Foreign relations of Montenegro


In a referendum on 21 May 2006, the people of Montenegro opted to leave the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. This result was confirmed with a declaration of independence by the Montenegrin parliament on 3 June 2006. It simultaneously requested international recognition and outlined foreign policy goals.

As enumerated in the parliamentary declaration of 3 June 2006, Montenegro's near-term primary foreign policy objectives are integration into the European Union, membership in the United Nations, to which it was admitted on 28 June 2006[1] and in NATO (joined NATO as of 2017)[2]

Russia gave official recognition on 11 June 2006, and was the first permanent member of the United Nations Security Council to do so. The European Council of Ministers recognized Montenegrin independence on 12 June, as did the United States.[3] The United Kingdom extended recognition on 13 June. The last two permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, France and the People's Republic of China recognised the government of Montenegro on 14 June.

On 30 November 2006, the Government adopted the Memorandum of Agreement between Montenegro and the Republic of Serbia on Consular Protection and Services to the Citizens of Montenegro. By this agreement, Serbia, through its network of diplomatic and consular missions, provides consular services to the Montenegrin citizens on the territory of states in which Montenegro has no missions of its own. In October 2008, Montenegro recognized Kosovo.

Membership in international organizations


Organization Application date Admission date
 NATO Full Membership 04 Dec 2009 5 June 2017
NATO's Partnership for Peace 30 August 2006 14 December 2006
International Criminal Court (ICCt) 23 October 2006
Council of Europe (CoE) 6 June 2006 11 May 2007
Southeast European Cooperation Process (SECP) 11 May 2007
Black Sea Economic Co-operation (BSEC) not granted because of the Cyprus dispute
Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) Y
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 1 March 2007
World Trade Organization (WTO) 10 December 2004 29 April 2012
 United Nations (UN) 5 June 2006 28 June 2006
World Health Organization (WHO) 29 August 2006 14 September 2006
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) 21 June 2006
Energy Community 1 January 2007
Organization for Security and
Co-operation in Europe
(OSCE)
5 June 2006 22 June 2006
International Labour Organization (ILO) 18 July 2006
Universal Postal Union (UPU) 26 July 2006
Central European Initiative (CEI) 2 August 2006
Stability Pact for Southeastern Europe 3 August 2006 Y
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 14 June 2006 18 September 2006
International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) 27 July 2006 22 September 2006
International Maritime Organization (IMO) 10 October 2006
Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) 16 October 2006
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) 23 October 2006
World Customs Organization (WCO) 24 October 2006
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) 25 October 2006
International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) 22 November 2006
International Organization for Migration (IOM) 28 November 2006
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 4 December 2006
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 18 July 2006 18 January 2007
World Bank Group (IBRD, IDA, IFC, MIGA) 3 August 2006 18 January 2007
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 25 May 2007
World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 30 November 2007
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS) 21 September 2006
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) 16 February 2015
International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) 3 June 2006
Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI) June 2008
European Civil Aviation Conference June 2008
EUROCONTROL 1 July 2007
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 17 November 2007
European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E)
Intergovernmental Organisation for International Carriage by Rail (OTIF) 1 July 2010
Council of Bureaux (CoBx) 2012
Union for the Mediterranean 13 July 2008
Full European Union Membership 15 December 2008
International Sports Organizations
International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) 27 July 2006
International Handball Federation (IHF) 7 August 2006
International Swimming Federation (FINA) 21 August 2006
International Tennis Federation (ITF) 24 August 2006
International Basketball Federation (FIBA) 27 August 2006
International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) 23 October 2006
Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) 30 June 2006 26 January 2007
World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) 17 May 2007
International Football Federation (FIFA) 30 June 2006 31 May 2007
International Archery Federation (FITA) 5 July 2007
 International Olympic Committee (IOC) 6 July 2007
International Bowling Federation (FIQ) 30 August 2007
International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF)
  • On June 28, 2006, Montenegro was added to the American Radio Relay League's DXCC List as the 336th entry based on membership in the UN.
  • Montenegro acceded to the Geneva Conventions on August 2, 2006.
  • 382 is Montenegro's telephone country code
  • .me is an Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) that was assigned to Montenegro, following the decision on 26 September 2006 by the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency to allocate ME as the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for Montenegro.

Diplomatic relations


Diplomatic relations of Montenegro (as of January 2020)
# Country Recognition of Montenegro[4] Establishment of Diplomatic Relations[4] Status of Diplomatic Mission in Montenegro 4 [5] Status of
Diplomatic
Mission
in the country[6]
Notes
1 Iceland8 June 200626 September 2006
2  Switzerland9 June 20065 July 2006Embassy
3 Guinea-Bissau9 June 200629 June 2006
4 Russia10 June 200626 June 2006Embassy 3Embassy See Montenegro–Russia relations
5 Bulgaria112 June 20062 August 2006Embassy3, 11 December 2006 See Bulgaria–Montenegro relations
6 Croatia112 June 20067 July 2006Embassy, 12 January 2007
Consulate (Kotor)3
Embassy, 10 May 2007
7 North Macedonia12 June 200614 June 2006Embassy, 31 July 2006 3Embassy See Montenegro–North Macedonia relations
2 European Union12 June 2006[7]2006[8][9]Delegation, 1 November 2007[10][11]Mission, 2006[8][12]Accession of Montenegro to the European Union
8 Estonia112 June 200613 June 2006
9 Latvia112 June 200619 June 2006
10 Austria112 June 200612 July 2006Embassy, 12 July 2006
Consulate (Budva) 3
EmbassySee Austria–Montenegro relations
11 Turkey12 June 20063 July 2006EmbassyEmbassySee Montenegro–Turkey relations
12 Malta112 June 200619 July 2006
13 Hungary112 June 200614 June 2006Embassy, 12 July 2006
Honorary Consulate (Herceg Novi)3
Embassy
14 Czech Republic112 June 200615 June 2006Consular Agency
15 United States12 June 20067 August 2006Embassy
5 October 20063
Embassy5 See Montenegro–United States relations
16 United Kingdom13 June 200613 June 2006Embassy3Embassy See Montenegro–United Kingdom relations
17 Canada13 June 20065 September 2006
18 Romania113 June 20069 August 2006Embassy3
19 Slovakia113 June 200625 July 2006
20 Greece113 June 200618 December 2006Embassy3Embassy See Greece–Montenegro relations
21 Luxembourg113 June 200621 September 2006
22 France113 June 200613 June 2006Embassy3Embassy
23 Israel13 June 200612 July 2006
24 Singapore14 June 200630 June 2006
25 Sweden114 June 200626 June 2006
26 People's Republic of China14 June 20066 July 2006Embassy, 7 July 2006Embassy
27 Italy114 June 200614 June 2006Embassy 3Embassy
28 Armenia14 June 20067 November 2006
29 Germany114 June 200614 June 2006Embassy, 22 June 20063Embassy5 See Germany–Montenegro relations
30 Brazil14 June 200620 October 2006
31 Denmark115 June 200615 June 2006Consulate (Podgorica)3 See Denmark–Montenegro relations
32 Serbia15 June 200622 June 2006EmbassyEmbassy See Montenegro–Serbia relations
33 Japan16 June 200624 July 2006
34 Norway16 June 200621 June 2006
35 Spain116 June 200612 December 2006See Montenegro–Spain relations
36 Cyprus116 June 200612 March 2007non-residential Embassy in Athens, Greecenon-residential Embassy in Belgrade, Serbia
37 Netherlands116 June 20068 September 2006
38 Andorra16 June 200628 July 2006
39 Bahrain18 June 200625 September 2009
40 Mexico19 June 20065 June 2007
41 Portugal119 June 200617 May 2007
42 Ukraine19 June 200622 August 2006 See Montenegro–Ukraine relations
43 Democratic Republic of the Congo19 June 200622 September 2010
  Holy See19 June 200616 December 2006Embassy
44 Algeria20 June 200624 September 2007
45 Slovenia120 June 200621 June 2006Embassy, 23 June 2006Embassy5 See Montenegro–Slovenia relations
46 Ireland120 June 200620 June 2006
47 Tajikistan20 June 200623 August 2006
48 Poland120 June 200614 August 2006Embassy, 10 December 2008Embassy
49 Bosnia and Herzegovina21 June 200614 September 2006EmbassyEmbassy
50 South Korea21 June 20064 September 2006
51 Liechtenstein21 June 200626 March 2007
52 Moldova21 June 20069 March 2007
53 Belarus21 June 20068 August 2006
54 North Korea21 June 200616 July 2007
55 Lithuania122 June 200618 July 2006
56 Libya22 June 20069 February 2011 See Libya-Montenegro relations
57 Belgium123 June 200625 July 2006Embassy 5
58 Argentina23 June 200613 September 2006
59 San Marino26 June 200629 March 2007
60 Australia27 June 20061 September 2006
61 Chile27 June 200624 July 2006
62 Vietnam28 June 20064 August 2006
63 Samoa28 June 200631 January 2011
64 Finland129 June 200612 July 2006
65 Cambodia29 June 200612 October 2009
66 Morocco30 June 20068 September 2009
67 Pakistan30 June 200623 October 2006
6 Sovereign Military Order of Malta30 June 20065 September 2006Embassy
68 Peru3 July 200612 September 2006
69 Cuba5 July 200620 October 2006
70 South Africa6 July 200611 October 2006
71 Iran7 July 200628 July 2006
72 Albania12 July 20061 August 2006EmbassyEmbassy
73 Seychelles13 July 200619 May 2010
74 New Zealand17 July 200617 July 2006
75 Tunisia20 July 20067 March 2007
76 Sudan20 July 200631 October 2006
77 Indonesia24 July 200621 September 2011
78 Azerbaijan24 July 200624 April 2008See Azerbaijan–Montenegro relations
 State of Palestine24 July 20061 August 2006
79 Kazakhstan25 July 200616 January 2007
80 Malaysia25 July 200617 August 2006
81 TurkmenistanJuly 200626 November 2008[13]
82 India2 August 20062 August 2006
83 Laos10 August 20064 February 2010
84 Afghanistan10 August 200621 September 2010
85 Thailand16 August 20066 June 2007
86 Brunei19 August 200619 January 2010
87 Iraq23 August 200629 December 2010
88 Panama25 August 20069 May 2008
89 SyriaAugust 200630 October 2008
90 Suriname1 September 200614 May 2010
91 Qatar26 September 200616 November 2006
92 Guatemala27 September 200627 September 2006
93 Egypt27 September 200627 September 2006
94 Guinea4 October 200617 November 2006
95 Oman6 October 200611 April 2007
96 Myanmar10 October 200627 November 2006
97 Mongolia30 November 200630 November 2006
98 Uzbekistan19 December 200619 December 2006
99 Bangladesh2 March 20072 March 2007
100 Costa Rica24 May 200724 May 2007
101 Paraguay5 June 20075 June 2007
102 Namibia6 September 200716 November 2009
103 Monaco17 October 200717 October 2007
104 Georgia29 October 200729 October 2007
105 Eritrea18 March 200818 March 2008
106 United Arab Emirates4 April 20084 April 2008EmbassyEmbassy
107 Uruguay1 December 200825 February 2009
108 Lebanon4 December 20084 December 2008
109 Dominican Republic10 March 200910 March 2009
110 Kyrgyzstan24 June 200924 June 2009
111 Togo10 September 200921 December 2012
112 Ecuador26 September 200926 September 2009
113 Philippines26 September 200926 September 2009
114 Nicaragua26 September 200926 September 2009
115 Colombia30 September 200912 August 2011
116 Maldives11 October 200926 November 2009
117 Mozambique17 November 200927 May 2010
118 Angola21 December 200921 December 2009
119 Mauritania21 December 200921 December 2009
7 Kosovo15 January 201015 January 2010Embassy[14]See Kosovo–Montenegro relations
120 Jordan19 May 201019 May 2010
121 Fiji15 June 201015 June 2010
122 Zambia29 June 201029 June 2010
123 Honduras8 July 20108 July 2010
124 Botswana16 July 201016 July 2010
125 Kuwait27 July 201027 July 2010
126 Senegal22 September 201022 September 2010
127 Saint Lucia25 September 201025 September 2010
128 Timor-Leste25 September 201025 September 2010
129 Bolivia18 October 201018 October 2010
130 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines8 November 20108 November 2010
131 Jamaica12 November 201012 November 2010
132 Zimbabwe22 November 201022 November 2010
133 Cape Verde17 December 201017 December 2010
134 Solomon Islands23 December 201023 December 2010
135 Nauru25 January 201125 January 2011
136 Republic of the Congo1 February 20111 February 2011
137 Comoros9 February 20119 February 2011
138 Dominica25 February 201125 February 2011
139 Sri Lanka4 April 20114 April 2011
140 Antigua and Barbuda11 April 201111 April 2011
141 Trinidad and Tobago15 April 201115 April 2011
142 Tuvalu4 May 20114 May 2011
143 Ethiopia10 June 201110 June 2011
144 Uganda14 July 201114 July 2011
145   Nepal18 July 201118 July 2011
146 Benin15 September 201115 September 2011
147 Saudi Arabia16 September 201116 September 2011
148 Malawi16 September 201116 September 2011
149 Guyana19 September 201119 September 2011
150 Kenya6 October 20116 October 2011
151 Djibouti6 October 20116 October 2011
152 South Sudan21 November 201121 November 2011
153 Burkina Faso20 December 201120 December 2011
154 Mali10 April 201210 April 2012
155 Gambia16 August 201216 August 2012
156 Burundi17 August 201217 August 2012
157 Ghana20 September 201220 September 2012
158 Mauritius26 September 201226 September 2012
159 Haiti17 October 201217 October 2012
160 Saint Kitts and Nevis19 October 201219 October 2012
161 Gabon12 November 201212 November 2012
162 Eswatini28 February 201328 February 2013
163 Rwanda12 April 201312 April 2013
164 Federated States of Micronesia10 September 201310 September 2013
165 Lesotho23 September 201323 September 2013
166 Palau25 September 201325 September 2013
167 Vanuatu26 September 201326 September 2013
168 El Salvador27 September 201327 September 2013
169 Yemen28 September 201328 September 2013
170 Kiribati[15]17 January 201417 January 2014
171 Grenada17 March 201417 March 2014
172 Liberia7 April 20147 April 2014
173 Venezuela4 September 20144 September 2014
174 Niger15 September 201415 September 2014
175 Sierra Leone[16]8 October 20148 October 2014
176 Ivory Coast29 October 201429 October 2014
177 Chad20 March 201520 March 2015
178 Central African Republic2 April 20152 April 2015
179 Bahamas6 September 20176 September 2017
180 Barbados19 February 2020 19 February 2020[17]

Notes:
^Note 1 : EU member state.
^Note 2 : Despite the official recognition by European Union's foreign ministers, every member state had to recognise Montenegro individually, as well.
^Note 3 : Formerly Embassy Branch Office of a Belgrade resident embassy, Consulate-General, Consulate or honorary missions without diplomatic status established during the former Union State of Serbia and Montenegro). Current mission formally accredited to Montenegro. Pre-independence Consulate-General of Italy in Bar and of India in Podgorica are now closed.
^Note 4 : Situated in Podgorica unless otherwise noted. Established after gaining independence unless otherwise noted.
^Note 5 : Formerly a trade or cooperation office or mission (sometimes without diplomatic accreditation) established during the former Union State of Serbia and Montenegro). Current mission formally accredited to the host state.
^Note 6 : Not a sovereign state, but a sovereign non-state entity.
^Note 7 : A state with limited recognition.

Montenegro is recognized by 180 UN member states, the Holy See, Kosovo, Palestine and the Order of Malta. It has diplomatic relations with all of them.

Montenegro has not been explicitly recognized by and has no diplomatic relations with the following 12 UN member states:

Montenegro-Canada relations

Canadian Foreign Minister Peter MacKay wrote to Foreign Minister Miodrag Vlahović extending diplomatic recognition and agreeing to hold discussions on the establishment of diplomatic relations, which occurred later in 2007.[18]

The Canadian Embassy in Belgrade is accredited to Montenegro.[18] There is currently no resident Montenegrin mission in Ottawa, so its ambassador in Washington, DC is accredited to Canada. However Montenegro has Honorary Consuls in Toronto and Vancouver.

Montenegro-China relations

Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between P.R.China and the Republic of Montenegro was on 14 June 2006.

China transformed its consulate into an embassy in Podgorica on July 7, 2006. The Montenegrin embassy in China opened in Beijing on November 13, 2007.

In 2015, total trade between the two countries amounted to 160,385,964 euros. [19]

Montenegro-United States of America relations

Embassy of Montenegro in the Dupont Circle neighborhood of Washington, D.C.

The United States recognized the Republic of Montenegro on June 12, 2006, being among the first states to do so. Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on August 15, and have since rapidly developed. On August 28, six U.S. Senators, John McCain (R-AZ), Saxby Chambliss (R-GA), Mel Martinez (R-FL), Lindsey Graham (R-SC), Richard Burr (R-NC) and John E. Sununu (R-NH), made an official visit to Montenegro. Their activities included a meeting with President Vujanović and with the speaker of the Montenegrin parliament.[20]

Soon after the congressional visit, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld paid an official visit to Montenegro, seeking support for the War on Terror and overall American geopolitical goals in Europe.[21] Following the Secretary's meeting with Montenegrin Prime Minister Milo Đukanović, it was announced that Montenegro had agreed in principle to aid the US efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan, although no specific pledges of aid were made.[22] For his part, Secretary Rumsfeld stated that the United States supported Montenegro's desire to join NATO and would also assist in its acquiring membership in the Partnership for Peace programme.

Bilateral relations turned a new page on October 5 when the United States opened an embassy in Podgorica at a ceremony attended by Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Rosemary DiCarlo, Montenegrin Foreign Minister Miodrag Vlahović, Mayor Miomir Mugoša and US Charge d'affaires Arlene Ferrill. Roderick W. Moore, the first-ever Ambassador of the United States of America to the Republic of Montenegro, presented his credentials to Montenegrin President Vujanović on September 19, 2007.

Montenegro currently maintains an embassy in Washington, D.C. and a consulate in New York City.

See also


References


  1. https://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20060628/wl_nm/montenegro_un_dc_2[permanent dead link]
  2. https://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20060604/ap_on_re_eu/montenegro_independence_4%5B%5D
  3. JTW News - Kacin: EU will recognize Montenegro on June 12 Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine
  4. "Tabela priznanja i uspostavljanja diplomatskih odnosa". Montenegro Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  5. Diplomatic Missions to Montenegro Archived 2012-02-21 at the Wayback Machine
  6. "Embassies and consulates of Montenegro". Archived from the original on 2012-02-21. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
  7. European Council decision
  8. Delegation of the European Union to Montenegro: "Diplomatic relations between Montenegro and the European Communities are conducted through the Montenegrin Mission to the EU in Brussels, which has been fully functional since 2006, and the EU Delegation to Montenegro in Podgorica, which has been open since November 2007."
  9. Order of Precedence of Heads of Mission Archived 2012-08-05 at archive.today
  10. Montenegro - EU Montenegro relations: "The European Commission Delegation in Podgorica starts to function."
  11. "Delegation of the European Commission in Podgorica". Archived from the original on 2011-02-04. Retrieved 2011-02-01.
  12. "Permanent Mission of Montenegro to the European Union". Archived from the original on 2010-08-04. Retrieved 2011-02-01.
  13. "Diplomatic Relations Between Montenegro and Turkmenistan as of 26 Nov. 2008". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  14. "Montenegro opens embassy in Kosovo". Kosovo MFA. 30 July 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
  15. "Establishment of diplomatic relations between Montenegro and the Republic of Kiribati". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of Montenegro. 2014-01-17. Archived from the original on 2014-01-20. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
  16. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-10-15. Retrieved 2014-10-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. "Diplomatic Relations Between Barbados and Montenegro as of 19 Feb. 2020". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  18. China Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Montenegro
  19. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-09-22. Retrieved 2006-10-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. "Rumsfeld Arrives in Montenegro to Meet With Leaders". U.S. Department of Defence. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  21. Western Balkans Policy Review 2010. Center For Strategic & International Studies (CSIS). 2010. p. 30. Retrieved 27 June 2012.