Foreign relations of Serbia


Foreign relations of Serbia are accomplished by efforts of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Serbia has inherited the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, along with all of its holdings, after the dissolution of the previous state union with Montenegro. Serbian foreign ministries continue to serve citizens of Montenegro in countries that do not have Montenegrin diplomatic presence. The governments of Serbia and Montenegro expressed an interest in pursuing a common foreign policy. Former President of Serbia Boris Tadić referred to relations with the European Union (EU), Russia, United States and China as the four pillars of foreign policy.[1] Serbia joined the United Nations on 1 November 2000.

History


Serbian Revolution and Autonomous Principality (1804–1878)

Serbia gained its partial independence from the Ottoman Empire in two uprisings in 1804 (led by Đorđe Petrović – Karađorđe) and 1815 (led by Miloš Obrenović), although Turkish troops continued to garrison the capital, Belgrade, until 1867. In 1817 the Principality of Serbia was granted de facto independence from the Ottoman Empire. [2] High officials in the Austro-Hungarian Empire lobbied for Ottoman approval of the liberal 1869 constitution for Serbia, which depended on the Porte for final approval. Vienna's strategy was that a liberal political system in Serbia would divert its impulse to foment nationalist unrest within the its neighbors, and also delay its efforts to gain territory at the expense of the Ottoman Empire.[3]

Principality/Kingdom of Serbia (1878–1918)

The Autonomous Principality became an internationally recognized independent country following the Russo-Turkish War in 1878. Serbia remained a principality or kneževina (knjaževina), until 1882 when it became a Kingdom, during which the internal politics revolved largely around dynastic rivalry between the Obrenović and Karađorđević families.

Southern and Northern Serbia (Vojvodina) in 1848

In 1885, Serbia protested against the unification of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia. The Serbian king, Milan Obrenovic´ (1854–1901), who needed to divert attention away from his domestic problems, demanded that Bulgaria cede some of its territory to Serbia. The Great Powers discouraged him, but he declared war on Bulgaria on November 13, 1885. The Serbo-Bulgarian War ended on March 3, 1886. The Serbian army crossed the lightly defended northwest border of Bulgaria aiming to seize Sofia, the Bulgarian capital. The Bulgarian defenders defeated the invaders and then invaded Serbia. Vienna brokered a peace that restored the old status quo. Serbian casualties totaled 6,800, about triple the 2,300 Bulgarian total. The defeat forced Obrenovic to abdicate in March 1889, and the Serbian crown passed to a regency in the name of his son Alexander (1876–1903).[4]

Serbian strategic goals

Serbia had multiple national goals.[5][6][7] Serbian intellectuals dreamed of a South Slavic state--which in the 1920s became Yugoslavia. The large number of Serbs living in Bosnia looked to Serbia as the focus of their nationalism, but they were ruled by the Germans of the Austrian Empire. Austria's annexation of Bosnia in 1908 deeply alienated the Serbian peoples. Plotters swore revenge, which they achieved in 1914 by assassination of the Austrian heir.[8] Serbia was landlocked, and strongly felt the need for access to the Mediterranean, preferably through the Adriatic Sea. Austria worked hard to block Serbian access to the sea, for example by helping with the creation of Albania in 1912. Montenegro, Serbia's main ally, did have a small port, but Austrian territory intervened, blocking access until Serbia acquired Novi Pazar and part of Macedonia from the Ottoman Empire in 1913. To the south, Bulgaria blocked Serbian access to the Aegean Sea.[9] Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Bulgaria formed the Balkan League and went to war with the Ottomans in 1912–1913. They won decisively and expelled that Empire from almost all of the Balkans.[10] The main remaining foe was Austria, which strongly rejected Pan-Slavism and Serbian nationalism and was ready to make war to end those threats.[11] Ethnic nationalism would doom the multicultural Austro-Hungarian Empire. Expansion of Serbia would block Austrian and German aspirations for direct rail connections to Constantinople and the Middle East. Serbia relied primarily on Russia for Great Power support but Russia was very hesitant at first to support Pan-Slavism, and counselled caution. However, in 1914 it reversed positions and promised military support to Serbia.[12]

World War I

The 28 June 1914 assassination of Austrian Crown Prince Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, by Gavrilo Princip, a pro-Serbian member of Young Bosnia served as the basis for the Austrian declaration of war on Serbia on 28 July 1914. Vienna acted despite Serbia's acceptance three days earlier of nearly all of Vienna's demands. Vienna was convinced that Serbia was behind the plot in an effort to destabilize the multi-nation empire.[13] The Austro-Hungarian army invaded Serbia capturing Belgrade on 2 December 1914, however the Serbian Army successfully defended the country, won several victories, and on 15 December 1914 recaptured Belgrade.[14]

On 28 July 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Within days, long-standing mobilization plans went into effect to initiate invasions or guard against them and Russia, France and Britain stood arrayed against Austria and Germany in what at the time was called the "Great War", and was later named "World War I" or "First World War." Austria thought in terms of one small limited war involving just the two countries. It did not plan a wider war such as exploded in a matter of days.

British historian John Zametica argued that Austria-Hungary was primarily responsible for starting the war, as its leaders believed that a successful war against Serbia was the only way it could remain a Great Power, solve deep internal disputes caused by Hungarian demands, and regain influence in the Balkan states.[15] Others, most notably Prof. Christopher Clark, have argued that Austria-Hungary, confronted with a Serbia that seemed determined to incite continual unrest and ultimately acquire all of the "Serb" inhabited lands of the Monarchy (which, according to the Pan-Serb point of view included all of Croatia, Dalmatia, Bosnia, Hercegovina and some of the southern counties of the Hungary(roughly corresponding to today's Vojvodina), and whose military and government was intertwined with the irredentist terrorist group known as "The Black Hand," saw no practical alternative to the use of force in ending what amounted to subversion from Serbia directed at a large chunk of its territories. In this perspective, Austria had little choice but to credibly threaten war and force Serbian submission if it wished to remain a Great Power.[16]

Bilateral relations


Serbia has established diplomatic relations with 191 out of the other 193 UN member states, the Holy See and Palestine and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.[17]

Serbia has not established diplomatic relations with:

Africa


Ever since the times of Josip Broz Tito and the Non-Aligned Movement, Serbia has enjoyed excellent relations with African nations. Angola, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Zimbabwe and South Africa are Serbia's closest allies in Sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa and Serbia have had excellent relations since the signing of diplomatic relations in 1992 following the end of the Apartheid system. Many ANC and Umkhonto we Sizwe resistance fighters received training in Serbia during Apartheid. South Africa is also home to around 20,000 Serbs, mainly living in the Johannesburg area.[18] South Africa is also voicing support for Serbia over the Kosovo issue.[19] Nelson Mandela was also made an honorary citizen of Belgrade.[20] Serbia is also actively involved in many investments in Angola with whom it has excellent political and economic relations.

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria1962[21] See Algeria-Serbia relations
  • Formal relations started in 1962
  • Algeria has an embassy in Belgrade.[22]
  • Serbia has an embassy in Algiers since 1962.[23]
 Angola1975[24]

See Angola–Serbia relations

  • Serbia has an embassy in Luanda and Angola has an embassy in Belgrade.
 Benin1962[25]

Diplomatic relations between Benin and Serbia were established in 1962.

 Botswana1970[26]

Diplomatic relations between Botswana and Serbia were established in 1970.

 Burkina Faso1968[27]

Diplomatic relations between Burkina Faso and Serbia were established in 1968.

 Burundi1962[28]

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1962.

 Cape Verde1976[29]
 Cameroon1965[30]

Diplomatic relations between Cameroon and Serbia were established in 1965.

 Central African Republic1960[31]

Diplomatic relations between Central African Republic and Serbia were established in 1960.

 Chad1966[32]

Diplomatic relations between Chad and Serbia were established in 1966.

 Comoros1976[33]

Diplomatic relations between Comoros and Serbia were established in 1976.

 Democratic Republic of the Congo1961[34]
  • Serbia has an embassy in Kinshasa and DR Congo has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • The Foreign Ministry of DR Congo visited Belgrade in 2011 and the Foreign Ministry of Serbia visited Kinshasa in 2009.
 Republic of the Congo1964[35]

Diplomatic relations between Republic of the Congo and Serbia were established in 1964. Diplomatic relations between Côte d'Ivoire and Serbia were established in 1968.

 Djibouti1978[36]

Diplomatic relations between Djibouti and Serbia were established in 1978.

 Egypt1908[37] See Egypt-Serbia relations
 Eritrea2012[39]

Diplomatic relations between Eritrea and Serbia were established in 2012.

 Eswatini1990[40]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1990.
  • A number of bilateral agreements have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[41]
 Ethiopia1952[42] See Ethiopia–Serbia relations
 Equatorial Guinea1970[43]

Diplomatic relations between Equatorial Guinea and Serbia were established in 1970.

 Gabon1960[44]
 Gambia1965[45]

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1965.

 Ghana1959[46]
 Guinea1958[47]
  • Guinea has an embassy in Belgrade.
 Guinea-Bissau1975[48]

Diplomatic relations between Guinea-Bissau and Serbia were established in 1975. Guinea-Bissau supports Serbia's position regarding Kosovo, and prime minister Umaro Sissoco Embaló visited Belgrade in November 2017 to expand trade relations and affirm his nation's position on Kosovo.[49]

 Ivory Coast1968[50]

Diplomatic relations between Ivory Coast and Serbia were established in 1968.

 Kenya1963[51]
  • Serbia has an embassy in Nairobi, Kenya has an honorary consulate in Belgrade.
 Lesotho1972[52]

Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1972.

 Liberia1959[53]

Diplomatic relations between Liberia and Serbia were established in 1959.

 Libya1955[54]See Libya–Serbia relations
 Madagascar1960[57]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1960.
  • A number of bilateral agreements have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[41]
 Malawi1998[58]

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1998.

 Mali1961[59]
 Mauritania1966[60]

Serbia is represented in Mauritania by its embassy in Rabat.[61]

 Mauritius1969[62]

Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1969.

 Morocco1957[63]

The two countries established formal bilateral relations on 1 March 1957. Both countries were founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement.

 Mozambique1975[64]

Diplomatic relations between Mozambique and Serbia were established in 1975.

 Namibia1990[65] Diplomatic relations between Namibia and Serbia were established in 1990.
 Niger1960[66]
 Nigeria1960[67]
  • Serbia has an embassy in Abuja and honorary consulates in Kano and Lagos. Nigeria has an embassy in Belgrade.
 Rwanda1971[68]

Diplomatic relations between Rwanda and Serbia were established in 1971.

 São Tomé and Príncipe1977[69]

Diplomatic relations between São Tomé and Príncipe and Serbia were established in 1977.

 Senegal1961[70]

Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1961.

 Seychelles1977[71]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1977.
  • A number of bilateral agreements have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[72]
 Sierra Leone1961[73]

Diplomatic relations between Sierra Leone and Serbia were established in 1961.

 Somalia1960[74]

See Somalia–Serbia relations

 South Africa1992[75]

See South Africa–Serbia relations

 South Sudan2012[77]
 Sudan1956[78]

Diplomatic relations between Sudan and Serbia were established in 1956.

 Tanzania1961[79]

Diplomatic relations between Tanzania and Serbia were established in 1961.

 Togo1960[80]

Diplomatic relations between Togo and Serbia were established in 1960.

 Tunisia1957[81]
  • Serbia has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Belgrade.
 Uganda1963[82]

Diplomatic relations between Uganda and Serbia were established in 1963.

 Zambia1964[83]
  • Serbia has an embassy in Lusaka
 Zimbabwe1980[84]

See Zimbabwe–Serbia relations

  • Serbia has an embassy in Harare
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Belgrade
  • Robert Mugabe described Serbia as Zimbabwe's only foreign ally in 2014[85]
  • Zimbabwe also sided with Serbia during the breakup of Yugoslavia. This was solidified in Mugabe's visit to Belgrade in 1996.[86]
  • Bilateral trade between Serbia and Zimbabwe amounted to 1 million euros in 2011, exclusively imports from Zimbabwe.


Relations frozen

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1984

Yugoslavia recognized the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic on 28 November 1984.[87] Yugoslavia was the first country in Europe which formally recognized the independence of Sahrawi Republic after some of its allies from the Non-Aligned Movement pressured Belgrade to follow on its earlier policy when Yugoslavia was the first European country to recognize neighboring Algeria as well.[88] While formal relations were limited Yugoslavia extended certain development aid by providing education both for civilians and Polisario members.[89] Recognition was withdrawn on 26 October 2004.

America


Serbia has strong but strained relations with the United States and a bit more relaxed relations with Canada, because of their hostile recognition of Kosovo's independence and NATO bombing from 1999, which aimed to help this secession. On 25 February 2008, Serbian Prime Minister Vojislav Koštunica demanded that the United States rescind its recognition of Kosovo, warning that "there will be no stability until the fake state" is annulled.[90]

Serbia has very good relations with Latin America, except Colombia and Panama[citation needed], which did recognize Kosovo's independence. Brazil, the largest country in the region, decided not to recognize Kosovo's independence until an agreement with Serbia is reached.[91]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda2018[92]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in September 2018.
 Argentina1928[93] See Argentina–Serbia relations
  • Diplomatic relations between Serbia and Argentina existed before the Second World War and were restored in 1946.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Buenos Aires
  • Argentina has an embassy in Belgrade.[94]
 Bahamas1988[95]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in July 1988.
  • A number of bilateral agreements have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[96]
 Barbados1977[97]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in November 1977.
 Belize2019[98]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in September 2019.
 Bolivia1952[99]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1952.
 Brazil1938[100]See Brazil–Serbia relations
 Canada1941[101]See Canada–Serbia relations
 Chile1935[105]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations 1935. They were renewed in 1946. Diplomatic relations were broken off on two occasions, in 1947 and 1973, and the last renewal was in March 1990.
  • A number of bilateral agreements in various fields have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[106]
 Colombia1966[107]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in December 1966.
  • A number of bilateral agreements in various fields have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[108]
 Costa Rica1952[109]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1952.
  • A number of bilateral agreements have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[110]
 Cuba1943[111]See Cuba–Serbia relations

Cuba and Serbia have a long history of diplomatic relations from the period of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia when both countries were members of Non-Aligned Movement. Cuba supports Serbia in its stance towards Kosovo considering Kosovo's independence an illegitimate act and a violation of international law and principles of the United Nations Charter.[112] Serbia supports Cuba at the United Nations in condemning the United States embargo.[113]

 Dominica2010[114]
 Dominican Republic1912[115]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1912.
 Ecuador1956[116]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1956.
 El Salvador1979[117]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1979.
 Grenada1978[118]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in June 1978.
 Guatemala1987[119]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1987.
 Guyana1968[120]
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 November 1968.
  • Serbia is represented in Guyana through its embassy in Washington, D.C.[121]
 Haiti1984[122]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1984.
 Honduras1953[123]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1953.
 Jamaica1968[124]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1968.
 Mexico1946[125] See Mexico–Serbia relations
  • Mexico has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Mexico City.
 Nicaragua1904[126]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1904.
 Panama1953[127]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1953.
  • A number of bilateral agreements have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[128]
 Paraguay1950[129]

Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1950.

 Peru1967[130]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis2018[131]
 Saint Lucia2019[132]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines2011[133]
 Suriname1976[134]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1976.
 Trinidad and Tobago1974[135]
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1974.
  • Both countries have a number of bilateral agreements.[136]
 United States1881[137]See Serbia–United States relations

Prior to World War I and creation of Yugoslavia, Serbia and the US enjoyed excellent relations. Bilateral relations between Serbia and the United States were established in 1881. At the outset of hostilities between NATO and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the spring of 1999, the United States and Yugoslavia severed diplomatic relations. After the overthrow of the Milosevic government in October 2000, the following month the United States reestablished a diplomatic presence. The U.S. Embassy formally reopened in May 2001. The Serbian Embassy in Washington and the U.S. Embassy in Belgrade have reestablished bilateral relations and provide a full range of consular services. In February 2008 Serbia recalled its ambassador from the United States, following the U.S. recognition of the unilaterally declared independence of Kosovo. The US established full diplomatic relations at Ambassador level with the Republic of Kosovo, which broke away from Serbia in February 2008.[138]

 Uruguay1950[139]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in September 1950.
  • A number of bilateral agreements in various fields have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[140]
 Venezuela1951[141] See Serbia–Venezuela relations
  • Serbia is represented in Venezuela through its embassy in Brasília (Brazil).
  • Venezuela is represented in Serbia through its embassy in Belgrade.
  • In 2007, Serbia exported goods worth €33,000 to Venezuela, while Venezuelan exports totaled €158,000.
  • After the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez announced that Venezuela does not recognise Kosovo's independence on the grounds that it has been achieved through U.S. pressure and criticised a recent political movement calling out for a more autonomous Zulia state. He said "This cannot be accepted. It's a very dangerous precedent for the entire world.".[142] On 24 March 2008, Chavez accused Washington of trying to "weaken Russia" by supporting independence for Kosovo. He called Kosovo's new leader, Prime Minister Hashim Thaçi, a "terrorist" put in power by the U.S. and noted that the former rebel leader's nom de guerre was "The Snake".[143] Chavez had strongly opposed the NATO intervention in Kosovo in 1999 when he first became president.
  • Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Venezuela

Asia


Serbia has excellent relations with countries such as China, Indonesia, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, South Korea, Vietnam, and the United Arab Emirates. These countries are important economic partners for Serbia in Asia.

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Afghanistan1954[144]
  • Afghan foreign minister Zalmai Rassoul visited Belgrade in September 2011.
  • Bilateral trade between Serbia and Afghanistan reached 7.3 million euros during 2011.
 Armenia1994[145]See Armenia–Serbia relations
  • Armenia and Serbia established diplomatic relations on 8 July 1994.
 Azerbaijan1997[146]See Azerbaijan–Serbia relations
  • Azerbaijan and Serbia established diplomatic relations in 1997.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Baku.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 Bahrain1989[147]
 Bangladesh1972[148]

Both countries have established diplomatic relations in February 1972.

 Bhutan2011[149]
 Brunei2011[150]
  • Pengiran Muda Mohamed Bolkiah paid a visit to Belgrade in September 2011.
 Cambodia1956[151]

See Cambodia–Serbia relations

 China1955[152]See China–Serbia relations
  • Serbia has an embassy in Beijing and a general consulate in Shanghai.
  • China has an embassy in Belgrade and also maintains an office in Priština based on consent of the Government of Serbia from November 2006.

China has always traditionally had very warm and close relations with Belgrade since the establishing of diplomatic relations in 1955.[153]

 East Timor2012[154]

Serbia is represented in Timor by its embassy in Jakarta.[155]

 Georgia1995[156][157]
  • Serbia is represented in Georgia through its embassy in Moscow
  • Georgia is represented in Serbia through its embassy in Athens
  • Georgia strongly supports Serbia's stance on Kosovo[158]
  • Serbia supports Georgia's stance on South Ossetia[159]
 India1948[160]See India–Serbia relations
 Indonesia1954[163]See Indonesia–Serbia relations

Indonesia has very close relations with Serbia, especially within the fields of trade, culture and tourism. Indonesia has also voiced support for Serbia's territorial integrity over the Kosovo issue.[164]

 Iran1937[165]

See Iran–Serbia relations

  • Serbia has an embassy in Tehran and Iran has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has strong relations with Iran.
  • Serbia and Iran maintained a visa free regime from 2 September 2017 until 17 October 2018. This led to an increase in travel of Iranians to Serbia. The visa regime was reinstated by Serbia following complaints from European Union after a large number of Iranian visitors used visa free regime to come to Serbia and cross over to European Union countries illegally. Serbian citizens can still enter Iran obtaining a visa on arrival.
 Iraq1958[166]

See Iraq–Serbia relations

  • Iraq has an embassy in Belgrade.[167]
  • Serbia has an embassy in Baghdad.[168]
 Israel1948[169]

See Israel–Serbia relations

 Japan1882[172]See Japan–Serbia relations
 Jordan1951[178]
 Kazakhstan1996[179]

See Kazakhstan–Serbia relations

 Kuwait1963[181]
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Belgrade and Serbia has an embassy in Kuwait City.
  • Serbian companies have long had a presence in Kuwait. The iconic Kuwait Towers were commissioned by Energoprojekt, based in Belgrade.
  • Kuwait recently approved a 25 million Euro loan to Serbia to fund the construction of the Prokop railway station.[182]
  • Kuwait also received support from Serbia, under the former Yugoslavia, during the Iraqi invasion in 1990.
 Kyrgyzstan1998[183]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1998.
  • In 2011, the total trade value amounted EUR 3,5 million.[184]
 Laos1962[185]

Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1962.

 Lebanon1946[186]

Formal bilateral relations between were established in 1946.

 Malaysia1967[187]
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Belgrade and Serbia is represented in Malaysia by the embassy in Jakarta.
  • During the period January 2012 – September 2012, bilateral trade reached 27.5 million euros.
  • Dato' Sri Anifah Hj. Aman paid a visit to Belgrade in September 2011
  • According to the Embassy of Malaysia in Belgrade, there are 25 Malaysians living in Serbia.[188]
 Maldives1975[189]
 Mongolia1956[190]
 Myanmar1950[191]See Myanmar-Serbia relations
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1950.
  • A number of bilateral agreements in various fields have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[192]
   Nepal1959[193]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1959.
  • A number of bilateral agreements have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[194]
 North Korea1948[195]See North Korea–Serbia relations

Serbia maintains friendly relations with North Korea. Relations between the two countries started in 1948 under the Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito. Relations between the two countries are still strong in both political and military terms. The North Korean embassy to Serbia is accredited to Sofia, Bulgaria.

 Oman1974[196]
  • Serbian foreign minister Vuk Jeremic paid a visit to Muscat in 2010.
 Pakistan1948[197]See Pakistan–Serbia relations

Pakistan considers Serbia to be a very important country and that the relations between the two states are warm and friendly.[198]

 Palestine1989[199]See Palestine–Serbia relations

Relations between Serbia and the State of Palestine have been very close and friendly. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was one of the first countries to recognize the State of Palestine on November 16, 1988 and its successor Serbia maintained close relations, favoring a Two-State solution. The Palestinian Authority for its part, has refused to recognize the independence of Kosovo.[200][201]

 Philippines1972[202]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1972.
  • A number of bilateral agreements in various fields have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[203]
  • Philippines has a consulate in Belgrade[204]
 Qatar1989[205]
  • Qatar has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Doha.
 Saudi Arabia2013[206]
  • Serbia has an embassy in Riyadh.
 Singapore1967[207]

Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1967.

 South Korea1989[208]See Serbia–South Korea relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between Република Србија Serbia and the Republic of Korea began on 27 December 1989.

  • Serbian embassy in Seoul.[209]
  • South Korean embassy in Belgrade.[210]
 Sri Lanka1957[211]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1957.
  • A number of bilateral agreements in various fields have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[212]
 Syria1946[213]

See Serbia–Syria relations

 Tajikistan1995[215]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 9 September 1995.
  • In 2011, the total trade value amounted EUR 5,64 million.[216]
 Thailand1954[217]
 Turkey1879[219]See Serbia–Turkey relations
 Turkmenistan1996[220]
 United Arab Emirates2007[221]

See Serbia–United Arab Emirates relations

 Uzbekistan1995[223]

Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1995.

 Vietnam1957[224]
 Yemen1957[225] Formal relations started in 1957.

Europe


Serbia has signed the Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA) with the European Union on 29 April 2008 and is in the process of the Republic of being admitted into the framework of the European Union as a full-fledged member state. Serbia officially applied for European Union membership on 22 December 2009,[226] and the European Commission recommended making it an official candidate on 12 October 2011. After the vote of the 27 EU foreign ministers on 28 February 2012, where with 26 votes for and 1 vote against, a candidate status recommendation was issued, and Serbia received full candidate status on 1 March. On 28 June 2013 the European Council endorsed the Council of Ministers conclusions and recommendations to open accession negotiations with Serbia.[227][228] In December 2013 the Council of the European Union approved opening negotiations on Serbia's accession in January 2014,[229] and the first Intergovernmental Conference was held on 21 January at the European Council in Brussels.[230]

Former Yugoslav Republics and Provinces

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Bosnia and Herzegovina2000[231]See Bosnia and Herzegovina–Serbia relations

Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Belgrade. Serbia has an embassy in Sarajevo and a consulate-general in Banja Luka. Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA). Serbia is an official candidate and Bosnia-Herzegovina is recognized as potential candidate country by the European Union.

 Croatia1996[232]See Croatia–Serbia relations

The two countries established diplomatic relations on 9 September 1996. Croatia has an embassy in Belgrade and a general consulate in Subotica. Serbia has an embassy in Zagreb and two general consulates (in Rijeka and Vukovar). There are around 200,000 people of Serbian descent living in Croatia and around 70,000 people of Croatian descent living in Serbia.

KosovoNo diplomatic relations or recognition.

On 17 February 2008, the province of Kosovo and Metohija unilaterally declared independence from Serbia, as the Republic of Kosovo. Serbia, Russia, China, India Algeria, Morocco, Greece, Mexico, Romania, Ukraine, Spain, Brazil, Nigeria, South Africa, Argentina, Belarus, Palestine, Bolivia, and many others do not recognize Kosovo as an independent state. Serbia considers the declaration of Kosovo's independence illegal and has vowed to fight Kosovo's admission to international organizations. The Republic of Kosovo does not have membership status in the United Nations. As of 4 September 2020, 113 United Nations member states and some non UN members like the Republic of China, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Niue and the Cook Islands recognize Kosovo as an independent state, while the rest do not. With firm opposition of both Russia and China, two permanent members of the UN Security Council, Kosovo has no prospects of becoming a member of the United Nations.[233]

Serbia, in response to nations which have recognized Kosovo as an independent nation, has consistently recalled its ambassadors to these nations.[234] These countries include the United States, Albania, Bulgaria, Republic of North Macedonia, Colombia, Croatia, France, Germany, Hungary, Turkey, Slovenia and the United Kingdom.

States which recognize the Province of Kosovo-Metohija as an integral part of the Republic of Serbia and states which recognize Kosovo as an independent nation
  Serbia
  States which recognize the Province of Kosovo as an integral part of Serbia
  States which recognize Kosovo as an independent country
 North Macedonia1996[235]See North Macedonia–Serbia relations

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that was formed in 1992 by the remaining Yugoslav republics Montenegro and Serbia established diplomatic relations with the Republic of North Macedonia on 8 April 1996.[236] The establishment of bilateral relations has been done under North Macedonia's former constitutional name – Republic of Macedonia.[237] Serbia therefore was one of 125 countries in the world recognizing Macedonia under the former constitutional name.[238]North Macedonia has an embassy in Belgrade, while Serbia's embassy is located in Skopje.

 Montenegro2006[239]See Montenegro–Serbia relations

Montenegro has an embassy in Belgrade. Serbia has an embassy in Podgorica and a Consulate-General in Herceg Novi.

 Slovenia2000[240]See Serbia–Slovenia relations

Other European countries

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania1914[243] See Albania–Serbia relations
 Austria1874[246]See Austria–Serbia relations
 Andorra2005[251]

Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 2005.

 Belarus1994[252]See Belarus–Serbia relations
  • Serbia recognised Belarus in December 1991 and both countries established diplomatic relations in November 1994 and at the ambassadorial level in 1996.
  • Belarus has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Minsk.
 Belgium1886[253]
 Bulgaria1879[255]See Bulgaria–Serbia relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Sofia.
 Cyprus1960[256]See Cyprus–Serbia relations
 Czech Republic1918[258]See Czech Republic – Serbia relations
 Denmark1917[260]See Denmark–Serbia relations
 Estonia2001[261]
 Finland1929[262]See Finland–Serbia relations
 France1839[265]See France–Serbia relations
 Germany1951[268]See Germany–Serbia relations
 Greece1879[271]See Greece–Serbia relations
  • Greece has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Athens.

Friendly relations have played an important role in bilateral relations between the two nations, especially during the wars of the 1990s and the Balkans Campaign[272] in World War I. Due to the strong historical friendship and the deep cultural and religious ties between the two nations, Greece and Serbia enjoy historically, religiously and culturally close ties which are confirmed by a regular political dialogue. Greece is the top investor in Serbian economy[273] and during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, Greece openly expressed its disapproval and polls revealed that 94% of the Greek population were completely opposed to the bombing.[274] The more dramatic event was a People's Tribunal of over a 10.000 people in Athens, Greece, where the Greek Supreme Court declared president Clinton and NATO leaders guilty of war crimes.[275]

  Holy See1920[276]See Holy See–Serbia relations
 Hungary1921[277]See Hungary–Serbia relations
 Iceland2000[281]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 2000.
  • A number of bilateral agreements have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[282]
 Ireland1977[283]
  • Diplomatic relations between Ireland and Yugoslavia were established in 1977.
  • Relations continued with Serbia since 2006.
 Italy1879[284]See Italy–Serbia relations and Italy-Yugoslavia relations
 Latvia1917[286]
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1917.
  • Both countries have agreements on International Transport by Road and on Avoidance of Double Taxation with Respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital.[287]
 Liechtenstein2003[288]
 Lithuania2000[289]
 Luxembourg1956[291]
 Malta1969[292]See Malta–Serbia relations
 Moldova1995[294]
 Monaco2007[295]

Both countries have established diplomatic relations in November 2007.

 Netherlands1891[296]
 Norway1917[299]See Norway–Serbia relations
 Poland1919[303]See Poland–Serbia relations
 Portugal1882[304]See Portugal–Serbia relations
 Romania1879[305]See Romania–Serbia relations
  • Romania has an embassy in Belgrade, a general consulate in Vršac.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Bucharest, a general consulate in Timișoara.
 Russia1838[306]See Russia–Serbia relations

Diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union were established on 24 June 1940, and Serbia and the Russian Federation recognize the continuity of all inter-State documents signed between the two countries. There are about 70 bilateral treaties, agreements and protocols signed in the past. Serbia and the Russian Federation have signed and ratified 43 bilateral agreements and treaties in diverse areas of mutual cooperation so far.[307]

 San Marino2002[308] See San Marino–Serbia relations
 Slovakia1918[309]See Serbia–Slovakia relations
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta2001[312]
 Spain1916[313]See Serbia–Spain relations
 Sweden1917[316]See Serbia–Sweden relations
  Switzerland1879[318]See Serbia–Switzerland relations
 Ukraine1994[323]See Serbia–Ukraine relations
  • Serbia recognized Ukraine in December 1991 by the decision on the recognition of the former republics of the Soviet Union.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Kyiv.
 United Kingdom1837[324]See Serbia–United Kingdom relations

Oceania


Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia1966[327] See Australia–Serbia relations
 Fiji1976[329]
 Kiribati [330]
 Federated States of Micronesia [331]
 Nauru2019[332]
 New Zealand1951[333]
  • New Zealand is represented in Serbia through its embassy in The Hague (Netherlands).
  • Serbia is represented in New Zealand through its embassy in Canberra (Australia).
  • New Zealand and Serbia have four bilateral treaties in force including the most favoured nation treaty from 1960. Trade between the two countries was based on a very modest exchange totaling US$2.3 million in 2006 but it rose significantly in 2007 to EUR 805 million.[334]
  • In the 2006 census, over 1,000 New Zealand residents claimed to be of Serbian ethnicity.[335]
 Palau2018[336]

Formal bilateral relations between the two states were established in 2018. January 2019 marked the first visit of President of Palau Thomas Remengesau Jr. to Belgrade.[337][338][339]

 Papua New Guinea1976[340]

Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1976.

 Samoa [341]
 Solomon Islands2012[342]

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 13 September 2012.

 Tonga2013[343]
 Tuvalu2019[344]
 Vanuatu2018[345]

See also


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Further reading


  • Schevill, Ferdinand. History of the Balkans (1922) online
  • Stavrianos, L. S. The Balkans Since 1453 (1958), a comprehensive scholarly history
  • Trivanovitch, Vaso. "Serbia, Russia, and Austria during the Rule of Milan Obrenovich, 1868-78" Journal of Modern History (1931) 3#3 pp. 414-440 online