Foreign relations of Vietnam


As of February 2019, Vietnam (officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam) maintains diplomatic relationships with 189 nations throughout the world,[1] including all UN member states and UN observer states other than (i) UN member states Malawi, Bahamas, Tonga and Tuvalu and (ii) the UN observer Holy See. In 2011 the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam, at the 11th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam, released an official statement about Vietnam's foreign policy and a section of the statement stated: "Vietnam is a friend and reliable partner of all countries in the international community, actively taking part in international and regional cooperation processes. Deepen, stabilize and sustain established international relations. Develop relations with countries and territories in the world, as well as international organizations, while showing: respect for each other's independence; sovereignty and territorial integrity; non-interference in each other's international affairs; non-use or threat of force; settlement of disagreements and disputes by means of peaceful negotiations; mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit."[2]

Foreign relations of Vietnam
  Socialist Republic of Vietnam
  Countries which Vietnam maintains diplomatic relations with
  Countries do not have diplomatic relations with Vietnam (Kosovo and the Vatican State)
Foreign ministry in Hanoi

Major steps have been taken by Vietnam to restore diplomatic ties with key countries. Full diplomatic relations were restored with New Zealand who opened its embassy in Hanoi in 1995, while Vietnam established an embassy in Wellington in 2003. Pakistan reopened its embassy in Hanoi in October 2000. Vietnam also reopened its embassy in Islamabad in December 2005 and trade office in Karachi in November 2005. United States–Vietnam relations improved in August 1995, when both nations upgraded their liaison offices opened during January 1995 to embassy status, with the United States later opening a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City, and Vietnam opening a consulate in San Francisco.[3]

History


Feudal Vietnam

Vietnam has a history stretching back more than 4,000 years. In its early history, Vietnam tried to maintain good relations with its neighbours. From the Hồng Bàng dynasty to many feudal dynasties like the Ngô, Đinh, Early Lê, , Trần, Later Lê, Tây Sơn and Nguyễn, Vietnam's main diplomatic relationships were with neighboring Imperial China, Kingdom of Champa, Khmer Empire, Lan Xang kingdom and Siam. Later trading relationship were established with European Countries (such as through Dutch East India company) and Japan.

Post-World War II

+ Period 1945-1946: After the surrender of Japan, Both British and Chinese Kuomintang armies came into Vietnam territory to take the Japanese imperial army out of Indochina. The government of Democratic Republic of Vietnam decided to have the peace agreement with Chiang Kai-shek of Kuomintang that stationed in the north Vietnam to let them pay attention to fight the French in the south. After that, Vietnam signed the peace treaty with France in 6/3/1946.
+ Period 1947-1954 : Vietnam started to expand their foreign relation with the other countries in the world. In January, 1950, the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union were the first two countries to recognize the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.[4] Later, alliances were formed with Cambodia and Laos to make anti-French campaigns, building the friendship with the anti-colonial countries such as Thailand, Myanmar, Indonesia and India.

Cold War Era

Vietnam War

During the Vietnam War (1959–75), North Vietnam balanced relations with its two major allies, the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China.

In 1964, Zhou Enlai, worried about the escalation of U.S. forces in South Vietnam, made an informal agreement with the North. The agreement stipulated that if U.S. and South Vietnamese forces invaded North Vietnam, the Chinese would respond by loaning pilots to the North. During the invasion, Mao Zedong failed to send as many trained pilots as he promised. As a result, the North became more reliant on the Soviet Union for its defense.[4]

President Vladimir Putin attending a traditional get-together of Vietnamese graduates of Soviet and Russian universities and colleges, March 2001

By 1975, tension began to grow as Beijing increasingly viewed Vietnam as a potential Soviet instrument to encircle China. Meanwhile, Beijing's increasing support for Cambodia's Khmer Rouge sparked Vietnamese suspicions of China's motives.

Vietnamese-Chinese relations deteriorated significantly after Hanoi instituted a ban in March 1978 on private trade, a move that particularly affected the Sino-Vietnamese sector of the population. Following Vietnam's December 1978 invasion of Cambodia, China launched a retaliatory invasion of Vietnam's northern border region. Faced with severance of Chinese aid and strained international relations, Vietnam established even closer ties with the Soviet Union and its allies in the Comecon member states. Throughout the 1980s, Vietnam received nearly US$3 billion a year in economic and military aid from the Soviet Union and conducted most of its trade with the U.S.S.R. and Comecon countries. Soviet and Eastern bloc economic aid, however, ceased after the breakup of the Soviet Union.

Reform (Đổi Mới)


Vietnam did not begin to emerge from international isolation until it withdrew its troops from Cambodia in 1989. Within months of the 1991 Paris Agreements, Vietnam established diplomatic and economic relations with Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states and also with most countries of Western Europe and Asia's Far East. China re-established full diplomatic ties with Vietnam in 1991. The two nations concluded a land border demarcation agreement in 1999. In 1995, the US and Vietnam re-established diplomatic ties.[3]

In the past decade, Vietnam has recognized the importance of growing global economic interdependence and has made concerted efforts to adjust its foreign relations to reflect the evolving international economic and political situation in Southeast Asia. The country has begun to integrate itself into the regional and global economy by joining international organizations. Vietnam has stepped up its efforts to attract foreign capital from the West and regularize relations with the world financial system. In the 1990s, following the lifting of the US veto on multilateral loans to the country, Vietnam became a member of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the Asian Development Bank. The country has expanded trade with its East Asian neighbors as well as with countries in Western Europe and North America. Of particular significance was Vietnam's acceptance into ASEAN in July 1995. Vietnam joined the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) in November 1998 and also hosted the ASEAN summit the following month. In 2005, Vietnam attended the inaugural East Asia Summit. Vietnam became a member of the World Trade Organization in November 2006.

Current issues


Vietnamese troops on Spratly Island

While Vietnam has remained relatively conflict-free since its Cambodia days, tensions have arisen in the past between Vietnam and its neighbors, especially in the case of China since both nations assert claims to the Spratly Islands, an archipelago in a potentially oil-rich area of the South China Sea. Conflicting claims have produced over the years small scale armed altercations in the area. In 1988, more than 70 Vietnamese troops were killed during a confrontation with Chinese forces, when China occupied several islands under Vietnamese control in the Spratly Islands. China's assertion of control over the Spratly Islands and the entire South China Sea has elicited concern from Vietnam and its Southeast Asia neighbors. The territorial border between the two countries is being definitively mapped pursuant to a Land Border Agreement signed in December 1999, and an Agreement on Borders in the Gulf of Tonkin signed in December 2000. Vietnam and Russia declared a strategic partnership in March 2001 during the first visit ever to Hanoi of a Russian head of state, largely as an attempt to counterbalance China's growing profile in Southeast Asia.

Disputes – international: maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with the People's Republic of China (PRC), Malaysia, Philippines, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary with Thailand resolved in August 1997; maritime boundary dispute with the PRC in the Gulf of Tonkin resolved in 2000; Paracel Islands occupied by the PRC; offshore islands and sections of boundary with Cambodia are in dispute; agreement on land border with the People's Republic of China was signed in December 1999.

Illicit drugs: minor producer of opium poppy with 21 km2 cultivated in 1999, capable of producing 11 metric tons of opium; probably minor transit point for Southeast Asian heroin destined for the US and Europe; growing opium/heroin addiction; possible small-scale heroin production

International relations


Africa

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria See Algeria–Vietnam relations
  • Algeria has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Algiers.
 Angola See Angola–Vietnam relations
  • Angola has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Luanda.
 Botswana2009-02-11
  • In 2013, Botswana was the last African state which established foreign relation with Vietnam.
 Burkina Faso
 Burundi1975-04-16
 Cape Verde1975-08-07

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 July 1975.[6]

 Central African Republic2008-11-10

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 November 2008.[6]

 Comoros

Both countries are full members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.

 Djibouti1991
 Egypt1963-09-01
  • Egypt has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Cairo.
 Eswatini2013-05-21[7]
 Guinea-Bissau1973
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 September 1973.[6]
  • Guinea-Bissau is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Beijing, China.
 Kenya1995-12-21 See Kenya–Vietnam relations
  • As of 1998, this was the last African country with which Vietnam established bilateral diplomatic links.[8]
  • Kenya is accredited to Vietnam through its embassy in Bangkok, Thailand.[9]
  • Vietnam's embassy in Tanzania is accredited to Kenya.[10]
 Lesotho1998-01-06

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 January 1998.[6]

 Madagascar1972-12-19
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 December 1972.
  • Madagascar is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Beijing, China.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Madagascar from its embassy in Maputo, Mozambique and has an honorary consulate in Antananarivo.
 Mauritania1965-03-15

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 March 1965.[6]

 Mauritius1994-05-04

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 May 1994.[6]

 São Tomé and Príncipe1976-11-06

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 November 1976.[6]

 South Africa
  • South Africa has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Pretoria.
 Sierra Leone1978-06-24
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 June 1978.[6]
  • Vietnam is accredited to Sierra Leone from its embassy in Abuja, Nigeria.
 Tanzania1965-02-14[11] See Tanzania–Vietnam relations
 Togo1975-08-02
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 February 1975.[6]
  • Vietnam is accredited to Togo from its embassy in Abuja, Nigeria.
 Uganda1993-02-09

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 February 1973.[5]

 Zambia1972

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 September 1972.[6][12]

Americas

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda2013-11-08

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 November 2013.[13]

 Argentina1973-10-25
  • Since December 1996, Argentina has an embassy in Hanoi.[14]
  • Since January 1995, Vietnam has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
  • Argentine Ministry of Foreign Relations: list of bilateral treaties with Vietnam (in Spanish only)[15]
  • Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Argentina[16]
 Belize1995-01-04

Both countries established diplomatic relation on 4 January 1995.[6]

 Brazil1989-05-08
  • Brazil has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Brasília.
 Canada1973-08-21 See Canada–Vietnam relations
  • Canada maintains an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate general in Vancouver.
 Chile See Chile–Vietnam relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Santiago.
 Colombia1979
  • Colombia has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Colombia from its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela.
 Costa Rica1976-04-24[17]
 Cuba1960-12-02See Cuba–Vietnam relations
  • Cuba has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Havana.
 Dominica2013

Dominica and Vietnam established diplomatic relation on 1 November 2013.[18]

 Dominican RepublicJuly 7, 2005
  • Dominican Republic will open an embassy in Hanoi.[19]
  • Vietnam is accredited to the Dominican Republic from its embassy in Havana, Cuba.
 El Salvador2010-01-16[20]
  • El Salvador is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in New Delhi, India.
  • Vietnam is accredited to El Salvador from its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.
 Grenada1979

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 July 1979.[6]

 Guatemala1993-01-07[21]
  • Guatemala is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Seoul, South Korea.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Guatemala from its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.
 Guyana19 April 1975
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 April 1975.[6]
  • Economic and commercial relations are very limited.[22]
 Haiti26 September 1997
  • Haiti has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Haiti from its embassy in Havana, Cuba.
 Mexico1975-07-15See Mexico–Vietnam relations
 Panama28 August 1975
  • Panama has an embassy in Hanoi and a Consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City[25]
  • Vietnam is accredited to Panama from its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.
 Paraguay30 May 1995
  • Paraguay is accredited to Vietnam from embassy in Tokyo, Japan.[26]
  • Vietnam is accredited to Paraguay from its embassy in Buenos Aíres, Argentina.
 Peru See Peru–Vietnam relations
  • Peru has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines1995

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 December 1995.[6]

 Suriname1997

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 December 1997.[5]

 United States1995-07-11 See United States–Vietnam relations
 Uruguay See Uruguay–Vietnam relations
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
 Venezuela1989-12-18 See Venezuela–Vietnam relations

Vietnam has an embassy in Caracas and Venezuela an embassy in Hanoi. Though bilateral trade was $11.7 million in 2007[27] relations show "great potential".[28] Over the past ten years, the two countries have witnessed new developments in various fields, including politics, economics, culture and society, particularly in the oil and gas industry.[29]

Vietnamese President Nguyễn Minh Triết arrived in Caracas on 18 November for a two-day official visit on an invitation from Hugo Chávez.[30] Triet hailed Vietnam's friendship with Venezuela as he sought to focus on tying up oil and gas deals, including a joint development fund. He said that "We (Vietnamese) are grateful for the support and solidarity that they (Venezuelans) have offered us until now." Triết said.

Since Hugo Chávez's visit to Vietnam in 2006, his government stepped up bilateral relations with the country, which also included a visit by the Communist Party general secretary, Nông Đức Mạnh in 2007. Petróleos de Venezuela and Petrovietnam also announced a number of joint projects since the 2006 visit, including Petrovietnam's was given a concession in the Orinoco basin and an agreement to transport Venezuelan oil to Vietnam, where the two would together build an oil refinery that Vietnam lacks. On the 2006 visit, Chávez praised Vietnam's revolutionary history as he attacked the United States for its "imperialist" crimes in the Vietnam War. On the 2008 visit Triết returned similar comments as he lauded a group of Venezuelans who captured a US soldier during the Vietnam war in an unsuccessful bid to prevent the execution of a Vietnamese revolutionary.[27] The two leaders also signed a deal for a $200 million joint fund and 15 cooperation projects.[31]

In March 2008 an agreement was signed to cooperate in tourism between Vietnam and Venezuela. President Nguyễn Minh Triết received the PDVSA's Vice President Asdrubal Chavez and stated that oil and gas cooperation would become a typical example of their multi-faceted cooperation.[32] In 2009 the Venezuelan government approved $46.5 million for an agricultural development project with Vietnam.[33]

Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Afghanistan16 September 1974
 Armenia14 July 1992
  • Diplomatic relations between Armenia and Vietnam were established on 14 July 1992.[34]
  • Vietnam is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow, Russia.[35]
  • Armenia has an embassy in Hanoi.
 Bahrain31 March 1995
 Bangladesh11/2/1973See Bangladesh–Vietnam relations
 Bhutan19 January 2012
 Brunei29 February 1992See Brunei–Vietnam relations

Brunei has an embassy in Hanoi, and Vietnam has an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan.[36]

 Cambodia24 June 1967See Cambodia–Vietnam relations

Since the 1990s, relations between these nations have been improving. Both countries are members of multilateral regional organizations ASEAN and the Mekong–Ganga Cooperation. Both have opened and developed cross-border trade and sought to relax visa regulations to that end.[37] Both governments have set official targets of increasing bilateral trade by 27% to US$2.3 billion by 2010 and to $6.5 billion by 2015.[37][38] Vietnam exported US$1.2 billion worth of goods to Cambodia in 2007. While Cambodia is only the 16th largest importer of Vietnamese goods, Vietnam is Cambodia's third-largest export market.[37]

  • Cambodia has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Phnom Penh and consulates-general in Battambang and Sihanoukville.
 China960 (Song)
18 January 1950 (PRC)
See China–Vietnam relations
Countries which signed cooperation documents related to the Belt and Road Initiative

After both sides resumed trade links in 1991, growth in bilateral trade has increased from US$32 million in 1991 to almost $7.2 billion by 2004.[39] Both governments have set the target of increasing trade volume to US$10 billion by 2010.[39] Vietnam's exports to China include crude oil, coal, coffee and food, while China exports pharmaceuticals, machinery, petroleum, fertilizers and automobile parts to Vietnam. China has become Vietnam's second-largest trading partner and the largest source of imports.[39][40] Both nations are working to establish an "economic corridor" from China's Yunnan to Vietnam's northern provinces and cities, and similar economic zones in the Gulf of Tonkin and connecting the Nanning of Guangxi province, Lang Son province, Hanoi, Haiphong and Quang Ninh province of Vietnam.[39] Air and sea transport as well as railway have been opened between the two countries, so have the 7 pairs of national-level ports in the frontier provinces and regions of the two countries.[40] Both sides have also launched joint ventures such as the Thai Nguyen Steel Complex, which produces hundreds of thousands of tonnes of steel products.[39]

 East Timor28 July 2002
 Georgia30 June 1992
 India7/1/1972See India–Vietnam relations

India and Vietnam are members of the Mekong–Ganga Cooperation, created to develop to enhance close ties between India and nations of Southeast Asia. Vietnam has supported India's bid to become a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council and join the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).[41] In the 2003 joint declaration, India and Vietnam envisaged creating an "Arc of Advantage and Prosperity" in Southeast Asia;[42] to this end, Vietnam has backed a more important relationship and role between India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and its negotiation of an Indo-ASEAN free trade agreement.[42][43] India and Vietnam have also built strategic partnerships, including extensive cooperation on developing nuclear power, enhancing regional security and fighting terrorism, transnational crime and drug trafficking.[42][44][45]

 Indonesia30 December 1955See Indonesia–Vietnam relations
  • Vietnam and Indonesia are both members of (ASEAN), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
  • President Megawati Sukarnoputri of Indonesia visited Vietnam in June 2003. At this time the two countries signed a "Declaration on the Framework of Friendly and Comprehensive Cooperation Entering the 21st Century".
  • In May 2005 President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of Indonesia visited Vietnam. In the December of the same year festivities were organized in the respective capital cities to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties.[46] Due to the ongoing South China Sea disputes, both Vietnam and Indonesia has supported a restraint in militarizing the issue. China claims the EEZ of the Natuna Island of Indonesia, while it also claims most of the South China Sea including the Vietnam-claimed Paracel and Spratly islands.
 Iran4/8/1973See Iran–Vietnam relations
 Iraq10/7/1968

See Iraq–Vietnam relations

  • Since December 1969, Iraq has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Iraq from its embassy in Tehran, Iran.
 Israel12/7/1993See Israel–Vietnam relations
 Japan1605 (Tokugawa shogunate)
21 September 1973
See Japan-Vietnam relations
  • Lord Nguyễn Hoàng started to send national letter to Tokugawa Ieyasu to invite Japanese merchant to come to Hội An in 1605
  • Prince Cường Để exiled in Japan in 1905
  • Việt Nam Duy Tân Hội (Vietnam Modernization Association) created in 1904 by Phan Bội Châu, The Vietnamese nationalist who wished to bring his people to Japan to study through Đông Du Movement
  • Empire of Japan invaded French Indochina in 1940
  • Surrender of Japan in 1945
  • Both nation established relation on 21 September 1973
  • Following 23 October 1991 Final Act of the International Paris Conference on Cambodia among the Cambodian parties, Indonesia (as co-chair with France), and the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, Japan promptly established diplomatic relations and ended economic restrictions with Cambodia and Vietnam. In November 1992, Tokyo offered Vietnam US$370 million in aid. Japan also took a leading role in peacekeeping activities in Cambodia. Japan's Akashi Yasushi, UN Undersecretary General for Disarmament, was head of the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia, and Japan pledged US$3 million and even sent approximately 2,000 personnel, including members of the SDF, to participate directly in maintaining the peace. Despite the loss of a Japanese peacekeeper killed in an ambush, the force remained in Cambodia until the Cambodians were able to elect and install a government.

Japan is the single biggest country donor to Vietnam. It has pledged $US 890 million in aid for the country this year, or 6.5 percent higher than the 2006 level of $US 835.6 million.[49]

 Jordan9/8/1980
 Kazakhstan26 September 1992
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Hanoi.
 Kuwait10/1/1976[50]
 Kyrgyzstan4/6/1992
 Laos5/9/1962See Laos-Vietnam relations

Although Vietnam's historical record of leadership in the revolution and its military power and proximity will not cease to exist, Laos struck out ahead of Vietnam with its New Economic Mechanism to introduce market mechanisms into its economy. In so doing, Laos has opened the door to rapprochement with Thailand and China at some expense to its special dependence on Vietnam. Laos might have reached the same point of normalization in following Vietnam's economic and diplomatic change, but by moving ahead resolutely and responding to Thai and Chinese gestures, Laos has broadened its range of donors, trading partners, and investors independent of Vietnam's attempts to accomplish the same goal. Thus, Vietnam remains in the shadows as a mentor and emergency ally, and the tutelage of Laos has shifted dramatically to development banks and international entrepreneurs.[51]

 Lebanon12/2/1981
 Malaysia30 March 1973See Malaysia-Vietnam relations
 Maldives18 June 1975
 Mongolia1280 (Yuan dynasty)
17 November 1954[52]
See Mongolia–Vietnam relations

The countries signed a Friendship and Cooperation Treaty in 1961, renewed it in 1979, and signed a new one in 1995.[52] On 13 January 2003, the countries signed an 8-point cooperative document committing to cooperation between the two governments and their legislative bodies, replacing an earlier document signed in 1998.[53]

There have been 13 sessions of the Vietnam-Mongolia inter-governmental committee on cooperation in trade, economics and sci-tech, with the next to be held in Ulaanbaatar in 2010.[54] On 25 May 2004 in Ulaanbaatar, the countries signed agreements on railway transport and scientific and technological cooperation.[55] Other agreements have covered areas such as plant protection and quarantine regulations, customs, health and education.[54]

 Myanmar28 May 1975See Myanmar-Vietnam relations
  • Myanmar has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Yangon.
   Nepal15 May 1975
 North Korea1226 (Goryeo)
31 January 1950
See North Korea–Vietnam relations
  • Prince Lý Long Tường of Lý Dynasty fled and exiled in Kingdom of Goryeo in 1226 to avoid the execution of Trần Dynasty
  • Both had some meetings when both of them sent envoys to pay tribute to China Empire.
  • North Korea recognised Communist ally North Vietnam on 31 January 1950
  • In July 1957, President Ho Chi Minh visited North Korea
  • North Korean leader Kim Il-sung visited North Vietnam in November–December 1958 and November 1964.
  • In February 1961, the two governments concluded an agreement on scientific and technical cooperation.
  • President Kim Il Sung sent some fighter squadron to North Vietnam to back up the North Vietnamese 921st and 923rd fighter squadrons defending Hanoi while Hanoi was bombed by The US air forces.
  • From 1950 to 1960s, students from North Vietnam began studying in North Korea as early as the 1960s.
  • Relations later declined due to investment and trade disputes in the 1990s and 2000s and emerging relationship between South Korea and Vietnam[56]
 Oman9/6/1992
 Pakistan8/11/1972See Pakistan–Vietnam relations

Pakistan opened its embassy in Hanoi in 1973. However, due to economic reasons, Pakistan closed the embassy in 1980. Vietnam also opened its embassy in Islamabad in 1978 and had to close it down in 1984 due to its own economic difficulty. Bilateral relations between Pakistan and Vietnam in recent years have considerably improved. Both countries' leaders expressed their willingness to strengthen their existing relations, not only in the political sphere but also in other areas such as trade and economics, and exchange more visits from one to another's country, including both high-ranking and working visits. Pakistan reopened its embassy in Hanoi in October 2000. Vietnam also reopened its embassy in Islamabad in December 2005 and trade office in Karachi in November 2005.

 Palestine19 November 1988
 Philippines12/7/1976See Philippines–Vietnam relations

Ever since the end of the Cold War relations between the Philippines and Vietnam has warmed rapidly. Today the Philippines and Vietnam are economic allies and have a free trade deal with each other. Both nations are a part of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). The Philippines and Vietnam have conducted joint military exercises together in the South China Sea and are trying to find ways to turn the Spratly Islands from an area of conflict to an area of cooperation. Vietnam is also sometimes called the only communist military ally of the Philippines. The Philippines and Vietnam are also monitoring China's expansion into the South China Sea making sure that China is no threat to either Philippine or Vietnamese islands in the South China Sea. The Philippines also imports a large amount of writing material, clothes and other products from Vietnam. In May 2009, The Philippines has inked an agreement with Vietnam to cooperate in the fight against crimes and ensuring social order. In January 2010, the Philippine Stock Exchange (PSE) has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Vietnam bourse "for mutual collaboration and communication of information and experience" to facilitate the development and efficient operations of both securities markets. In 2012, Vietnam sent two military assets for a good will visit to the Philippines. Both Vietnam and the Philippines have the same stand on the South China Sea disputes, patronizing multilateral talks and international court rulings to solve the issue, tactics which China has avoided. In 2016, the Philippines strengthened its stand on the dispute through a court ruling in an international court not associated with UN and poised to create stronger relations with Vietnam for strategic defense and economic cooperation.

 Qatar8/2/1993See Qatar–Vietnam relations
  • Qatar has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Doha.
 Saudi Arabia21 October 1999
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Riyadh.
 Singapore1/8/1973See Singapore–Vietnam relations
  • Singapore has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Singapore.
 South Korea1226 (Goryeo)
22 December 1992
See South Korea–Vietnam relations

History

  • Prince Lý Long Tường of Lý Dynasty fled and exiled in Kingdom of Goryeo in 1226 to avoid the execution of Trần Dynasty
  • Both had some meetings when both of them sent envoys to pay tribute to China Empire.
  • South Korea recognised Capitalist ally South Vietnam
  • President Park Chung Hee sent ROK troops to fight in Vietnam war in 1960s.

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the Republic of Korea started on 22 December 1992.

  • 1994 August Prime Minister Lee Young-deok
  • 1996 November President Kim Young-sam
  • 1998 December President Kim Dae-jung
  • 2002 April Prime Minister Lee Han-dong
  • 2004 October President Roh Moo-hyun
  • 2006 January Speaker of National Assembly Kim Won-ki
  • 2006 November President Roh Moo-hyun (APEC)
  • 2008 April Speaker of National Assembly Lim Chae-jung
  • 2009 May Presidential Envoy Lee Byung-suk
  • 2009 October President Lee Myung-bak
  • 2009 November Speaker of National Assembly Kim Hyong-o
  • 2010 October President Lee Myung-bak
  • 2013 January Speaker of National Assembly Kang Chang Hee
  • 2013 September President Park Geun-hye(G20).[57]
 Sri Lanka21 July 1970
 Syria21 July 1966
 Taiwan960 (Song)
unofficial relation (Now)
see Taiwan–Vietnam relations
 Tajikistan14 July 1992
  • Tajikistan is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Beijing, China.
 Thailand6/8/1976See Thailand–Vietnam relations
  • Thailand has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Bangkok and a consulate-general in Khon Kaen.
 Turkey1978[63]See Turkey–Vietnam relations
 Turkmenistan29 July 1992
  • Turkmenistan is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Beijing, China.
 United Arab Emirates1/8/1993See United Arab Emirates–Vietnam relations
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
 Uzbekistan17 January 1992
  • Vietnam is accredited to Uzbekistan from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Uzbekistan is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia.
 Yemen16 October 1963

Europe

Country Formal relations began Notes
 EU1990See Vietnam–European Union relations
 Albania11/2/1950

Diplomatic relations were established on 11 February 1950.[6][65]

 AustriaSee Austria–Vietnam relations
 Andorra12/6/2007
 Belarus24 January 1992[66]See Belarus–Vietnam relations
  • Since 1997, Belarus has an embassy in Hanoi.[67]
  • Since November 2003, Vietnam has an embassy in Minsk.[68]
 Belgium22 March 1973[69]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina26 January 1996
 Bulgaria8/2/1950See Bulgaria–Vietnam relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Hanoi.[70]
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Sofia.[71]
  • In 2006, the Bulgarian Government agreed to a healthcare cooperation plan with Vietnam. The two-year plan includes cooperation in many areas, mainly in public healthcare, inpatient and outpatient help, food security, medical education.[72]
 Croatia1/7/1994
 Czech Republic2/2/1950 (as Czechoslovakia)See Czech Republic–Vietnam relations
  • The Czech Republic has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Prague.
 Denmark25 November 1971See Denmark–Vietnam relations
 Estonia20 February 1992
 Finland25 January 1973
  • Finland has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy Helsinki.
 France12/4/1973See France–Vietnam relations

France-Vietnam relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit father Alexandre de Rhodes. Various traders would visit Vietnam during the 18th century, until the major involvement of French forces under Pigneau de Béhaine to help establish the Nguyễn dynasty from 1787 to 1789. France was heavily involved in Vietnam in the 19th century under the pretext of protecting the work of Catholic missionaries in the country. France progressively carved for itself a huge colony, which would form French Indochina in 1887. France continued to rule Vietnam as a colony until France's defeat in the First Indochina War and the proclamation of Vietnam's independence in 1954.

  • France has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Paris.
 Germany03/02/1955 (with East Germany and unified Germany)
23 September 1975 (with West Germany)
See Germany–Vietnam relations
  • Germany has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
 Greece15 April 1975See Greece–Vietnam relations
  • Greece has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Athens.
  Holy SeeNo relationSee Holy See–Vietnam relations

With the end of the Vietnam War, the Apostolic Delegate was forced to leave. Since an apostolic delegation, unlike an embassy, is not a bilateral institution with involvement by the State, the Apostolic Delegation for Vietnam has not been suppressed, but has remained inactive since 1975.[75] In January 2011 the Holy See appointed the first ambassador, formally "non-resident representative to Vietnam" with Archbishop Leopoldo Girelli being the first to hold the post in addition to Archbishop Girelli's other role as Apostolic Nuncio to Singapore and Apostolic Delegate to Malaysia.

Temporary missions from the Holy See to discuss with the Government matters of common interest are sent every year or two, and there has been at least one visit to the Vatican by a Vietnamese mission. Marxism and communism officially promoted atheism, causing Roman Catholics and other Christians to be associated with the anti-communist South Vietnam region. This has strained relations between the Holy See and the Hanoi Government. Leading bishops have been imprisoned for several years, in what some observers have described as a persecution of the Vietnamese Church. There is also a question of Church property confiscated by the Vietnamese government and that the Church has sought to recover.

 Hungary3/2/1950See Hungary–Vietnam relations
  • Hungary has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Budapest.
 Iceland5/8/1973
  • Iceland is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Beijing, China.
 Ireland5/4/1996
  • Ireland has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Ireland from its embassy in London, United Kingdom.
 Italy23 March 1973See Italy–Vietnam relations
  • Italy has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Rome.
 Latvia12/2/1992
 Liechtenstein2/7/2008
 Lithuania18 March 1992
 Luxembourg15 November 1973See Luxembourg–Vietnam relations

Luxembourg's representation in Vietnam is through its embassy in Beijing, China.[76] Vietnam is represented through its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.[77]

 Malta14 November 1974
 Moldova11/6/1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 June 1992.[6][78]

 Monaco29 November 2007
 Montenegro4/8/2006
 Netherlands9/4/1973
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in The Hague.
 North Macedonia10/6/1994
  • The countries established diplomatic relations on 10 June 1994.[6]
  • North Macedonia is represented in Vietnam through its embassy in Beijing, China.[79]
  • Vietnam is represented in North Macedonia through its embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria.[79]
 Norway25 November 1971
 Poland4/2/1950See Poland–Vietnam relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Portugal1/7/1975
  • In 2015 both countries are celebrating 500 years of relations, remembering 1515 when the Portuguese traveler Duarte Coelho, reached Cochinchina, Champa and Tonkin[80] starting a long period of trading relations with the Portuguese established in Macau and in Malacca.
  • Portugal is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Bangkok, Thailand and has honorary consulates both in Hanoi (31 Pho Duc Chinh, Truc Bach Ward, Ba Dinh District, Ha noi) and in Ho Chi Minh City (66/11 Pham Ngoc Thach, Q3, Ho Chi Minh)[81]
  • Vietnam is accredited to Portugal from its embassy in Paris, France.
 Romania3/2/1950
  • Romania has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Bucharest.
 Russia30 January 1950 (as USSR)
Russia (Now)
See Russia–Vietnam relations
 San Marino6/7/2007
 Serbia10/3/1957 (as SFR Yugoslavia)
  • Serbia is represented in Vietnam through its embassy in Jakarta (Indonesia).
  • Vietnam is represented in Serbia through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania).
  • Vietnam supports Serbia in Kosovo issue.
  • Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Vietnam[83]
  • Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Serbia[84]
 Slovakia2/2/1950 (as Czechoslovakia)See Slovakia–Vietnam relations
  • Slovakia has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Bratislava.
 Slovenia7/6/1994
 Spain23 May 1977[85]See Spain–Vietnam relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Madrid.
 Sweden11/1/1969
  • Sweden has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Stockholm.
  Switzerland11/10/1971
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Bern.
 Ukraine23 January 1992[86]See Ukraine–Vietnam relations
 United Kingdom12/4/1973[87]
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in London.

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia1973-02-26 See Australia–Vietnam relations
  • Australian Prime Ministers Paul Keating and John Howard have visited Vietnam, in 1994 and 2006 respectively.
  • In the fiscal year 2006–2007 Australia Overseas Development Aid was 81.5million A$.
  • In 2006, the volume of bilateral trade was 4.75 US$ billion.
  • Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs: VIETNAM – AUSTRALIA RELATIONS[88]
 Fiji1993

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 May 1993.[6]

 New Zealand1975-06-19[89]See New Zealand–Vietnam relations

Full diplomatic relations were restored in 1989. New Zealand opened its embassy in Hanoi in 1995, while Vietnam established an embassy in Wellington in 2003.

 Papua New Guinea1989

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 November 1989.[5][90]

 Samoa1994-03-29

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 March 1994.[6][91]

 Solomon Islands1996-10-30

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 October 1996.[6][92]

 Vanuatu1982

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 March 1982.[6]

See also


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Further reading


  • Amer, Ramses. "Border conflicts between Cambodia and Vietnam." IBRU Boundary and Security Bulletin 5.2 (1997): 80-97 online.
  • Brown, Frederick Z. "Rapprochement Between Vietnam and the United States." Contemporary Southeast Asia (2010): 317-342 online.
  • Gin, Christopher M. "How China Wins: A Case Study of the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War" (Army Command And General Staff College Fort Leavenworth KS, 2015) online.
  • Hood, Steven J. Dragons Entangled: Indochina and the China-Vietnam War (ME Sharpe, 1993).
  • Leighton, Marian Kirsch. "Perspectives on the Vietnam-Cambodia border conflict." Asian Survey 18.5 (1978): 448–457. online
  • Levinson, David, and Karen Christensen, eds. Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. (2002) vol 6.
  • Morris, Stephen J. Why Vietnam invaded Cambodia: Political culture and the causes of war (Stanford University Press, 1999).
  • Path, Kosal. "The Duality of Vietnam’s Deference and Resistance to China." Diplomacy & Statecraft 29.3 (2018): 499–521. online
  • Thanh, Luong Ngoc. "Vietnam's Foreign Policy in the post-Cold War Era: Ideology and Reality." (PhD dissertation Hiroshima University 2013) online.
  • Thayer, Carlyle A. "Vietnam in 2013: Domestic contestation and foreign policy success." Southeast Asian Affairs (2014): 355-372 online.
  • Tran, Thi Bich, and Yoichiro Sato. "Vietnam's Post‐Cold War Hedging Strategy: A Changing Mix of Realist and Liberal Ingredients." Asian Politics & Policy 10.1 (2018): 73-99 online.
  • Vuving, Alexander L. "Strategy and evolution of Vietnam's China policy: a changing mixture of pathways." Asian Survey 46.6 (2006): 805-824 online
  • Westad, Odd Arne, and Sophie Quinn-Judge, eds. The third Indochina war: conflict between China, Vietnam and Cambodia, 1972-79 (Routledge, 2006).
  • Womack, Brantly. "Asymmetry and systemic misperception: China, Vietnam and Cambodia during the 1970s." Journal of Strategic Studies 26.2 (2003): 92-119 online.