Foreign relations of Luxembourg


The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has long been a prominent supporter of European political and economic integration. In 1921, Luxembourg and Belgium formed the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) to create an inter-exchangeable currency and a common customs regime. Post-war, Luxembourg became a founding member state of the United Nations, and dropped its policy of neutraility to become a founding member state of NATO. Luxembourg expanded its support for European integration, becoming a founding member state of the Benelux Economic Union (today's Benelux Union), and one of the "inner six" founding member states of the three European Communities; the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), and the European Economic Community (EEC). Subsequently, Luxembourg became a founding member state of the European Union (EU) when the EEC and ECSC were incorporated into it in 1993. Luxembourg is a founding member of the Schengen Area, abolishing internal borders amongst its member states, named after the Luxembourg village where the original agreement — since incorporated into EU law — was signed in 1985. At the same time, the majority of Luxembourgers have consistently believed that European unity makes sense only in the context of a dynamic transatlantic relationship, and thus have traditionally pursued a pro-NATO, pro-US foreign policy.

This article is part of a series on the
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Foreign relations

Luxembourg is the site of the European Court of Justice, the European Investment Bank, the European Court of Auditors, the secretariat of the European Parliament, the Statistical Office of the European Commission (Eurostat), and other EU bodies.

Relations by country

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Burkina Faso
  • Burkina Faso is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Ouagadougou.
 Cape Verde
 Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Niger
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Niamey.
  • Niger is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
 Senegal
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Dakar.
  • Senegal is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina
  • Argentina is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Argentina from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
 Belize15 May 2008

Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 15, 2008.[1]

 Brazil1911
  • Brazil is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Brasília.
 Canada
 Chile
  • Chile is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium and maintains an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg maintains an honorary consulate in Santiago.
 Mexico1947See Luxembourg–Mexico relations

Diplomatic relations between Luxembourg and Mexico were established in 1947. In 1980, Prime Minister Pierre Werner paid an official visit to Mexico. In March 1996, Grand Duke Jean paid a visit to Mexico. During the Grand Duke's visit, both nations signed an Air Transportation Agreement. In April 2019, Prime Minister Xavier Bettel paid an official visit to Mexico and met with President Andrés Manuel López Obrador.[4][5]

  • Luxembourg is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States and maintains an honorary consulate in Mérida.[6]
  • Mexico is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium and maintains an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City.[7]
 Nicaragua
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Managua.
  • Nicaragua is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
 United States
Embassy of Luxembourg in Washington, D.C.

The United States, fighting on the Allied side, contributed to Luxembourg's liberation in World War I and World War II. More than 5,000 American soldiers, including U.S. Army General George S. Patton, are buried at the Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial near the capital of Luxembourg City, and there are monuments in many towns to American liberators. The strong U.S.-Luxembourg relationship is expressed both bilaterally and through common membership in NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia11 June 1992

Armenia and Luxembourg established diplomatic ties on 11 June 1992.

  • Armenia is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium, and an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg maintains an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
 ChinaSee China–Luxembourg relations
 IndiaSee India–Luxembourg relations
  • India has a consulate general in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in New Delhi.[8]
 Israel

In November 1947, Luxembourg voted in favor of the partition plan to create a Jewish state. Israel and Luxembourg established full diplomatic relations in 1949.

  • Israel is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Israel from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Luxembourg City.
 Japan
  • Japan has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Tokyo.
 PalestineSee Luxembourg–Palestine relations
  • Palestine is accredited to Luxembourg from its mission in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Palestine from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Luxembourg City.
 South Korea
  • Luxembourg and South Korea established diplomatic relations on 16 March 1962.
  • Both countries have a shipping agreement in 1987 and an air agreement in 2003.
  • Luxembourg is accredited to South Korea from its embassy in Tokyo, Japan.
  • South Korea is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • High-level Exchanges.
  • From Luxembourg to the South Korea.
 Turkey

Bilateral relations between the Republic of Turkey and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg gained momentum with the opening of a Turkish Embassy in Luxembourg in 1987.[10]

  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Ankara, which was opened on 29 November 2011.[10]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Luxembourg City.

There are 500 ethnic Turk's living in Luxembourg, 200 of whom have dual citizenship. The trade volume between the two States had reached $217 million in 2011.[10]

Luxembourg strongly supports Turkey's candidacy as a full European Union member.[11][12]

 Vietnam1973See Luxembourg–Vietnam relations

Both countries signed diplomatic relations in 1973.

  • Luxembourg is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Beijing, China.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Austria
  • Austria has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Vienna.
 BelgiumSee Belgium–Luxembourg relations
  • Belgium has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Brussels.
 Czech Republic
 Denmark
 Estonia27 August 1991

Luxembourg recognised Estonia on February 22, 1923 and re-recognised Estonia on August 27, 1991.[clarification needed][16] Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on August 29, 1991.[16]

In 1937, a prominent Estonian political leader Artur Sirk, while a fugitive in Luxembourg was found dead, having apparently committed suicide by jumping out a second-story window. Although the Luxembourg Gendarmerie report assumed suicide, because of inconsistencies in the report, the Estonian chargé d'affaires in Paris, Rudolph Mollerson was sent to investigate.[17] Estonian historians including Pusta[18] and Tomingas[19] have argued that the death was an act of defenestration by agents of the first President of Estonia, Konstantin Päts.

As of December 31, 2007, foreign investments made in Estonia originating from Luxembourg totaled 225 million EUR accounting for 2% of the total volume of foreign direct investments. There are about 300 Estonians living in Luxembourg.[16] An Estonian cultural association was founded in 1998.[20] The Estonian President Arnold Rüütel's state visit to Luxembourg was in May 2003,[16][21] prime minister Andrus Ansip's in 2006. The Luxembourg Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker visited Estonia in 1999 and 2007.

  • Trade agreement between Estonia and Belgium and Luxembourg (1935)[22]
  • Agreement on Road Transport between Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands (came into force 1.12.94)[23]
  • Agreement Between Estonia and the Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments (came into force 23.09.99)[24]
  • Agreement Between Estonia and the States of Benelux on Readmission of Persons (came into force 1.02.05)
  • Agreement on the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Income and Capital Tax evasion (signed 23.05.2006)[25][26]
  • Estonia is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium and maintains an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City.[16] Luxembourg is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Prague (Czech Republic).[16]
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Prague, Czech Republic.
 Finland25 October 1921
 FranceSee France–Luxembourg relations
 Germany
  • Germany has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Berlin.
 Greece
 Hungary
 Ireland
 Italy
 Kosovo21 February 2008

Luxembourg recognized the independence of Kosovo on 21 February 2008.[34]

  • Kosovo is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, BEglium.
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Pristina.
 Lithuania23 March 1992
 Malta
  • Malta is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium and through an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Malta from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
 Netherlands
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
 Poland
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
 Portugal
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
 Romania10 December 1910

Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 10, 1910.

  • Luxembourg is accredited to Romania from its embassy in Athens, Greece and maintains two honorary consulates (in Bucharest and Sibiu).
  • Romania has an embassy in Luxembourg City.[36]
 RussiaSee Luxembourg–Russia relations
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Moscow and an honorary consulate in Saint Petersburg.
  • Russia has an embassy in the city of Luxembourg City.

Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and the United Nations.

In the history of bilateral relations, the first Russian president to come on an official visit to Luxembourg was Vladimir Putin on 24 May 2007. As bilateral trade had more than tripled from USD 66.6 million in 2003 to USD 228.3 million in 2006, time had come to strengthen the ties between the two countries, energy and finance being the key areas of cooperation between Russia and Luxembourg.

 Spain
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
  Switzerland
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Luxembourg City.
 Ukraine
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Ukraine from its embassy in Prague, Czech Republic and through an honorary consulate in Kiev.
  • Ukraine is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium and through an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City.[37]
 United Kingdom
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in London.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Luxembourg City.

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia
  • Australia is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Australia from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Luxembourg, City.
 New Zealand
  • Luxembourg is accredited to New Zealand from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Luxembourg, City.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.

Relations by organization

NATO

United Nations

See also

References

  1. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. "Gouvernement du Canada - Government of Canada". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  3. Luxembourg embassy in Washington (also accredited to Canada) Archived 2009-03-22 at the Wayback Machine
  4. Diplomatic relations between Mexico and Luxembourg (in Spanish)
  5. En Palacio Nacional, presidente López Obrador recibe a primer ministro de Luxemburgo, Xavier Bettel (in Spanish)
  6. Embassy of Luxembourg in the United States
  7. Embassy of Mexico in Belgium
  8. "Embassy of Luxembourg in New Delhi".
  9. "Countries and Regions > Europe > List of the Countries". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea. Archived from the original on 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2015-12-07.
  10. "Relations between Turkey and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 2015-02-20. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  11. "Luxembourg's FM voices support for Turkey's EU membership". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  12. "Luxembourg FM says EU needs Turkey to become global actor". TodaysZaman. Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  13. "Czech embassy in Luxembourg City (in Czech and French only)". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  14. Jan Kuthan. "Levné dárky pro muže i pro ženy nejen k narozeninám". Archived from the original on 2008-12-17. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  15. "Luxembourg". Retrieved 20 February 2015.[permanent dead link]
  16. Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Estonia and Luxembourg". Archived from the original on 2012-03-18. Retrieved 2009-05-16.
  17. Kasekamp, Andres (2000-06-03). The Radical Right in Interwar Estonia. ISBN 9780312225988. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  18. K. Pusta, Saddiku Paevik, Gesilingen, 1964, vol. 1
  19. W. Tomingas, Vaikiv Ajustu Eestis, New York, 1961
  20. "Luksemburgi Eesti Selts".
  21. "Visite d'Etat au Luxembourg de S.E.M. Arnold Rüütel, Président de la République d'Estonie". Archived from the original on 2007-04-28. Retrieved 2009-06-11.
  22. "Convention pour favoriser les échanges et les règlements commerciaux entre l'Union économique belgo-luxembourgeoise et l'Estonie" (PDF).
  23. "AGREEMENT ON ROAD TRANSPORT BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA, THE REPUBLIC OF LATVIA, THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA, THE KINGDOM OF". Archived from the original on 10 December 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2015.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  24. Text of the Agreement Between Estonia and the Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments.[permanent dead link]
  25. "Convention de double imposition : Luxembourg-Estonie".
  26. "Estonia, Luxembourg sign tax treaty". 2006-06-15. Archived from the original on 2012-10-25.
  27. "Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland: Countries and regions: Luxembourg". Archived from the original on 2015-02-19. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  28. "Embassy of Finland, Luxembourg". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  29. "Embassy of France in Luxembourg Ville, Luxembourg". EmbassyPages.com. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  30. "Luxembourg - Embassies and Consulates". EmbassyPages.com. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  31. "Department of Foreign Affairs". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  32. Italian embassy in Luxembourg City (in French and Italian only)
  33. "ambasciatalussemburgo.it". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  34. "Le Luxembourg reconnaît formellement le Kosovo" (in French). Le Gouvernement du Grande-Duché de Luxembourg. 2008-02-21. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
  35. Dizaino Kryptis. "Lietuvos Respublikos užsienio reikalų ministerija - Lietuvos Respublikos užsienio reikalų ministerija". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  36. "AMBASADA ROMÂNIEI în Marele Ducat al Luxemburgului". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  37. "Посольство України в Королівстві Бельгія та Великому Герцогстві Люксембург (за сумісництвом)". Retrieved 20 February 2015.

Further reading

  • Fally, V. (1992). Le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg et la construction européenne. Luxembourg City.
  • Fally, V. (1996). Le Luxembourg face à la construction européenne. Luxembourg City.
  • Frentz, Jean-Marie (2010). "The Foreign Policy of Luxembourg". In Steinmetz, Robert; Wivel, Anders (eds.). Small States in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-7782-6.
  • Hey, Jeanne A. K. (2002). "Luxembourg's Foreign Policy: Does Small Size Help or Hinder?". Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research. 15 (3): 211–225. doi:10.1080/1351161022000027621.
  • Hey, Jeanne A. K., ed. (2003). Small States in World Politics: Explaining Foreign Policy Behavior. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55587-920-4.
  • Hoffmann, Serge (2002). "Les relations germano-luxembourgeoises durant les années 30" [Germano-Luxembourgish relations in the 1930s] (PDF). Ons Stad (in French) (71). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 September 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  • Huberty, Martine (May 2013). "Ein kleiner Fisch im großen Teich Luxemburger Verhandlungsstragien im Kontext der EU-Institutionen" [A small fish in a big pond: Luxembourgish negotiation strategies in the context of EU institutions] (PDF). Forum (in German) (329): 21–23.
  • Kayser, Steve (June 2006). "La neutralité du Luxembourg de 1918 à 1945" [Luxembourg's neutrality from 1918 to 1945] (PDF). Forum (in French) (257): 36–39. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  • Wurth, Hubert (2006). "La politique étrangère du Luxembourg" [Luxembourg’s Foreign Policy]. Revue Internationale et Stratégique (in French). 61 (61): 217–226. doi:10.3917/ris.061.0217.