea-Bissau9 March 2011[21]See Georgia–Guinea-Bissau relations
 Kenya2 July 2010[22]See Georgia–Kenya relations
 Lesotho23 September 2013See Georgia–Lesotho relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 September 2013.[23]

 Liberia4 March 2010 See Georgia–Liberia relations
 Madagascar See Georgia–Madagascar relations
 Malawi19 September 2011See Georgia–Malawi relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 September 2011.[24]

 Mali9 May 2012[25]See Georgia–Mali relations
 Mauritania16 June 2011See Georgia–Mauritania relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 June 2011.[26]

 Mauritius5 March 2011[27]See Georgia–Mauritius relations
 Namibia5 November 2015See Georgia–Namibia relations
 Niger30 May 2012[28]See Georgia–Niger relations
 Nigeria See Georgia–Nigeria relations
 Rwanda23 March 2011[29][30]See Georgia–Rwanda relations
 SenegalSee Georgia–Senegal relations
 Seychelles15 March 2013See Georgia–Seychelles relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 March 2013.[31][32]

 Sierra Leone7 April 1997See Georgia–Sierra Leone relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 April 1997.

 Somalia26 February 2011[33]See Georgia–Somalia relations
 South Africa See Georgia–South Africa relations
 South Sudan15 June 2012[34]See Georgia–South Sudan relations
 SudanSee Georgia–Sudan relations
 Swaziland20 May 2016See Georgia–Swaziland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 May 2016.

 Tanzania See Georgia–Tanzania relations
 Togo See Georgia–Togo relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 May 2014.[35]

 Tunisia See Georgia–Tunisia relations
 Uganda9 December 2010See Georgia–Uganda relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 December 2010.[36]

 Zambia14 October 1993See Georgia–Zambia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 October 1993.[37]

 Zimbabwe24 July 1992See Georgia–Zimbabwe relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 July 1992.[38]

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda7 April 2011[39][40]See Antigua and Barbuda–Georgia relations

Antigua and Barbuda and Georgia established diplomatic relations on 11 April 2011, and signed a joint protocol.[40]

 Argentina See Argentina–Georgia relations
  • Argentina is accredited to Georgia from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
 Bahamas13 May 2011[41]See Bahamas–Georgia relations
 Barbados See Barbados–Georgia relations
 Belize1 October 2015See Belize–Georgia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relation on 1 October 2015.

 Bolivia See Bolivia–Georgia relations
 BrazilApril 1993 See Brazil–Georgia relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Brasília.
 Canada23 July 1992 See Canada–Georgia relations
  • Canada is accredited to Georgia from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Chile See Chile–Georgia relations
 ColombiaSee Colombia–Georgia relations
 Costa Rica See Costa Rica–Georgia relations
 Cuba18 April 1992See Cuba–Georgia relations
  • Cuba is accredited to Georgia from its embassy in Baku, Azerbaijan.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Havana.
 Dominica16 December 2010[42]See Dominica–Georgia relations
 Dominican Republic22 January 2010[43]See Dominican Republic–Georgia relations
 Ecuador See Ecuador–Georgia relations
 El Salvador See El Salvador–Georgia relations
 Grenada23 November 2011[44]See Georgia–Grenada relations
 Guatemala27 April 2010[45]See Georgia–Guatemala relations
 Guyana23 April 2012[46]See Georgia–Guyana relations
 Haiti16 December 2011[47]See Georgia–Haiti relations
 Honduras9 March 2011[48]See Georgia–Honduras relations
 JamaicaSee Georgia–Jamaica relations
 Mexico8 June 1992[49] See Georgia-Mexico relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in Mexico City.[50]
  • Mexico is accredited to Georgia from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey and maintains an honorary consulate in Tbilisi.[51]
 Nicaragua[52]14 September 1994[53]28 November 2008[54] See Georgia–Nicaragua relations

Nicaraguan-Georgian diplomatic relations established on 19 September 1994[53] and ended on 29 November 2008. The Georgian Foreign Ministry said that it had cut diplomatic ties with Nicaragua in a response to the latter's recognition of independence of breakaway South Ossetia and Abkhazia.[54]

 Panama18 November 1998See Georgia–Panama relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 November 1998.[55]

 Paraguay9 March 2010[56]See Georgia–Paraguay relations
 Peru14 January 2010See Georgia–Peru relations
 Saint Kitts and Nevis26 October 2011[57]See Georgia–Saint Kitts and Nevis relations
 Saint LuciaFebruary 2010[58]See Georgia–Saint Lucia relations
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines22 June 2010[59]See Georgia–Saint Vincent and the Grenadines relations
 Suriname28 May 2011[60]See Georgia–Suriname relations
 Trinidad and Tobago See Georgia–Trinidad and Tobago relations

Georgia is represented in Trinidad and Tobago by its embassy in Brasilia.[61]

 United States23 April 1992[62]See Georgia–United States relations

On 9 January 2009, the U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and Georgian Foreign Minister Grigol Vashadze signed a Charter on Strategic Partnership, a nonbinding document outlining areas of cooperation and reiterating the U.S. support for Georgia's territorial integrity and to Georgia's NATO membership.[63]

 Uruguay See Georgia–Uruguay relations
 VenezuelaSee Georgia–Venezuela relations

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan See Afghanistan–Georgia relations
 Armenia17 July 1992[64] See Armenia–Georgia relations
  • There are nearly 250,000 Armenians in Georgia, among them 115,000 living in Samtskhe-Javakheti and 83,000 in Tbilisi.[65] The Georgian minority in Armenia is less sizable.
  • Armenia and Georgia have a long history of cultural and political relations. The interaction peaked in the Middle Ages when both nations engaged in prolific cultural dialogue and allied themselves against the neighboring Muslim empires. There were frequent intermarriages between Armenian and Georgian the royal and noble families and both ethnicities intermingled in several border areas.
  • Armenia has an embassy in Tbilisi. and general consulate in Batumi.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Yerevan.
  • Both countries are full members of the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly and the EU's Eastern Partnership.
 Azerbaijan18 November 1992[66] See Azerbaijan–Georgia relations
 Bahrain See Bahrain–Georgia relations
 Bhutan See Bhutan–Georgia relations
 Brunei1 March 2010[67]See Brunei–Georgia relations
 China9 June 1992[68] See China–Georgia relations
 East TimorSee East Timor–Georgia relations

Georgia is represented in Timor by its embassy in Jakarta.[70]

 Hong Kong See Georgia–Hong Kong relations
 India28 September 1992[71] See Georgia–India relations
 Indonesia See Georgia–Indonesia relations
 Iran15 May 1992[73] See Persia-Georgia relations, Georgia–Iran relations
  • Persia and Georgia have had relations for thousands of years.
 Iraq See Georgia–Iraq relations
 Israel1 June 1992[74]See Georgia–Israel relations
 Japan3 August 1992[75] See Georgia–Japan relations
  • Since November 2006, Georgia has maintained an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Tbilisi.

Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Japan

 Jordan See Georgia–Jordan relations
 Kazakhstan24 July 1992[76] See Georgia–Kazakhstan relations
 Kuwait See Georgia–Kuwait relations
 Kyrgyzstan See Georgia–Kyrgyzstan relations
 Laos See Georgia–Laos relations
 Lebanon See Georgia–Lebanon relations
 Malaysia7 May 1993[79] See Georgia–Malaysia relations
 MaldivesMarch 2010[80]See Georgia–Maldives relations
 Myanmar See Georgia–Myanmar relations
   NepalSee Georgia–Nepal relations
 North Korea11 March 1994[82] See Georgia–North Korea relations
 Oman See Georgia–Oman relations
 Pakistan12 May 1992See Georgia–Pakistan relations
 Palestine25 April 1992[83] See Georgia–Palestine relations
 Philippines See Georgia–Philippines relations
 Qatar See Georgia–Qatar relations
 Saudi Arabia27 May 1994[84]See Georgia–Saudi Arabia relations
 South Korea14 December 1992[85] See Georgia–South Korea relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and Georgia began on 14 December 1992.[86]

 Sri Lanka See Georgia–Sri Lanka relations
 Syria18 May 1993[90]5 June 2018[91]See Georgia–Syria relations

Georgia began the procedure of terminating diplomatic relations with Syria due to Damascus' recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

 TaiwannoneSee Georgia–Taiwan relations

Republic of China passports are not valid for entry in Georgia, while the Taiwanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs declared Georgia as a "non-friendly country" to Taiwan.[92]

 Tajikistan See Georgia–Tajikistan relations
 Thailand See Georgia–Thailand relations
 Turkey21 May 1992[94]See Georgia–Turkey relations
 Turkmenistan See Georgia–Turkmenistan relations
 United Arab Emirates See Georgia–United Arab Emirates relations
 Uzbekistan See Georgia–Uzbekistan relations
 Vietnam See Georgia–Vietnam relations
 Yemen See Georgia–Yemen relations

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania8 July 1993[97]See Albania–Georgia relations
  • Albania is represented in Georgia through a non resident ambassador based in Ankara, (Turkey).
  • Georgia is represented in Albania through a non resident ambassador based in Ankara, (Turkey).
 Andorra See Andorra–Georgia relations
 Austria18 January 1993[98] See Austria–Georgia relations
 BelarusSee Belarus–Georgia relations
  • Belarus has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Minsk.
 BelgiumSee Belgium–Georgia relations
 Bosnia and HerzegovinaSee Bosnia and Herzegovina–Georgia relations
 Bulgaria5 June 1992[99]See Bulgaria–Georgia relations
 CroatiaSee Croatia–Georgia relations
 Cyprus9 July 1993[102]See Cyprus–Georgia relations
  • Cyprus is represented in Georgia through a non resident ambassador based in Athens, (Greece).
  • Georgia has an embassy in Nicosia.
 Czech Republic1 January 1993[103]See Czech Republic–Georgia relations
 Denmark1 July 1992[104]See Denmark–Georgia relations
 Estonia16 June 1992[105]See Estonia–Georgia relations
 Finland8 July 1992[106]See Finland–Georgia relations
 France21 August 1992[107]See France–Georgia relations
  • France has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Paris.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 Germany13 April 1992[108] See Georgia–Germany relations
 Greece20 April 1992See Georgia–Greece relations
 Hungary14 May 1992[111] See Georgia–Hungary relations
 Iceland21 September 1992See Georgia–Iceland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 September 1992.

 IrelandSee Georgia–Ireland relations
 Italy11 May 1992[113]See Georgia–Italy relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in Rome.
  • Italy has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 Latvia11 March 1993[114] See Georgia–Latvia relations
 Liechtenstein See Georgia–Liechtenstein relations
 Lithuania16 September 1994[116] See Georgia–Lithuania relations
 Luxembourg See Georgia–Luxembourg relations
 Malta1 February 1993[119]See Georgia–Malta relations
 Moldova25 June 1992[120] See Georgia–Moldova relations
 Monaco See Georgia–Monaco relations
 Montenegro See Georgia–Montenegro relations
 Netherlands22 April 1992[121][122]See Georgia–Netherlands relations
 North Macedonia16 February 2019[125] See Georgia–North Macedonia relations
  • Georgia and North Macedonia established diplomatic relations on 16 February 2019.
 Norway See Georgia–Norway relations
 Poland28 April 1992[126]See Georgia–Poland relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Tbilisi.
 Portugal See Georgia–Portugal relations
 Romania25 June 1992[127] See Georgia–Romania relations
 Russia[52]1 July 19922 September 2008[128]See Georgia–Russia relations

On 29 August 2008, in the aftermath of the 2008 South Ossetia war, Deputy Foreign Minister Grigol Vashadze announced that Georgia had broken diplomatic relations with Russia. He also said that Russian diplomats must leave Georgia, and that no Georgian diplomat would remain in Russia, while only consular relations would be maintained. Russian foreign ministry spokesman Andrei Nesterenko said that Russia regretted this step.[129]

 San Marino See Georgia–San Marino relations
 Serbia26 June 1995[130] See Georgia–Serbia relations
 SlovakiaSee Georgia–Slovakia relations
 Slovenia13 January 1993See Georgia–Slovenia relations
 SpainSee Georgia–Spain relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to Georgia from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 Sweden19 September 1992[132]See Georgia–Sweden relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Tbilisi.
  • After the war, when Abkhazia and South Ossetia broke away from Georgia, Georgia and Sweden both did not recognize the independence of both states. There were protests near the Russian embassy in Stockholm, as the war was going on 12 August 2008. The protests was held by a group of Georgians and Swedes.
  Switzerland10 June 1992[133] See Georgia–Switzerland relations
 Ukraine22 July 1992[135]See Georgia–Ukraine relations

Relations between Georgia and Ukraine and between the Georgian and Ukrainian people in particular last from the Middle Ages.

 United Kingdom27 April 1992[136] See Georgia–United Kingdom relations
  Vatican City5 May 1992 See Georgia–Holy See relations

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia16 July 1992[139] See Australia–Georgia relations
  • Australia is accredited to Georgia from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Canberra.
 Fiji29 March 2010[140]See Fiji–Georgia relations
 Kiribati28 September 2012[144] See Georgia–Kiribati relations
 Marshall Islands18 February 2010 See Georgia–Marshall Islands relations
 Micronesia12 August 2011[145]See Georgia–Micronesia relations
 Nauru See Georgia–Nauru relations
 New Zealand See Georgia–New Zealand relations
 Papua New Guinea See Georgia–Papua New Guinea relations
 Samoa12 March 2010See Georgia–Samoa relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 March 2010.[146][147]

 Solomon Islands12 March 2011[148]See Georgia–Solomon Islands relations
 Tuvalu4 February 2011[149]16 February 2012[150]
31 March 2014[151]
See Georgia–Tuvalu relations

On 16 February 2012 Georgia issued a presidential order ending diplomatic relations with Tuvalu. This comes in response to a visit by the Prime Minister of Tuvalu, Willy Telavi, to Abkhazia and South Ossetia in September 2011, where he announced that the Pacific nation would recognise the two states.[150]

However, the Prime Minister of Tuvalu, Enele Sopoaga retracted the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia on 31 March 2014 when Tuvalu's Foreign Minister Taukelina Finikaso signed an agreement to establish diplomatic relations with Georgia. Tuvalu's Foreign Minister said that his country supports Georgia's territorial integrity in its international recognized borders.[151][152]

 Vanuatu15 July 2013[153]See Georgia–Vanuatu relations

Overview


Foreign relation of Georgia:
  Diplomatic relations established

Georgia has established relations with 185 countries and the Order of Malta.

Georgia has terminated its diplomatic relations with Russia,[52][129] Nicaragua[52][54] and Syria.[52][91]

Georgia has not yet established diplomatic relations with:

See also


Further reading


References


  1. Tsygankov, Andrei P. (2013). "The Russia-NATO mistrust: Ethnophobia and the double expansion to contain 'the Russian Bear'". Communist and Post-Communist Studies. 46 (1): 179–188. doi:10.1016/j.postcomstud.2012.12.015.
  2. Utiashvili, Tamta. "Why Is a Small State Like Georgia Important for the USA, the EU and Russia?". e-ir.info/. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  3. Kramer, Andrew (29 August 2008). "Georgia and Russia Cut Diplomatic Ties". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  4. Donnacha Ó Beacháin: Cheque-Mates? Abkhazia’s Quest for International Recognition, in: Studies of Transition States and Societies, Vol 11, No 1 (2019), pp. 55–76 (here: p. 68).
  5. Q&A with Foreign Minister Vashadze, Civil.ge 27 June 2012.
  6. "Relations between Georgia and the Republic of Angola". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia. Retrieved 10 November 2020. Diplomatic relations with Georgia were established on March 10, 1997.
  7. "Georgia, Botswana establish diplomatic relations". Trend.az. 19 January 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  8. "Bilateral Relations between Georgia and the Republic of Burkina Faso". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia. Retrieved 10 November 2020. Diplomatic relations between Georgia and the Republic of Burkina Faso were established on 10 October 2012.
  9. "Bilateral relations between Georgia and the Republic of Cameroon". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia. Retrieved 10 November 2020. Diplomatic relations between Georgia and the Republic of Cameroon were established on September 26, 2013.
  10. "Georgia, Central African Republic Establish Diplomatic Relations". Georgian Journal. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  11. "Georgia and the Union of the Comoros established diplomatic relations". Georgian Daily. 26 March 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  12. "Bilateral Relations between Georgia and the Republic of the Congo". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia. Retrieved 10 November 2020. Diplomatic relations between Georgia and the Republic of the Congo were established on 3 March 2011.
  13. "Georgia Establishes Diplomatic Ties with DR Congo". Civil.ge. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  14. "საქართველოს საგარეო საქმეთა სამინისტრო - ჯიბუტის რესპუბლიკა".
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  32. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  34. "Georgia and South Sudan establish diplomatic relations". mfa.gov.ge. Archived from the original on 8 June 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
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  38. "Relations between Georgia and Antigua and Barbuda". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia. Retrieved 10 November 2020. Diplomatic relations between Georgia and Antigua and Barbuda were established on April 7, 2010.
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  50. "Inicio". embamex.sre.gob.mx. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  51. Has recognized Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence
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  57. "Georgia established diplomatic relations with Saint Lucia". Georgia Times. 26 February 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  58. "Georgia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines establish diplomatic relations". mfa.gov.ge. Archived from the original on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  59. "Suriname, Georgia establish diplomatic relations". Your Suriname News Source. 12 June 2011. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
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  62. United States-Georgia Charter on Strategic Partnership. Civil Georgia. 9 January 2009
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  64. 2002 Georgia census Archived 31 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  65. "Relations between Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Georgia). Archived from the original on 4 September 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
  66. "Brunei establishes diplomatic ties with Georgia". The Brunei Times. 3 March 2010. Archived from the original on 27 March 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
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