Foreign relations of Monaco


The Principality of Monaco is a sovereign and independent state, linked closely to France by the Treaty of July 1918, which was formally noted in Article 436 of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. The foreign policy of Monaco is one illustration of this accord: France has agreed to defend the independence and sovereignty of Monaco, while the Monegasque Government has agreed to exercise its sovereign rights in conformity with French interests, whilst at the same time maintaining complete independence. Since then, the relations between the sovereign states of France and Monaco have been further defined in the Treaty of 1945 and the Agreement of 1963.

Although not a member of the European Union (EU), Monaco is closely associated with the economic apparatus of the EU through its customs union with France and its reliance upon the euro as its official currency.

Monaco actively participates in the United Nations, which it joined in 1993. Monaco joined the Council of Europe on October 4, 2004. Monaco also is a member of many international and intergovernmental organizations, including Interpol, the UNESCO, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is headquartered in Monaco.

Bilateral relations


Diplomatic relations of Monaco (as of August 2019)

Africa


Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Egypt
  • Egypt is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Monaco does not have an accreditation to Egypt.
 Madagascar
  • Madagascar has an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco has an honorary consulate in Antananarivo.
 Morocco
  • Monaco has honorary consulates in Agadir, Casablanca and in Rabat.
  • Morocco is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
 Senegal
  • Monaco has an honorary consulate in Dakar.
  • Senegal is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
 South Africa
  • Monaco does not have an accreditation to South Africa.
  • South Africa is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris.

Americas


Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Argentina
  • Argentina is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris.
  • Monaco has an honorary consulate in Buenos Aires.
 Brazil
  • Brazil is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco has an honorary consulate in São Paulo.
 Canada1926
  • Canada is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.[1]
  • Monaco is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States, and maintains honorary consulates in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.[2]
 Chile
  • Chile is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco has an honorary consulate in Santiago and in Valparaíso.
 Colombia2000
  • Colombia is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris.[3]
  • Monaco has an honorary consulate in Bogotá.[4]
 Mexico1881
  • Mexico is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.[5]
  • Monaco has an honorary consulate in Mexico City.[6]
 United States1866

See Monaco–United States relations

  • The United States and Monaco enjoy excellent relations. From 1956 until her death in 1982, the American-born Grace Kelly was married to Prince Rainier III, Prince Albert's father. The United States does not yet have a diplomatic mission located in Monaco but there is an embassy in Paris, and a consulate general in Marseille.
  • In December 2006, the United States and Monaco upgraded from consular to full diplomatic relations. Shortly thereafter, Craig Stapleton (ambassador to France) was accredited to Monaco, and ambassador Gilles Noghes became the first Monegasque ambassador to the United States.[7]
  • On December 3, 2013, Maguy Maccario Doylee replaced Noghes as the Principality's new emissary to Washington, DC, following her appointment by Prince Albert II of Monaco. Ambassador Maccario Doyle is the first woman to hold the post at the embassy. She previously served as Consul General of Monaco in New York since 1997 and head of the Principality's Tourism Board in North America since the early 1990s.[8]
  • Monaco has an embassy in Washington, D.C. and a consulate-general in New York City.[9]
  • The United States is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris.[10]
 Uruguay
  • Monaco has an honorary consulate in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.

Asia


Country Formal relations began in Notes
 ArmeniaOctober 2008
  • Armenia is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris.
  • Monaco does not have an accreditation to Armenia.
 Azerbaijan
  • Azerbaijan is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris.
  • Monaco does not have an accreditation to Azerbaijan.
 China
  • China is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris.
  • Monaco is accredited to China from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Monaco and maintains honorary consulates in Beijing, Hong Kong and Shanghai.
 India
  • India is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris.
  • Monaco is accredited to India from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Monaco.
 Israel
  • Israel is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco has an honorary consulate in Ramat Gan.
 Japan
  • Japan is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco is accredited to Japan from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Monaco and maintains an honorary consulate in Tokyo.
 Lebanon
  • Lebanon has an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco has an honorary consulate in Beirut.
 Pakistan
  • Pakistan is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris[11] and an honorary consulate was inaugurated in 2012 in Monaco.[12]
  • Monaco maintains an honorary consulate in Karachi.[11]
 South KoreaMarch 2007Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the Principality of Monaco were established in March 2007.[13]
  • Principauté de Monaco has an honorary consulate in Seoul, South Korea.
  • South Korea is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris.[14]

Europe


Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Andorra7 July 2006
  • Andorra is accredited to Monaco from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs based in Andorra la Vella.
  • Monaco is accredited to Andorra from its embassy in Paris.
 Belgium
  • Belgium is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco has an embassy in Brussels.
 Denmark
  • Denmark is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco has an honorary consulate in Hellerup.
 European Union

Monaco participates in a number of European Union policies through its interaction with France. Monaco is in the EU's customs and VAT area, is a de facto member of the Schengen Area due to its open border with France and uses the euro as its sole currency.

 France1918

Formal relations were established in 1918. France has agreed to defend the independence and sovereignty of Monaco, while the Monegasque Government has agreed to exercise its sovereign rights in conformity with French interests. Since then, the relations between the sovereign states of France and Monaco have been further defined in the Treaty of 1945 and the Agreement of 1963.

In 2002, Monaco renegotiated its 1918 treaty with France. In 2005, it was ratified by both parties and entered into force. The terms of the treaty upgrade France's representation in Monaco from Consulate General to that of an embassy; permit, for the first time, other countries to accredit ambassadors to Monaco; and formally recognize the succession scheme set out in the 1962 Constitution, which extends eligibility to the Prince's daughters and other family members.

 Germany
  • Germany is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco has an embassy in Berlin.
 Greece
  • Greece is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco has an honorary consulate in Athens.
  Holy See

It is part of Monaco's generally accepted cultural and political history that Monaco and the Holy See have maintained a diplomatic friendship bound by the Catholic faith since the founding of the Principality. Article 9 of the Monegasque Constitution, dated 17 December 1962, and modified in 2002, establishes the Catholic religion as the official religion of the sovereign state, which is a Catholic constitutional monarchy ruled by the Catholic Grimaldi dynasty. According to the Annuario Pontificio, the official yearbook of the Holy See, Monaco has maintained a diplomatic representative to the Holy See with the rank of minister plenipotentiary since 1915. In 1982, following the July 1981 signing of a new convention between Monaco and the Holy See reaffirming the close Catholic friendship and diplomatic relations which exists between the Catholic Principality and the Holy See, the rank of Monaco's diplomatic legation was elevated from that of a ministerial rank diplomatic legation to that of an embassy, with Cesar Charles Solamito, being elevated from the rank of minister plenipotentiary to ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary in June 1982. Ambassador Solamito served as Monaco's first ambassador to the Holy See until 1997. In 1999, the position of ambassador of Monaco to the Holy See was assumed by Monegasque ambassador Jean Claude Michel.

With respect to the Holy See, the Holy See has only maintained a diplomatic legation in Monaco since 2006. The appointment of a papal diplomatic representative to the Principality was subsequent to the revision of Monaco's treaty with France which was revised in 2002 and ratified in 2005. This revised treaty granted the Principality the sovereign prerogative of establishing formal diplomatic relations with other sovereign states at the highest diplomatic level, that of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary—for the Holy See this means at the nunzorial level, i.e., that of an apostolic nunciature headed by an apostolic nuncio (apostolic nuncios normally hold the ecclesiastical rank of archbishop). The first, apostolic nuncio to represent the Holy See to Monaco, with residence and coterminous accreditation to the EU in Brussels, is Archbishop Andre Dupuy. Archbishop Dupuy presented his credentials to HSH Prince Albert II on 26 September 2006.[17]

  • The Holy See is accredited to Monaco from its apostolic nunciature in Paris.
  • Monaco has an embassy to the Holy See based in Rome.
 Iceland
  • Iceland is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco does not have an accreditation to Iceland.
 Ireland
  • Ireland is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco does not have an accreditation to Ireland.
 Italy
 Kosovo19 March 2008
  • Formal relations were established on 19 March 2008.[18][19]
  • Kosovo is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris.
  • Monaco does not have an accreditation to Kosovo.
 Norway
  • Norway is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris, France and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.[20][21]
  • Monaco maintains an honorary consulate in Oslo.[22]
 Poland
  • Monaco is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany, and maintains an honorary consulate in Warsaw.
  • Poland is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris.
 Portugal
  • Monaco has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
 Russia1858
  • Monaco and Russia had bilateral relations since 1858, when Russia and Monaco signed treaties and agreements of extradition of criminals, of mutual legal assistance, on recognition of civil status of natural persons and of medical aid. However diplomatic relations were suspended in 1917.
  • Diplomatic relations were re-established in April 2002.
  • Monaco is accredited to Russia from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs based in Monaco and maintains honorary consulates in Moscow, Rostov-on-Don and in Saint Petersburg.
  • Russia is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
 SerbiaNovember 2007
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in November 2007.[23]
  • Monaco does not have an accreditation to Serbia.
  • Serbia is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
 Spain
  • Monaco has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
 Sweden
  • Monaco does not have an accreditation to Sweden.
  • Sweden is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  Switzerland
  • Monaco has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
 Ukraine26 July 2007
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations 26 July 2007.[24]
  • Monaco does not have an accreditation to Ukraine.
  • Ukraine is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
 United Kingdom
  • Monaco has an embassy in London.
  • The United Kingdom is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris.

Oceania


Country Formal relations began on Notes
 Australia
  • Australia is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris.
  • Monaco is accredited to Australia from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Monaco and maintains honorary consulates in Darlinghurst and in Melbourne.
 New Zealand
  • Monaco has an honorary consulate in Wellington.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.

See also


References


  1. Government of Canada, Global Affairs Canada (2010-01-18). "Canada - Monaco Relations". www.canadainternational.gc.ca. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  2. "Embassy of the Principality of Monaco to Canada and the United States". monacodc.org. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  3. "Mónaco". Cancillería (in Spanish). 2013-09-26. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  4. "Colombia / Portail du Gouvernement - Monaco". en.gouv.mc. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  5. "INICIO". embamex.sre.gob.mx. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  6. "Mexico / Portail du Gouvernement - Monaco". en.gouv.mc. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  7. "Monaco". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  8. Embassy of Monaco (5 December 2013). "Ambassador Maguy Maccario Doyle Presents Her Letter of Credence to President Barack Obama... -- WASHINGTON, Dec. 5, 2013 /PRNewswire/ --". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  9. "Embassy of the Principality of Monaco". monacodc.org. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  10. "U.S. Embassy & Consulates in France". U.S. Embassy & Consulates in France. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  11. "Pakistan / Portail du Gouvernement - Monaco". en.gouv.mc. Retrieved 2020-06-16.
  12. "Inauguration of the Honory Consulate of Pakistan in Monaco". www.palais.mc. Retrieved 2020-06-16.
  13. Staff Writer; Writer, Staff (2017-05-07). "Korean relations celebrated in Monaco". Monaco Life. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  14. 노블호야 (2017-07-28). "모나코 안전여행을 위한 필수정보". 노블S. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  15. "La France à Monaco". mc.ambafrance.org. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  16. "Ambassade de Monaco en France - Ambassade de Monaco en France". ambassade-en-france.gouv.mc. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  17. L'Ambassadeur de Saint-Siège au Palais Princier de Monaco Archived 2008-10-12 at the Wayback Machine from www.lepetitjournal.com 28 September 2006
  18. "Countries that have recognized the Republic of Kosova - Presidente e Republikës së Kosovës - Atifete Jahjaga". Presidente e Republikës së Kosovës - Atifete Jahjaga. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  19. Serbia Neighbours To Recognise Kosovo 19 March 2008
  20. Utenriksdepartementet (2020-02-14). "Utestasjoner med sideakkreditering". Regjeringen.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2020-08-11.
  21. "Ambassaden og konsulatene". Norgesportalen (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2020-08-11.
  22. "Norvège / Tous les Pays / Relations bilatérales / La Diplomatie et la Présence Internationale / Monaco à l'International / Action Gouvernementale / Portail du Gouvernement - Monaco". www.gouv.mc. Retrieved 2020-08-11.
  23. "Monaco". www.mfa.gov.rs. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  24. "У ПАРИЖІ ВІДБУЛАСЬ УРОЧИСТА ЦЕРЕМОНІЯ ВСТАНОВЛЕННЯ ДИПЛОМАТИЧНИХ ВІДНОСИН МІЖ УКРАЇНОЮ І МОНАКО У ФОРМІ ОБМІНУ НОТАМИ". www.ukrinform.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2021-01-16.