Foreign relations of Turkey


Physically bridging Europe and Asia, Turkey is a Muslim-majority country that pursued a Western-oriented foreign policy.[1] To this end, Turkey uses its global diplomatic network—the fifth most extensive—of 246 diplomatic and consular missions.[2][3]

Countries in which Turkey maintains its own embassy
Turkish ambassador's residence in Embassy of Turkey, Washington, D.C.

Throughout the Cold War, Turkey’s most important ally has been the United States, which shared Turkey’s interest in containing Soviet expansion.[4][5] In support of the United States, Turkey contributed personnel to the UN forces in the Korean War (1950–53), joined NATO in 1952, recognized Israel in 1948 and has cooperated closely with it.[6]

Turkey’s alliance with Israel during the Arab-Israeli conflict strained its relations with the Arab world[7] and Iran,[1] and subsequently led to overt Syrian support for Palestinian and Armenian terrorist operations against Turkish diplomats abroad until 1990.[8][9][10][better source needed]

Armenian genocide denial has been a major aspect of Turkey's foreign policy, dating back to the 1920s, which has impacted its relations with other countries.[11][12]

History


Historically, the Foreign relations of the Ottoman Empire and later Turkey balanced regional and global powers off against one another, forming alliances that best protected the interests of the incumbent regime.[13] The Soviet Union played a major role in supplying weapons to and financing Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's faction during the Turkish War of Independence but Turkey's followed a course of relative international isolation during the period of Atatürk's Reforms in 1920s and 1930s. International conferences gave Turkey full control of the strategic straits linking the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, though the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 and the Montreux Convention of 1936.[14]

In the late 1930s Nazi Germany made a major effort to promote anti-Soviet propaganda in Turkey and exerted economic pressure. Britain and France, eager to outmaneuver Germany, negotiated a tripartite treaty in 1939. They gave Turkey a line of credit to purchase war materials from the West and a loan to facilitate the purchase of commodities.[15] Afraid of threats from Germany and Russia, Turkey maintained neutrality.[16] It and sold chrome—an important war material—to both sides. It was clear by 1944 that Germany would be defeated and the chrome sales to Germany stopped.[17][18][19]

After 1945

Angela Merkel, Emmanuel Macron, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Vladimir Putin when giving a press conference as part of Syria summit in Istanbul, Turkey.

After World War II Turkey sought closer relations with Western powers. It became a founding member of the United Nations in 1945, a recipient of Marshall Plan aid and a member of North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1952. European Union–Turkey relations warmed during the Cold War period and the post-Cold War period has seen a diversification of relations, with Turkey, at various moments, seeking to strengthen its regional presence in the Balkans, the Middle East and the Caucasus, as well as taking steps toward EU membership.

Under the AKP government (2003–), Turkey's economy has grown rapidly and the country's influence has grown in the Middle East based on a strategic depth doctrine, also called Neo-Ottomanism.[20][21] Debate on Turkey's foreign relations is controversial both within Turkey itself and outside the country. In the West, there is a divide between those who are worried about Turkey's perceived movement away from the West toward a less democratic, more Islamic or more pro-Russian and pro-Chinese[22] orientation and those who do not see Turkey's changing political structure, growing regional power and relations with Russia as a threat.[23]

Armenian genocide denial


Turkey has never recognized the Armenian genocide, committed by the Ottoman Empire, and its efforts to enlist foreign countries in its denial effort date to the 1920s.[24][25] According to sociologist Levon Chorbajian, Turkey's "modus operandi remains consistent throughout and seeks maximalist positions, offers no compromise though sometimes hints at it, and employs intimidation and threats".[26]

Turkish embassies report on academic conferences that mention the Armenian genocide and in most cases Turkish lobbyists obtained concessions, either enclosing the word "genocide" in quotation marks or else including speakers that represent the Turkish state's view.[27] Turkey has spent millions of dollars in lobbying against resolutions for Armenian genocide recognition.[28]

Notable incidents include:

Bilateral relations


Despite being one of the first countries to recognize Armenia's independdence, Turkey has never never established formal diplomatic relations with Armenia. Turkey formerly had diplomatic relations with Cyprus, Taiwan and Syria.

Africa

There has been a revival in Turkey's relation with Africa after 1998 and civil society is the leading factor in this process.[32] Initially this revival came as a passive attempt, but after 2005 it became an offensive interest in developing relations with the continent. The recent Turkey-Africa Cooperation Summit in 2008 marks the latest stage in Turkey's keen interest in developing relations with Africa, and should be seen as a turning point.[33] Turkey since its involvement in Somalia in 2011, is eager to be considered as a political actor in the continent.[34][35]

Northern Africa
Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Algeria1962[36]See Algeria–Turkey relations X
 Egypt1922[40]See Egypt–Turkey relations [44]
 Libya1711[45]See Libya–Turkey relations
  • Libya has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Tripoli.[46] and a Consulate General in Misurata.[47]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.87 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.50/0.37 billion USD).[48]
  • 188,312 Libyan tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[48]
X
 MoroccoApril 17, 1956[49]See Morocco–Turkey relations
  • Morocco has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Rabat.[50]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 2.71 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.99/0.72 billion USD).[51]
  • 114,155 Moroccan tourists visited Turkey in 2017.[51]
  • Yunus Emre Institute has a local headquarters in Rabat.
[44]
 Tunisia1956[52]See Tunisia–Turkey relations [44]
Sub–Saharan Africa

Since 2008, Turkey has prioritized friendly relations with Africa partly to build friendly and conflict–free relations, which was not available in the hostile atmosphere in its neighborhood.[55] Capitalizing on a strong sentiment of fellowship among Turkish people towards Africans, economic and diplomatic relations with Africa flourished: Foreign trade between sub-Saharan Africa and Turkey increased from US$581 million[56] in 1998 to US$5.08[57] billion in 2015.

Dating back to 1800, Turkey’s relations with sub-Saharan Africa flourished from the 1860s—when the Ottoman Empire started sending trained imams to the region—until 1885 when other European colonial powers blocked Ottoman influence.[58] Relations were restored in the 1950s,[59] and gained momentum when Emperor Haile Selassie visited Turkey in March 1967 and December 1969.[60]

Since 2008, Turkey has contributed to the region through participation in peacekeeping missions, including the UN Mission in Ivory Coast (UNOC), the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Central African Republic, Chad.[61]

Turkey has also dramatically increased financial aid to the region,[56] providing a total of US$6.38 billion to the region just between 2006 and 2011[62] including the 2011 donation of US$ 200 million to fight the famine in East Africa.[61]

Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Angola1975[63]See Angola–Turkey relations X
 BeninMarch 26, 2001[64]See Benin–Turkey relations X
 Botswana1981[65]See Botswana–Turkey relations
  • Permanent Representation of Botswana in the UN Geneva Office is also accredited to Turkey.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Gaborone.[65]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 2.9 million USD in 2019.[65]
X
 Burkina Faso1960[66]See Burkina Faso–Turkey relations
  • Burkina Faso has an Embassy in Ankara.[66]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Ouagadougou.[66]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 52.2 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 31.4/20.8 million USD).[66]
X
 Burundi1962[67]See Burundi–Turkey relations
  • Burundi has an Embassy in Ankara.[67]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Bujumbura.[67]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.1 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 2.6/0.5 million USD).[67]
X
 CameroonJan. 1, 1960[68]See Cameroon–Turkey relations
  • Cameroon has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Yaoundé.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 205 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 151/54 million USD).[69]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Yaoundé.
X
 Cape VerdeJuly 19, 1975[70]See Cape Verde–Turkey relations
  • The Turkish ambassador in Dakar to Senegal is also accredited to Cabo Verde.[70]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 9.5 million USD in 2019.[70]
X
 Central African Republic1995[71]See Central African Republic–Turkey relations X
 Chad1593[72]See Chad–Turkey relations
  • Chad has an Embassy in Ankara.[72]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in N’Djamena.[72]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 72.4 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 39.9/32.5 million USD).[72]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to N’Djamena since December 12, 2013.[72]
X
 Comoros1979[73]See Comoros–Turkey relations
  • The ambassador of the Comoros in Cairo to Egypt is also accredited to Turkey.[73]
  • The Turkish ambassador in Antananarivo to Madagascar is also accredited to the Union of the Comoros.[73]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 21.1 million USD in 2019.[73]
X
 Congo1960[74]See Republic of the Congo–Turkey relations
  • Congo has an Embassy in Ankara.[74]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Brazzaville.[74]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 57.25 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 55.8/1.47 million USD).[74]
X
 Côte d’Ivoire1964[75]See Ivory Coast–Turkey relations X
 Democratic Republic of Congo1974[76]See Democratic Republic of Congo–Turkey relations X
 Djibouti1977[77]See Djibouti–Turkey relations X
 Eritrea1993[78]See Eritrea–Turkey relations
  • The ambassador of Eritrea in Doha to Qatar is also accredited to Turkey.[78]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Asmara.[78]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 13.9 million USD in 2019.[78]
X
 Equatorial Guinea1980[79]See Equatorial Guinea–Turkey relations X
 Eswatini1968[80]See Eswatini–Turkey relations X
 Ethiopia1896[81]See Ethiopia–Turkey relations
  • Ethiopia has an Embassy in Ankara.[81]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Addis Ababa.[81]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 398.8 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 378.3/27.5 million USD).[81]
X
 Gabon1960[82]See Gabon–Turkey relations X
 Gambia1965[83]See Gambia–Turkey relations X
 Ghana1958[84]See Ghana–Turkey relations
  • Ghana has an Embassy in Ankara.[84]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Accra.[84]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 353.3 million USD in 2018.[84]
Pending Ratification[44]
 Guinea1960[85]See Guinea–Turkey relations X
 Guinea Bissau1975[86]See Guinea-Bissau–Turkey relations X
 Kenya1963[87]See Kenya–Turkey relations X
 Lesotho1967[88]See Lesotho–Turkey relations
  • The Embassy of Lesotho in Rome is also accredited to Turkey.[88]
  • The Turkish ambassador in Pretoria to South Africa is also accredited to Lesotho.[88]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.65 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.62/0.03 million USD).[88]
X
 Liberia1864[89]See Liberia–Turkey relations X
 MadagascarFeb. 13, 1866[90]See Madagascar–Turkey relations
  • Embassy of Madagascar in Rome to Italy is also accredited to Turkey.[91]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Antananarivo.[91]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 76.5 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 71.3/5.2 million USD).[91]
X
 Mali1998[92]See Mali–Turkey relations
  • Mali has an Embassy in Ankara.[92]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Bamako.[92]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 57 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 48.4/8.6 million USD).[92]
X
 Malawi1964[93]See Malawi–Turkey relations
  • The Embassy of Malawi in Berlin to Germany is also accredited to Turkey.[93]
  • The Turkish ambassador in Lusaka to Zambia is also accredited to Malawi.[93]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 21 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 4.67/16.4 million USD).[93]
X
 Mauritius1968[94]See Mauritius–Turkey relations [44]
 Mauritania1974[95]See Mauritania–Turkey relations X
 MozambiqueSep. 23, 1975[96]See Mozambique–Turkey relations
  • The Embassy of Mozambique in Rome to Italy is also accredited to Turkey.[96]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Maputo.[96]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 153 million USD in 2019.[96]
X
 Namibia1966[97]See Namibia–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Windhoek.[97]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 11.84 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 9.40/2.44 million USD).[97]
X
 Niger1967[98]See Niger–Turkey relations X
 Nigeria1960[99]See Nigeria–Turkey relations X
 Rwanda1962[100]See Rwanda–Turkey relations
  • Rwanda has an Embassy in Ankara.[100]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Kigali.[100]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 32.4 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 32.2/0.2 million USD).[100]
X
 São Tomé and PríncipeJuly 12, 1975[101]See São Tomé and Príncipe–Turkey relations X
 Senegal1962[102]See Senegal–Turkey relations X
 Seychelles1995[103]See Seychelles–Turkey relations
  • The Embassy of Seychelles in Paris is also accredited to Turkey.[103]
  • The Turkish ambassador in Nairobi to Kenya is also accredited to the Seychelles.[103]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 25.4 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 17.7/7.7 million USD).[103]
X
 Sierra Leone1971[104]See Sierra Leone–Turkey relations X
 Somalia1979[105]See Somalia–Turkey relations X
 South Africa1993[106]See South Africa–Turkey relations X
 South Sudan2012[107]See also South Sudan–Turkey relations X
 Sudan1956[108]See also Sudan–Turkey relations X
 Tanzania1979[109]See Tanzania–Turkey relations X
 TogoJan. 13, 1997[110]See Togo–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Lomé (planned).[110]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 106 million USD in 2019.[110]
X
 Uganda2010[111]See Turkey–Uganda relations X
 Zambia1964[112]See Turkey–Zambia relations
  • Zambia has an Embassy in Ankara.[112]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Lusaka.[112]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 23.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 17.8/5.9 million USD).[112]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Lusaka since December 14, 2018.[112]
X
 Zimbabwe1980[113]See Turkey–Zimbabwe relations
  • Zimbabwe has an Embassy in Ankara.[113]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Harare.[113]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 17.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 5.9/11.8 million USD).[113]
X

Americas

Southern Cone
Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 ArgentinaJuly 21, 1871[114]See Argentina–Turkey relations
President Erdoğan with then-president Mauricio Macri in Buenos Aires.
  • Argentina has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Buenos Aires.
  • Both countries are members of G20 and WTO.
  • Flights from Istanbul to Buenos Aires via São Paulo commenced in December 2013 and are taking place on a daily basis.[114]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 455 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 161/294 million USD.[114]
  • 64,483 Argentine tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Chile1856[115]See Chile–Turkey relations
President Erdoğan and Sebastián Piñera
  • Chile has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Santiago.
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Chile-Turkey Free Trade Agreement was signed on July 14, 2009 and is in effect since March 1, 2011.[116]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 579 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 344/236 million USD.[116]
  • 18,509 Chilean tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • Chile was the first country in Latin America that recognized Turkey.
[44]
 Paraguay1953[117]See Paraguay–Turkey relations
  • Paraguay has an Embassy in Ankara.[118]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Asunción.[118]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 82.1 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 47.1/35 million USD).[118]
  • 1,328 Paraguayan tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Uruguay1929[119]See Turkey–Uruguay relations X
North America
Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Canada1943[120]See Canada–Turkey relations X
 Mexico1863[115]See Mexico–Turkey relations
President Erdoğan visiting Mexico.
X
 United States1830[124]See Turkey–United States relations
Presidents Erdoğan and Trump with the First Ladies.
X
Caribbean
Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Antigua and BarbudaFeb. 3, 1982[125]See Antigua and Barbuda–Turkey relations X
 BahamasSep. 21, 1981[126]See Bahamas–Turkey relations X
 Barbados1970[127]See Barbados–Turkey relations X
 Cuba1868[115]See Cuba–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Havana.[129]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 54.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 42.9/11.8 million USD).[129]
  • The Ottoman Empire Embassy to Cuba opened in 1873.[115]
X
 DominicaNov. 3, 1978[130]See Dominica–Turkey relations X
 Dominican RepublicJuly 23, 1904[131]See Dominican Republic–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Santo Domingo.[131]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 132.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 118.6/14.1 million USD).[131]
X
 GrenadaFeb. 25, 1975[132]See Grenada–Turkey relations X
 HaitiMar. 23, 1943[133]See Haiti–Turkey relations X
 Jamaica1970[127]See Jamaica–Turkey relations
  • The Turkish ambassador in Havana to Cuba is also accredited to Jamaica.[134]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 90.5 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 90/0.5 million USD).[134]
X
 St. Kitts and NevisAug. 22, 1984[135]See Saint Kitts and Nevis–Turkey relations X
 St. Lucia2005[136]See Saint Lucia–Turkey relations X
 St. Vincent and GrenadinesJuly 27, 2004[138]See Saint Vincent and the Grenadines–Turkey relations X
 Trinidad and Tobago1963[127]See Trinidad and Tobago–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Port of Spain.[139]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 120.8 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 68.4/52.4 million USD).[139]
X
Central America
Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 BelizeOct. 29, 1981[140]See Belize–Turkey relations X
 Costa RicaJan. 15, 1898[127]See Costa Rica–Turkey relations
  • Costa Rica has an Embassy in Ankara.[141]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in San Jose.[141]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 100 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 58.9/41.8 million USD).[141]
X
 El SalvadorJan. 26, 1934[127]See El Salvador–Turkey relations
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Ankara.
  • The Turkish ambassador in Guatemala City to Guatemala is also accredited to El Salvador.[142]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 17.1 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 14.8/2.3 million USD).[142]
X
 GuatemalaAug. 10, 1882[127]See Guatemala–Turkey relations X
 HondurasApril 25, 1862[127]See Honduras–Turkey relations
  • The Turkish ambassador in Guatemala City to Guatemala is also accredited to Honduras.[144]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 19.8 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 15/4.8 million USD).[144]
X
 NicaraguaNov. 11, 1926[145]See Nicaragua–Turkey relations
  • The Turkish ambassador in San José to Costa Rica is also accredited to Nicaragua.[145]
  • Nicaraguan Embassy in Berlin to Germany is also accredited to Turkey.[145]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 11.6 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 11.1/0.5 million USD).[145]
X
 PanamaApril 14, 1950[146]See Panama–Turkey relations
  • Panama has an Embassy in Ankara.[146]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Panama.[146]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 260.9 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 248.8/12.1 million USD).[146]
X
Latin America, rest of
Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Bolivia1849[127]See Bolivia–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in La Paz.[147]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 130 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 22/108 million USD).[147]
  • 2,491 Bolivian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Brazil1850[115]See Brazil–Turkey relations
Prime Minister Erdoğan meets with President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.
X
 Colombia1959[149]See Colombia–Turkey relations
  • Colombia has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Bogotá.
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Flights from Istanbul to Bogotá commenced in May 2016.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.7 billion USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.25/1.46 billion USD).[150]
  • 70,974 Colombian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Ecuador1950[151]See Ecuador–Turkey relations
  • Ecuador has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Quito and a Consulate General in Guayaquil.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 117 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 59/58 million USD).[151]
  • 8,416 Ecuadorian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Guyana2005[127]See Guyana–Turkey relations X
 Peru1950[153]See Peru–Turkey relations
  • Peru has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.[153]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Lima.[153]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 250 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 177.4/72.6 million USD).[153]
  • 11,430 Peruvian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Suriname1976[154]See Suriname–Turkey relations X
 Venezuela1857[115]See Turkey–Venezuela relations
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Caracas and an Honorary Consulate in Maracaibo.[155]
  • Venezuela has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 150 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 130/20 million USD).[155]
X

Asia and Oceania

Turkic States
Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 AzerbaijanJan. 14, 1992[156]See Azerbaijan–Turkey relations X
 KazakhstanMarch 2, 1992[158]See Kazakhstan–Turkey relations X
 KyrgyzstanJan. 29, 1992[160]See Kyrgyzstan–Turkey relations X
 TurkmenistanFeb. 29, 1992[163]See Turkey–Turkmenistan relations X
 UzbekistanMarch 4, 1992[165]See Turkey–Uzbekistan relations X
Asia-Pacific
Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Afghanistan1921[167]See Afghanistan–Turkey relations X
 Australia1967[169]See Australia–Turkey relations X
 BangladeshFeb. 22, 1974[171]See Bangladesh–Turkey relations
  • Bangladesh has an Embassy in Ankara.[171]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Dhaka.[171]
  • Both countries are members of OIC.[171]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 934 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 427/509 billion USD).[172]
X
 Bhutan2012[173]See Bhutan–Turkey relations
  • Bhutan and Turkey cooperate through their respective embassies in New Delhi.[174]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.58 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.1/1.48 million USD).[173]
X
 Brunei Darussalam1984[175]See Brunei–Turkey relations X
 Cambodia1959[177]See Cambodia–Turkey relations
  • Cambodia has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Phnom Penh.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 108.4 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 13.7/94.7 million USD).[178]
X
 China1971[179]See China–Turkey relations X
 Cook IslandsOct. 28, 2008[184] X
 East Timor2002[185]See East Timor–Turkey relations X
 FijiDec. 17, 1975[186]See Fiji–Turkey relations X
 IndiaAug. 15, 1947[187]See India–Turkey relations
Prime Minister Erdoğan meets with Narendra Modi in India.
  • India has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in New Delhi and Consulates General in Hyderabad and Mumbai.[187]
  • Both countries are members of G20 and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 7.80 billion USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.17/6.64 billion USD).[188]
  • 230,131 Indian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Indonesia1571[189]See Indonesia–Turkey relations
  • Indonesia has an Embassy in Ankara.[189]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Jakarta.[189]
  • Both countries are members of D-8, G20, MIKTA, OIC and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.85 billion USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.21/1.64 billion USD).[190]
  • 127,149 Indonesian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • 2,400 Indonesian citizens reside in Turkey.[189]
X
 Japan1890[191]See Japan–Turkey relations X
 Kiribati2008[195]See Kiribati–Turkey relations X
 Laos1958[196]See Laos–Turkey relations
  • The Embassy of Laos in Vienna is also accredited to Turkey.[196]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Vientiane.[196]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 2.92 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.44/1.48 billion USD).[197]
X
 Maldives1979[198]See Maldives–Turkey relations
  • The Permanent Mission of the Republic of Maldives to the United Nations Office in Geneva is also accredited to Turkey.[198]
  • The Turkish ambassador in New Delhi to India is also accredited to the Maldives.[198]
  • Both countries are members of OIC.[198]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 46.5 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 28.2/18.3 million USD).[199]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Malé since November 24, 2012.
X
 Malaysia1964[200]See Malaysia–Turkey relations
 Marshall IslandsApril 9, 2008[202]See Marshall Islands–Turkey relations X
 MicronesiaNov. 3, 1986[203] X
 MongoliaJune 24, 1969[204]See Mongolia–Turkey relations X
 Myanmar1958[206]See Myanmar–Turkey relations
  • The Burmese Embassy in Cairo to Egypt is also accredited to Turkey.[206]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Yangon.[206]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 38.7 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 30.7/8 million USD).[207]
X
 NauruOct. 24, 1976[208]See Nauru–Turkey relations X
 New Zealand1915[209]See New Zealand–Turkey relations
  • New Zealand has an Embassy in Ankara.[209]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Wellington.[209]
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 152.8 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 90.1/62.7 million USD).[210]
  • 20,912 New Zealanders visited Turkey in 2019.
  • 1,700 Turkish citizens reside in New Zealand.[209]
X
 NiueJune 7, 2014[211]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was negligible in 2018.
X
 North KoreaJan. 15, 2001[212]See North Korea–Turkey relations X
 Pakistan1947[213]See Pakistan–Turkey relations X
 PalauMay 10, 2007[218]See Palau–Turkey relations
  • Turkish ambassador in Tokyo to Japan is also accredited to Palau.[218]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.7 million USD in 2014.[218]
X
 Papua New GuineaMay 30, 1979[219] X
 PhilippinesJune 13, 1949[220]See Philippines–Turkey relations
  • Philippines has an Embassy in Ankara.[220]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Manila.[220]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 219.7 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 104/115.7 million USD).[221]
  • 139,126 Filipino tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • 2,200 Philippine nationals are residing in Turkey.[220]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Manila since March 2015.[220]
X
 SamoaApril 12, 1979[222]See Samoa–Turkey relations X
 SingaporeFeb. 12, 1969[223]See Singapore–Turkey relations
 Solomon IslandsMar. 8, 1979[225]See Solomon Islands–Turkey relations X
 South KoreaAug. 11, 1949[226]See South Korea–Turkey relations
  • South Korea has an Embassy in Ankara.[226]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Seoul.[226]
  • Both countries are members of G20, MIKTA, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 6.53 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.88/5.64 billion USD).[227]
  • 212,970 South Korean tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[227]
  • Free Trade Agreement between the two countries entered into force on May 1, 2013 and was updated on August 1, 2018 to include an Investment Agreement.[227]
  • Turkey ranks third in number of martyrs among the 16 countries that participated in the Korean War. United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Busan honors 462 of the 966 Turkish soldiers who died during the war.
  • Yunus Emre Institute has a local branch in Seoul.
 Sri LankaFeb. 4, 1948[228]See Sri Lanka–Turkey relations
  • Sri Lanka has an Embassy in Ankara.[228]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Colombo.[228]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 185.7 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 84.3/101.4 million USD).[229]
X
 Taiwan1971Diplomatic recognition withdrawn in 1971 by the establishment of diplomatic relations between Turkey and China but both countries still maintain informal relations. X
 TajikistanJan. 29, 1992[230]See Tajikistan–Turkey relations X
 Thailand1958[232]See Thailand–Turkey relations
  • Thailand has an Embassy in Ankara.[232]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Bangkok.[232]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.34 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.26/1.09 billion USD).[233]
  • 62,192 Thai tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • Negotiations on a bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) began in 2017.[232]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Bangkok and Phuket.[232]
X
 TongaJan. 26, 1976[234]See Tonga–Turkey relations X
 TuvaluJuly 19, 1979[235]See Turkey–Tuvalu relations X
 VanuatuApril 10, 1987[236]See Turkey–Vanuatu relations X
 Vietnam1978[237]See Turkey–Vietnam relations X
Western Asia
Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 ArmeniaSee Armenia–Turkey relations X
 BahrainDec. 4, 1973See Bahrain–Turkey relations X
 Cyprus
 Northern Cyprus1983[240] Free Trade
 GeorgiaMay 21, 1992[242]See Georgia–Turkey relations [44]
 IranAug. 23, 1514[244]See Iran–Turkey relations X
 Iraq1932[247]See Iraq–Turkey relations
  • Iraq has an Embassy in Ankara and Consulates General in Gaziantep and Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Baghdad and a Consulate General in Erbil.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 9.77 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 8.35/1.42 billion USD).[248]
  • 1,374,896 Iraqi tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 IsraelMay 11, 1949[249]See Israel–Turkey relations [44]
 JordanJan. 11, 1947[252]See Jordan–Turkey relations X
 Kuwait1964[254]See Kuwait–Turkey relations
  • Kuwait has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Kuwait City.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 678 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 534/144 million USD).[255]
  • 374,191 Kuwaiti tourists visited Turkey in 2018.
X
 LebanonOct. 3, 1952[256]See Lebanon–Turkey relations Pending Ratification[44]
 Oman1973[258]See Oman–Turkey relations
  • Oman has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Muscat.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 489 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 422/67 million USD).[259]
X
 PalestineNov. 15, 1988[260]See Palestine–Turkey relations [44]
 Qatar1972[262]See Qatar–Turkey relations X
 Saudi Arabia1932[265]See Saudi Arabia–Turkey relations
  • Saudi Arabia has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.[266]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Riyadh and a Consulate General in Jeddah.[267][268]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 4.96 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 2.64/2.32 billion USD).[269]
  • 564,816 Saudi tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 SyriaNov. 17, 1944[270]See Syria–Turkey relations
  • Diplomatic relations suspended since 2011.
[44]
 United Arab Emirates1971[271]See Turkey–United Arab Emirates relations
  • United Arab Emirates has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Abu Dhabi and a Consulate General in Dubai.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 6.92 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 3.14/3.78 million USD).[272]
X
 YemenMarch 4, 1946[273]See Turkey–Yemen relations X

Europe

Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Albania1958[275]See Albania–Turkey relations [44]
 AndorraOct. 8, 1998[277]See Andorra–Turkey relations
  • The Turkish ambassador in Madrid to Spain is also accredited to Andorra.[277]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 478 thousand USD in 2010 (Turkish exports/imports: 476/1.4 thousand USD).[277]
[44]
 Austria1526[278]See Austria–Turkey relations [44]
 BelarusMar. 25, 1992[284]See Belarus–Turkey relations
  • Belarus has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.[285]
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Minsk.[285]
  • Both countries are members of OSCE.[286]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 691 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 531/160 million USD).[284]
  • 258,419 Belarussian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
X
 Belgium1838[287]See Belgium–Turkey relations [44]
 Bulgaria1908[290]See Bulgaria–Turkey relations [44]
 Bosnia and HerzegovinaAug. 29, 1992[295]See Bosnia and Herzegovina–Turkey relations [44]
 CroatiaAug. 6, 1992[297]See Croatia–Turkey relations [44]
 Czech Republic1924[299]See Czech Republic–Turkey relations
  • Czech Republic has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Prague.[300]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.65 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1/2.65 billion USD).[299]
  • 4,500 Turkish citizens reside in the Czech Republic.[299]
  • 311,359 Czech tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[299]
[44]
 Denmark1756[301]See Denmark–Turkey relations
  • Denmark has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Copenhagen.[302]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.88 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.1/0.81 billion USD).[303]
  • 70 thousand Turkish citizens reside in Denmark.[303] See Turks in Denmark
  • 335,877 Danish tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[303]
[44]
 Estonia1924[304]See Estonia–Turkey relations
  • Estonia has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Tallinn.[305]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 312 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 92/220 million USD).[304]
  • 77,041 Estonian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[304]
  • 575 Turkish citizens live in Estonia.[304]
[44]
 Finland1924[306]See Finland–Turkey relations
  • Finland has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Helsinki.[307]
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.32 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.34/0.98 billion USD).[306]
  • 13 thousand Turkish citizens reside in Finland.[306] See Turks in Finland
  • 135,192 Finnish tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[306]
[44]
 France1483[308]See France–Turkey relations [44]
 Germany1790[316]See Germany–Turkey relations [44]
 Greece1830[331]See Greece-Turkey relations
Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in Ankara, November 2009
  • Greece has an Embassy in Ankara and Consulates General in Edirne, Istanbul and İzmir.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Athens[332] and Consulates General in Komotini,[333] Piraeus,[334] Rhodes[335] and Thessaloniki.[336]
  • Both countries are members of BSEC, OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 4.18 billion USD in 2018.[337]
  • 150 thousand ethnic Turks reside in Western Thrace, Greece.[338]
  • 836,882 Greek tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • Turkey and Greece have clashed for decades over the status of Aegean islands and over the extent of territorial waters and airspace. In February 1999, the discovery that Greek authorities had been aiding and abetting Abdullah Öcalan, Turkey’s most wanted criminal, caused a diplomatic crisis. When Abdullah Öcalan was captured by Turkish authorities, he was found holding Greek and Cypriot passports and he later revealed that he had been hiding in the Greek Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. Relations have since improved, particularly following the earthquakes that struck both countries in 1999.
[44]
  Holy See1960[339]See Holy See–Turkey relations X
 Hungary1521[340]See Hungary–Turkey relations [44]
 IcelandJune 17, 1944[343]
  • Bilateral relations between Turkey and Iceland are being coordinated by the Embassy of the Republic of Turkey in Oslo and the Embassy of Iceland in Copenhagen.[344]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.[344]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 51 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 24/27 million USD).[344]
  • 100 Turkish citizens reside in Iceland.[344]
[44]
 Ireland1972[345]See Ireland–Turkey relations [44]
 Italy1381[349]See Italy–Turkey relations [44]
 KosovoFeb. 18, 2008[353]See Kosovo–Turkey relations [44]
 Latvia1925[355]See Latvia–Turkey relations
  • Latvia has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Riga.[356]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • 200 Turkish citizens reside in Latvia.[355]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 291 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 126/165 million USD).[355]
  • 86,051 Latvian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
[44]
 LiechtensteinAug. 24, 1992[357]See Liechtenstein–Turkey relations
  • Bilateral relations between Turkey and Liechtenstein are being coordinated by the Embassies of the Republic of Turkey and Liechtenstein in Bern.[357]
  • Both countries are members of WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 7 million USD in 2017.[358]
[44]
 Lithuania1930[359]See Lithuania–Turkey relations
  • Lithuania has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Vilnius.[360]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 687 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 277/410 million USD).[359]
  • 229,704 Lithuanian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.
  • 350 Turkish citizens reside in Lithuania.[359]
[44]
 LuxembourgAug. 24, 1992[357]See Luxembourg–Turkey relations
  • Luxembourg has an Embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Luxembourg.[361]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 160 million USD in 2017 (Turkish exports/imports: 36/124 million USD).[362]
  • 900 Turkish citizens reside in Luxembourg.[362]
[44]
 Malta1522[363]See Malta–Turkey relations
  • Malta has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Valletta.[364]
  • Both countries are members of WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 593 million USD in 2017 (Turkish exports/imports: 541/52 million USD).[365]
[44]
 MoldovaFeb. 3, 1992[366]See Moldova–Turkey relations [44]
 Monaco1954[368]See Monaco–Turkey relations
  • Bilateral relations between Turkey and Monaco are being coordinated by the Consulates General of Turkey and Monaco in Marseille.[368]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 15.1 million USD in 2017.[368]
[44]
 MontenegroJuly 3, 2006[369]See Montenegro–Turkey relations [44]
 Netherlands1612[371]See Netherlands–Turkey relations [44]
 North MacedoniaAug. 26, 1992.[377]See North Macedonia–Turkey relations
  • North Macedonia has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Skopje and a Consulate General in Bitola.
  • Both countries are members of NATO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 503 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 396/107 million USD).[378]
  • 209,519 Macedonian tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[378]
  • Yunus Emre Institute has a local branch in Skopje.
[44]
 Norway1926[379]
  • Norway has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.28 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 513/765 million USD).[379]
  • 20 thousand Turkish citizens reside in Norway .[379]
  • 208,330 Norwegian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[379]
[44]
 Poland1414[380]See Poland–Turkey relations
  • Poland has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Warsaw.[381]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 6.45 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 3.34/3.34 billion USD).[382]
  • 880,839 Polish tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[382]
[44]

See also Polonezköy

 Portugal1843[383]See Portugal–Turkey relations [44]
 RomaniaOct. 22, 1879[386]See Romania–Turkey relations [44]
 Russia1699[390]See Russia–Turkey relations
Vladimir Putin, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Silvio Berlusconi in Turkey in November 2005
X
 Serbia1879[396]See Serbia–Turkey relations [44]
 Slovakia1993[399]See Slovakia–Turkey relations
  • Slovakia has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Bratislava.[400]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.29 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 532/767 million USD).[399]
  • 207,108 Slovak tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[399]
[44]
 SloveniaFeb. 6, 1992[401]See Slovenia–Turkey relations [44]
 Spain1782[403]See Spain–Turkey relations [44]
 Sweden1603[407]See Sweden–Turkey relations
  • Sweden has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an Embassy in Stockholm.[408]
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.2 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.5/1.7 billion USD).[407]
  • 115 thousand people of Turkish origin reside in Sweden.[407] See also Turks in Sweden
  • 444,285 Swedish tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[407]
[44]
  Switzerland1899[409]See Switzerland–Turkey relations [44]
 UkraineFeb. 3, 1992[414]See Turkey–Ukraine relations X
 United Kingdom1583[417]See Turkey–United Kingdom relations Expires 31 December 2020[44]

International organizations


Turkey is a founding member of the UN (1945),[420] the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (1961),[421] the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (1969),[422] the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) (1973),[423] and the G20 industrial nations (1999). Turkey is a member state of the Council of Europe (1949) and NATO (1952) as well as being in full accession negotiations with the European Union since 2005, having been an associate member since 1963. Turkey was also an associate member of the Western European Union from 1992 to 2011, and signed the E.U. Customs Union agreement in 1995.

Turkey entered NATO in 1952 and serves as the organization's vital eastern anchor, controlling the Turkish Straits which lead from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean and sharing a border with Syria, Iraq, and Iran. A NATO headquarters is located in İzmir, and the United States has maintained air forces at the Incirlik Air Base in the province of Adana.

Turkey is also a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) since 1995. It has signed free trade agreements with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), Israel, and many other countries. In 1992, Turkey and 10 other regional nations formed the BSEC to expand regional trade and economic cooperation. In 2017, ASEAN-Turkey Sectoral Dialogue Partnership[424] was recognized by the 50th ASEAN Foreign Ministers' Meeting in Manila, Philippines.

See also


References


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  395. "Relations between Turkey and the Russian Federation".
  396. "Turkey". mfa.gov.rs.
  397. "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In Belgrade". belgrad.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  398. "Relations between Turkey and Serbia".
  399. "Relations between Turkey and Slovakia".
  400. "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In Bratislava". bratislava.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  401. "Relations between Turkey and Slovenia".
  402. "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In Ljubljana". ljubljana.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  403. "Relations between Turkey and Spain".
  404. "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Madrid Büyükelçiliği". madrid.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  405. "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Barselona Başkonsolosluğu". barselona.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  406. "Commercial and Economic Relations between Turkey and Spain".
  407. "Relations between Turkey and Sweden".
  408. "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Embassy of the Republic of Turkey in Stockholm". stokholm.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  409. "Relations between Turkey and Switzerland".
  410. "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In Bern". bern.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  411. "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Cenevre Başkonsolosluğu". cenevre.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  412. "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Zürih Başkonsolosluğu". zurih.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  413. "Commercial and Economic Relations between Turkey and Switzerland".
  414. "Relations between Turkey and Ukraine".
  415. "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In Kyiv". kiev.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  416. "Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Odessa Başkonsolosluğu".
  417. "Relations between Turkey and the United Kingdom".
  418. "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Embassy In London". londra.be.mfa.gov.tr.
  419. "T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı Turkish Consulate General in Edinburgh". edinburg.bk.mfa.gov.tr.
  420. "Member States of the United Nations". United Nations. Archived from the original on 17 January 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  421. "Organisation for European Economic Co-operation". Oecd.org. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  422. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 November 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  423. "About – Participating States". OSCE. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  424. (PDF) https://asean.org/storage/2018/07/Overview-of-ASEAN-Turkey-Sectoral-Dialogue-Relations-as-of-18-Sept-2020-fn.pdf. Missing or empty |title= (help)

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/.

Further reading


European Union–Turkey relations

  • Aybet, Gülnur. Turkey's Foreign Policy and Its Implications for the West: A Turkish Perspective. London: Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies, 1994.
  • Aydin-Duzgit, Senem and Keyman, Fuat, “EU–Turkey Relations and the Stagnation of Turkish Democracy,” IAI/IPC, Global Turkey in Europe, Working Paper 2 (2012).
  • Barchard, David. Turkey and the West. (Chatham House Papers, No. 27, published for the Royal Institute of International Affairs.) London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985.
  • Cakir, A.E. (ed.), Fifty Years of EU–Turkey Relations (Oxon: Routledge, 2011).
  • Dixon, Jeffrey C., “Turkey, Islam and the EU,” Contexts, 8.4 (2009).
  • Engert, Stefan, EU Enlargement and Socialization: Turkey and Cyprus (New York: Routledge, 2010).
  • Esfahani, Hadi Salehi and Ceviker-Gurakar, Esra, “Fading Attraction: Turkey’s Shifting Relationship with the European Union,” The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 53.4 (November 2013).
  • Fuller, Graham E. Turkey's New Geopolitics: From the Balkans to Western China. (A Rand Study.) Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1993.
  • Gocek, Fatma Muge. East Encounters West: France and the Ottoman Empire in the 18th Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  • Goffman, Daniel. Izmir and the Levantine World, 1550-1650. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1990.
  • International Crisis Group, “Turkey and Europe: The Way Ahead,” Europe Report No. 184 (17 August 2007).
  • Kramer, Heinz, A Changing Turkey: A Challenge to Europe and the US (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2000).
  • Kubicek, Paul, “Turkey’s Inclusion in the Atlantic Community: Looking Back, Looking Forward,” Turkish Studies, 9.1 (March 2008).
  • Kuniholm, Bruce R. "Turkey and the West," Foreign Affairs, 70, No. 2, Spring 1991, pp. 34–48.
  • Kuniholm, Bruce R., “Turkey and NATO,” in Kaplan, L., Clawson, R. and Luraghi, R. (eds.), NATO and the Mediterranean (Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1985).
  • McGhee, George C. "Turkey Joins the West." Foreign Affairs, July 1954, pp. 617–30.
  • Oguzlu, Tarik, “Turkey and Europeanization of Foreign Policy?” Political Science Quarterly, 125.4 (Winter 2010/2011).
  • Pierini, Marc, “Options for the EU–Turkey Relationship,” Carnegie Europe, 3 May 2019.
  • Pierini, Marc and Ulgen, Sinan, “A Moment of Opportunity in the EU–Turkey Relationship,” Carnegie Europe (Brussels, December 2014).
  • Reuther, Helmut (ed.). Deutschlands Aussenpolitik seit 1955. With a contribution by Franz von Cancig, "Die Türkei, Griechenland und die deutsche Aussenpolitik." Stuttgart-Degerloch: Seewald Verlag, 1965.
  • Steinbach, Udo. "Turkey-ECC Relations: Cultural Dimension." pp. 13–24 in Erol Manisali, ed., Turkey's Place in Europe: Economic, Political, and Cultural Dimensions. Istanbul: Ucer, 1990.
  • Tocci, Nathalie, “New Doubts and Uncertainties in Turkey–EU Relations,” Paper, Centre for European Policy Studies (October 2000). * Narbone, Luigi and Tocci, Nathalie, “Running Around in Circles? The Cyclical Relationship Between Turkey and the European Union,” in Verney, S. and Infantis, K. (eds.), Turkey’s Road to European Union Membership: National Identity and Political Change (London: Routledge, 2009).

Greece–Turkey relations

  • "Der Zypern-Konflikt, eine Bewahrungsprobe westlicher Friedensordnung." Europa-Archiv, 1964, pp. 713–26.
  • Bahcheli, Tozun. Greek-Turkish Relations since 1955. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990.
  • Balci, Ali, “Foreign Policy as Politicking in the Sarikiz Coup Plot: Cyprus Between the Coup Plotters and the JDP,” Middle East Critique, 21.2 (Summer 2012).
  • Brus, Marcel et al., “A Promise to Keep: Time to End the International Isolation of the Turkish Cypriots,” TESEV, Foreign Policy Analysis Series, No. 7 (Istanbul, June 2008).
  • Couloumbis, Theodore A. The United States, Greece, and Turkey: The Troubled Triangle. New York: Praeger, 1983.
  • Engert, Stefan, EU Enlargement and Socialization: Turkey and Cyprus (New York: Routledge, 2010).
  • Ertekün, Necati M. The Cyprus Dispute and the Birth of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Nicosia, Northern Cyprus: Rustem, 1984.
  • International Crisis Group, “Reunifying Cyprus: The Best Chance Yet,” Europe Report No. 194 (23 June 2008).
  • International Crisis Group, “The Cyprus Stalemate: What Next?” Europe Report No. 171 (8 March 2006).
  • Migdalovitz, Carol, “Cyprus: Status of U.N. Negotiations and Related Issues,” CRS Report (Washington, DC, 20 July 2007).
  • Ozcan, Gencer, “The Military and the Making of Foreign Policy in Turkey,” in Kirisci, K. and Rubin, B. (eds.), Turkey in World Politics. An Emerging Multiregional Power (London: Lynne Rienner, 2001).
  • Pipinelis, Panayotis. "The Greco-Turkish Feud Revived." Foreign Affairs, January 1959, pp. 306–16.
  • Psomiades, Harry J. The Eastern Question: The Last Phase. A Study in Greek Turkish Diplomacy. Salonika (Greece): Institute for Balkan Studies, 1968.
  • Qicek, Kemal. "Living Together: Muslim-Christian Relations in 18th-Century Cyprus as Reflected by the Shari'a Court Record," Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations [Birmingham, United Kingdom], 4, No. 1, 1993.
  • Sozen, Ahmet, “The Cyprus Challenge in Turkey–EU Relations: Heading Towards the Defining Moment?” in Cengiz, F. and Hoffmann, L. (eds.), Turkey and the European Union: Facing New Challenges and Opportunities (London: Routledge, 2014).
  • Stearns, Monteagle. Entangled Allies: US Policy toward Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1992.
  • Turkeş, Alpaslan. Dış Politikamız ve Kıbrıs (Our Foreign Policy and Cyprus). Istanbul: Publication of the Istanbul Cypriote-Turkish Society, 1966.

Middle East–Turkey relations

  • Ayoob, Mohammed, “Beyond the Democratic Wave in the Arab World: The Middle East’s Turko-Persian Future,” Insight Turkey, 13.2 (2011).
  • Bank, André and Karadag, Roy, “The ‘Ankara Moment’: The Politics of Turkey’s Regional Power in the Middle East,” Third World Quarterly, 34.2 (2013).
  • Bengio, Ofra and Ozcan, Gencer, “Old Grievances, New Fears: Arab Perceptions of Turkey and Its Alignment with Israel,” Middle Eastern Studies, 37.2 (April 2001).
  • Bolukbasi, Suha. "Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and the Euphrates Dam," Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, 16, No. 4, June 1993, pp. 9–32.
  • Brummett, Palmira. Ottoman Seapower and Levantine Diplomacy in the Age of Discovery. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.
  • Burton, J.A. "Relations Between the Khanate of Bukhara and Ottoman Turkey, 1558-1702," International Journal of Turkish Studies, 5, 1990–91, pp. 83–103.
  • Fuller, Graham, The New Turkish Republic: Turkey as a Pivotal State in the Muslim World (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2008). * Haddad, Benjamin, “Time for Turkey and Europe to Face Reality: Turkey Is Not Going to Join the EU. And That Is OK,” Foreign Policy, 23 May 3016. * Nafi, Basheer M., “The Arabs and Modern Turkey: A Century of Changing Perceptions,” Insight Turkey, 11.1 (2009).
  • Hale, William M. "Turkey, the Middle East, and the Gulf Crisis, International Affairs [London], 68, No. 2, Spring 1992, pp. 679- 92.
  • International Crisis Group, “Turkey and the Middle East: Ambitions and Constraints,” Europe Report No. 203 (7 April 2010).
  • Jennings, Ronald C. Christians and Muslims in Ottoman Cyprus and the Mediterranean World, 1571-1640. New York: New York University Press, 1993.
  • Karpat, Kemal H., “Turkish and Arab-Israeli Relations,” in Karpat, K. (ed.), Turkey’s Foreign Policy in Transition (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1975).
  • Kirisci, Kemal, Tocci, Nathalie, and Walker, Joshua, “A Neighborhood Rediscovered: Turkey’s Transatlantic Value in the Middle East,” The German Marshall Fund of the United States, Paper Series (Washington, DC, 2010).
  • Kirisci, Kemal, “The EU, Turkey and the Arab Spring: Challenges and Opportunities for Regional Integration,” IAI/IPC, Global Turkey in Europe, Working Paper 1 (2012).
  • Kirisci, Kemal and Winrow, Gareth M., The Kurdish Question and Turkey: An Example of a Trans-State Ethnic Conflict (London: Frank Cass, 1997).
  • Levy, Aviador. The Sephardim in the Ottoman Empire. Princeton: Darwin Press and Washington: Institute of Turkish Studies, 1992.
  • Robins, Philip. Turkey and the Middle East. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs and New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1991.
  • Sayari, Sabri. "Turkey: The Changing European Security Environment and the Gulf Crisis," Middle EastJournal, 46, No. 1, Winter 1992, pp. 9–21.
  • Shaw, Stanford. The Jews of the Ottoman Emire and Modern Turkey. New York: New York University Press, 1991.

Russia–Turkey relations and the Turkish Straits

  • "The Turkish Straits in the Light of Recent Turkish-Soviet Russian Correspondence." American Journal of International Law, October 1947, pp. 727–47.
  • Bayazit, Vural. "Black Sea and Mediterranean Challenges for the Turkish Navy," NATO's Sixteen Nations [Brussels], 39, January 1994, pp. 67–69.
  • DeLuca, Anthony R. The Great Power Rivalry at the Turkish Straits: The Montreux Conference and the Convention of 1936. (East European Monographs.) Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1981.
  • Dranov, B. Chernomorskie Prolivy-Mezhdunarodno-pravovoi rezhim (The Black Sea Straits-International-legal regime). Moscow: Yurid, izd-vo, 1948.
  • Edmonds, Martin, and John Skitt. "Current Soviet Maritime Strategy and NATO." International Affairs, January 1969, pp. 28–43.
  • Eren, Nuri. "Die türkisch-sowjetischen Beziehungen." Europa-Archiv, September 1965, pp. 337–48.
  • Erkin, Feridun Cerna!. Les Relations Turco-Soviétiques et la Question des Detroits. Ankara: Banur Matbaas1, 1968.
  • Esmer, Ahmed Şükrü. "The Straits: Crux of World Politics." Foreign Affairs, January 1947, pp. 290–302.
  • Fernau, Friedrich-Wilhelm. "Nachbarschaft am Schwarzen Meer. Wendepunkte in den türkisch-sowjetischen Beziehungen." Europa-Archiv, September 1967, pp. 613–20.
  • Howard, Harry N. "The United States and the Question of the Turkish Straits." Middle East journal, January 1947, pp. 59–72.
  • Hurewitz, J. C. The Background of Russia's Claims to the Turkish Straits. Ankara: Turk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi, 1964.
  • Imhoff, Christoph von. Duell in Mittelmeer: Moskau greift nach dem Nahen und Mittleren Osten. Freiburg i. Br.: Rombach, 1968.
  • Rohn, Peter H. "Turkish Treaties in Global Perspective." Turkish Yearbook of International Relations, 1965, pp. n9-60.
  • Routh, D. A. "The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Black Sea Straits." Survey of International Affairs, 1936. London: Oxford University Press, 1937.
  • Sadak, Necmeddin. "Turkey Faces the Soviets." Foreign Affairs, April 1949, pp. 449–61.
  • Shotwell, James T., and Francis Deak. Turkey at the Straits: A Short History. New York: Macmillan, 1940.
  • Yanik, Lerna. "Allies or Partners An Appraisal of Turkey's Ties to Russia 1991-2007", East European Quarterly 41#3 (2007), pp. 349– 370.

Turkey–Turkic world relations

  • Contessi, Nicola P. "Turkey and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Common values, economics or pure geopolitics?" in Emre Erşen, Seçkin Köstem, eds. Turkey's Pivot to Eurasia. Geopolitics and Foreign Policy in a Changing World Order, (Routledge, 2019), pp. 93–110.
  • Gokalp, Ziya. The Principles of Turkism. Trans., Robert Devereux. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1968.
  • Kubilay Yado Arin. The AKP's Foreign Policy, Turkey's Reorientation from the West to the East? (Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Berlin, 2013).
  • Landau, Jacob M. Pan-Turkism in Turkey: A Study of Irredentism. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon Books, 1981.
  • Robins, Philip. "Between Sentiment and Self-interest: Turkey's Policy toward Azerbaijan and the Central Asian States," Middle EastJournal, 47, No. 4, Autumn 1993, pp. 593–610.

Turkey–United States relations

  • Armaoglu, Fahir H. "Turkey and the United States: A New Alliance." The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations, 1965, pp. 1–15.
  • Aybet, Gülnur. Turkey's Foreign Policy and Its Implications for the West: A Turkish Perspective. London: Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies, 1994.
  • Barkey, Henri. Turkish-American Relations in the Post-War Era: An Alliance of Convenience," Orient [Leverkusen, Germany], 33, No. 3, 1992, pp. 447-64.
  • Barlas, Dilek, and Şuhnaz Yilmaz. "Managing the transition from Pax Britannica to Pax Americana: Turkey's relations with Britain and the US in a turbulent era (1929–47)." Turkish Studies (2016): pp. 1–25.
  • Bolukbasi, Suha. The Superpowers and the Third World: Turkish- American Relations and Cyprus. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1988.
  • Couloumbis, Theodore A. The United States, Greece, and Turkey: The Troubled Triangle. New York: Praeger, 1983.
  • Yilmaz, Şuhnaz. Turkish-American Relations, 1800–1952: Between the Stars, Stripes and the Crescent (Routledge, 2015).

Foreign Relations (1923–1945)

  • "Türk Dış Politikasına Yon Veren Etkenler (1923-1968)" (Controlling Factors of Turkish Foreign Policy, 1923-1968). Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi (Review of the Political Science Faculty), 23 (1968).
  • Ataöv, Türkkaya. "Turkish Foreign Policy: 1923-1938." Turkish Yearbook of International Relations, 1961, pp. 103–42.
  • Ataöv, Türkkaya. Turkish Foreign Policy, 1939-1945. Ankara: Publication of the Faculty of Political Sciences of the University of Ankara, 1965.
  • Hale, William. “Turkish foreign policy since 1774” (Routledge, 2012).
  • Howard, Harry N. The Partition of Turkey: A Diplomatic History, 1913-1923. New York: Ferig, 1966.
  • Kohn, Hans. "Ten Years of the Turkish Republic." Foreign Affairs, October 1933, pp. 141–55.
  • Sousa, Nasim. The Capitulatory Regime of Turkey: Its History, Origin, and Nature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1957.
  • Vere-Hodge, Edward Reginald. Turkish Foreign Policy, 1918-1948. Ambilly Annemasse: Imprimerie Franco-Suisse, 1950.

Foreign Relations (1945–2002)

  • Abramowitz, Morton. "Dateline Ankara: Turkey after Özal," Foreign Policy, No. 91, 1993, pp. 164–81.
  • Balci, Ali and Mis, Nebi, “Turkey’s Role in the Alliance of Civilizations: A New Perspective in Turkish Foreign Policy?” Turkish Studies, 9.3 (September 2008).
  • Batu, Hamit. "La politique étrangère de la Turquie." Turkish Yearbook of International Relations, 1964, pp. 1–12.
  • Black, Joseph E., and Kenneth W. Thompson (eds.). Foreign Policies in a World of Change. New York: Harper & Row, 1963. With a contribution by Nuri Eren, "The Foreign Policy of Turkey."
  • Deshocquets, Claude. "La Turquie de 1960 et la stratégie globale." Revue de Defense Nationale, 17 (1961), pp. 222–36.
  • Dodd, Clement H., ed. Turkish Foreign Policy: New Prospects. Huntingdon, United Kingdom: Eothen Press, 1992.
  • Hale, William. “Turkish foreign policy since 1774” (Routledge, 2012).
  • Hartmann, Hans Walter. Die auswärtige Politik der Türkei, pp. 923–940. Zurich: Leemann & Co., 1999.
  • Karpat, Kemal H. (ed.), Turkey’s Foreign Policy in Transition (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1975).
  • Kirisci, Kemal and Rubin, Barry (eds.), Turkey in World Politics: An Emerging Multiregional Power (London: Lynne Rienner, 2001).
  • Robins, Philip, “Turkish Foreign Policy Under Erbakan,” Survival, 39.2 (Summer 1997).
  • Rouleau, Eric. "The Challenges to Turkey," Foreign Affairs, 72, No. 5, November–December 1993, pp. 110–26.

Foreign Relations (2002–present)

  • Duran, Burhanettin, “JDP and Foreign Policy as an Agent of Transformation,” in Yavuz, H.M. (ed.), The Emergence of a New Turkey: Democracy and the AK Party (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2006).
  • Dursun-Özkanca, Ova. 2019. Turkey–West Relations: The Politics of Intra-alliance Opposition. Cambridge University Press.
  • Hale, William. “Turkish foreign policy since 1774” (Routledge, 2012).
  • Kirisci, Kemal, “Turkey’s Foreign Policy in Turbulent Times,” Chaillot Paper 92 (Paris, EUISS, 2006).
  • Kutlay, Mustafa, “Economy as the ‘Practical Hand’ of ‘New Turkish Foreign Policy’: A Political Economy Explanation,” Insight Turkey, 13.1 (2011).
  • Renda, Kadri Kaan, “Turkey’s Neighborhood Policy: An Emerging Complex Interdependence?” Insight Turkey, 13.1 (2011).
  • Sandole, Dennis J.D., “Turkey’s Unique Role in Nipping in the Bud the ‘Clash of Civilizations’,” International Politics, 46.5 (September 2009).
  • Schenkkan, Nate, Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Europe, Eurasia and Emerging Threats, Foreign Affairs Committee, United States House of Representatives, Hearings on “The Future of Turkish Democracy,” 15 July 2014.