Foreign relations of Artsakh
The Republic of Artsakh is a republic with limited recognition in the South Caucasus region. The Republic of Artsakh controls most of the territory of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast and some of the surrounding area. It is recognized by only three other non-UN member states, Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria. The rest of the international community recognizes Artsakh as part of Azerbaijan. In November 2012, a member of Uruguay's foreign relations committee stated that his country could recognize Nagorno-Karabakh's independence. In 2012, Armenia and Tuvalu established diplomatic relations and it was perceived that Tuvalu may recognize Nagorno Karabakh's independence. In October 2012, the Australian state of New South Wales recognized Nagorno-Karabakh. In September 2014, the Basque Parliament in Spain adopted a motion supporting Artsakh's right to self-determination and in November 2014, the Parliament of Navarre, also in Spain, issued a statement supporting Artsakh's inclusion in taking part in settlement negotiations.
At the present, no diplomatic missions of other countries exist in Artsakh. On the other hand, the republic has built a small network of representative offices around the world. Currently it has representative offices in seven countries.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2016)
The Republic of Artsakh and the partially recognized Republic of Abkhazia recognized each other. Both states abolished visa requirements for their citizens and participate in the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations.
The Republic of Artsakh maintains a Representative office in Lebanon's capital, Beirut. In March 2018, Artsakh president Bako Sahakyan visited Lebanon and met with Catholicos Aram I, the head of the Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia of the Armenian Apostolic Church. In May 2018, representatives of the Artsakh city of Martakert and the Lebanese town of Bourj Hammoud signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the latter town.
The Republic of Artsakh and partially recognized Republic of South Ossetia recognized each other. Both states abolished visa requirements for their citizens and participate in the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations.
Republic of Artsakh and Transnistria recognized each other and abolished visa requirements for their citizens. There are many joint activities between the two countries. In 2001, both countries in Stepanakert signed the Protocol on Cooperation and Consultations between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Transnistria and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Artsakh. Transnistria also participates in the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations.
The United States has not established diplomatic relations with the Republic of Artsakh and recognizes it as part of Azerbaijan. Support for Artsakh in the United States is manifested above all at the state legislature level. Several of them have adopted Artsakh support resolutions. In May 2012, the Rhode Island House of Representatives in the United States passed a resolution calling on President Barack Obama and the U.S. Congress to recognize the Republic of Artsakh. In August 2012, the Massachusetts House of Representatives passed a similar resolution. In April 2013, the Maine House of Representatives and Senate passed a resolution accepting Artsakh's independence and urging President Barack Obama to also accept Artsakh's independence. In May 2013, the Louisiana State Senate passed a resolution accepting Artsakh's independence and expressed support for the Republic of Artsakh's efforts to develop as a free and independent nation. In May 2014, the California State Assembly passed a measure recognizing Artsakh's independence with a 70–1 vote. The measure also called for President Barack Obama and the U.S. Congress to recognize the Republic of Artsakh. The US state of Hawaii unanimously voted to approve and recognize the Republic of Artsakh on March 30, 2016. The Republic of Artsakh has also established a representative office in Washington, D.C.
In addition, Artsakh government officials regularly maintain contact with members of the United States Congress. In October 2019, the Foreign Minister of Artsakh noted that the authorities of the Republic attach great importance to the relations between Artsakh and the United States at various levels. The Minister also stated his appreciation of the United States for financial aid and support for the peaceful resolution of the conflict; and hoped for further developing cooperation during a meeting with US Congress members.
Independence recognition efforts
Non-UN member states
|Entity||Date of recognition||Notes|
|Abkhazia||November 17, 2006||Mutual recognition|
|South Ossetia||November 17, 2006||Mutual recognition|
|Transnistria||July 4, 2001 or before||Mutual recognition|
|Passed a bill recognizing
|Rejected a bill recognizing
Azerbaijani territorial integrity
|Rejected a bill recognizing
|Passed a bill recognizing|
Azerbaijani territorial integrity
| California (May 2014)
Georgia (March 2016)
Hawaii (March 2016)
Louisiana (May 2013)
Maine (April 2013)
Massachusetts (August 2012)
Michigan (September 2017)
Rhode Island (May 2012)
Colorado (April 2019)
Minnesota (May 2020)
Idaho (April 2021)
Kentucky (March 2016)
Mississippi (April 2014)
South Dakota (February 2014)
Tennessee (March 2014)
Wyoming (February 2014)
|Vermont (April 2014)|| Arizona (January 2014)|
New Mexico (February 2014)
In October 2012, the Australian state of New South Wales recognized Nagorno-Karabakh however it was reaffirmed by the Australian Foreign Minister in November 2015 that the federal government of the Commonwealth of Australia does not, and supports Azerbaijan's claim to the state. In 2017, The Australian Greens Party announced that it recognizes the Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh). In October 2020, the New South Wales Legislative Assembly recognized the independence of the Republic of Artsakh, 61 for and 2 against. The motion also condemned the attacks by Azerbaijan and Turkey against the indigenous Armenians of Artsakh during the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.
In September 2014, the Basque parliament adopted a motion supporting Nagorno-Karabakh's right to self-determination. In the Philippines, various politicians are in favor of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) recognition and have suggested for the cooperation of ASEAN (which includes ten Southeast Asian nations) in the recognition of the country, however, the current administration has yet to prioritize the issue due to an ongoing drug war and a shift to federalism.
Before California recognized Nagorno-Karabakh in May 2014, three places within the state had already recognized it:
In November 2019, the French Communist Party urged the French Government to recognize the independence of Artsakh. On 25 November 2020, the French Senate adopted a resolution to recognize the independence of Artsakh.
On 15 October 2020, the Italian city of Milan became the first ever large European city to recognize the Republic of Artsakh. On 3 November 2020, the city of Palermo, as well as Asolo, Cerchiara di Calabria, and the Italian region of Lombardy followed.
On 24 October 2020, Nadia de León, the President of the Central American Parliament announced her support for the right of self-determination of Artsakh.
- On 26 February 2013, a parliamentary friendship group was established between the Republic of Artsakh and the Parliament of Lithuania.
- On 19 March 2013, a parliamentary friendship group was established with parliament members and senators of France.
- In October 2014, a parliamentary friendship group was established between Artsakh and the European Parliament.
- In October 2017, parliamentary friendship groups were established with both the Parliament of Wallonia and Flemish Parliament in Belgium.
- On 19 March 2019, an Artsakh-Canada Friendship Group was established between the National Assembly of Artsakh and the House of Commons of Canada.
- On 1 August 2019, an Artsakh-Australia Friendship Group was established between Artsakh and various Australian politicians including Federal Parliament Senators and Ministers, as well as the Prime Minister of the State of New South Wales.
- On 8 December 2019, Artsakh National Assembly Speaker Ashot Ghulyan received First Vice President of Guatemala’s Congress, Felipe Alejos Lorenzana. The sides discussed establishing inter-parliamentary ties.
- In June 2020, a parliamentary friendship group was established between the Republic of Artsakh and members of the Parliament of Cyprus.
International organisation participation
- The Republic of Artsakh is a member of one international organization, the Community for Democracy and Human Rights, also commonly known as the Commonwealth of Unrecognized States.
- The Republic of Artsakh also maintains contacts with the OSCE Minsk Group established in 1992 by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe to encourage a peaceful, negotiated resolution to the conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia over Artsakh.
- In October 2017, the President of Artsakh, Bako Sahakyan visited the European Friends of Armenia (EuFoA) headquarters in Belgium. A number of issues were discussed including relations between Artsakh and the EU. The President thanked EuFoA for reinforcing ties between Artaskh and various pan-European structures.
- In March 2019, the Speaker of the National Assembly (Artsakh), Ashot Ghulian met with European Parliament members in Brussels, during which he explored opportunities to include Artsakh in European Union programs. The Speaker also highlighted the necessity to maintain and promote cooperation between the two sides.
- Artsakh officials also have regular contact with the Council of Europe. In October 2019, the Human Rights Defender of the Republic of Artsakh, Artak Beglaryan, held a number of meetings with high-ranking officials of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg. Possible areas of cooperation between Artsakh and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe as well as the need to ensure international engagement of unrecognized states was discussed.
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
- European Convention on Human Rights
Participation in international sports federations
- The Artsakh Football Association is a member of Confederation of Independent Football Associations.
- Artsakh and its citizens also participate in the Pan-Armenian Games.
- Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations
- Foreign relations of Armenia
- List of representative offices of Artsakh
- Minister of Foreign Affairs (Republic of Artsakh)
- Political status of Artsakh
- Politics of Artsakh
- Politics of Europe
- Visa policy of Artsakh
- "Official website of the President of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. General Information about NKR". President.nkr.am. 1 January 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", - сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." - сказал он."
- "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie. 2010-05-26. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
- "Uruguay may be the first to recognize Karabakh- Uruguay Deputy". Arka News Agency. 2012-11-14. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
Uruguay may be the first country to recognize Nagorno-Karabakh Republic’s independence...
- "Tuvalu and Armenia". Panorama. 2012-12-14. Retrieved 2017-04-11.
- "Full Day Hansard Transcript". Parliament of New South Wales. 2012-10-25. Archived from the original on 2013-03-14. Retrieved 2012-11-14.
...calls on the Commonwealth Government to officially recognise the independence of the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh and strengthen Australia's relationship with the Nagorno-Karabakh and its citizens.
- Hughes, James (2002). Ethnicity and Territory in the Former Soviet Union: Regions in Conflict. London: Cass. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-7146-8210-5.
Indeed, Nagorno-Karabakh is de facto part of Armenia.
- Mulcaire, Jack (9 April 2015). "Face Off: The Coming War between Armenia and Azerbaijan". The National Interest.
The mostly Armenian population of the disputed region now lives under the control of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, a micronation that is supported by Armenia and is effectively part of that country.
- "Armenia expects Russian support in Karabakh war". Hürriyet Daily News. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
While internationally recognized as Azerbaijani territory, the enclave has declared itself an independent republic but is administered as a de facto part of Armenia.
- Central Asia and The Caucasus, Information and Analytical Center, 2009, Issues 55-60, Page 74, "Nagorno-Karabakh became de facto part of Armenia (its quasi-statehood can dupe no one) as a result of aggression."
- Deutsche Gesellschaft für auswärtige Politik, Internationale Politik, Volume 8, 2007 "... and Nagorno-Karabakh, the disputed territory that is now de facto part of Armenia ..."
- Cornell, Svante (2011). Azerbaijan Since Independence. New York: M.E. Sharpe. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-7656-3004-9.
Following the war, the territories that fell under Armenian control, in particular Mountainous Karabakh itself, were slowly integrated into Armenia. Officially, Karabakh and Armenia remain separate political entities, but for most practical matters the two entities are unified.
- "Karabakh President in Lebanon, meets with Catholicos of Great House of Cilicia". news.am.
- "Karabakh's Martakert, Lebanon's Bourj Hammoud sign memorandum of cooperation". news.am.
- "Protocol on Cooperation and Consultations between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Pridnestrovien Moldavian Republic and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Transnistria. Retrieved 2016-04-08.
- "U.S. State Calls For Karabakh Recognition". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
- White, Jeremy B. (8 May 2014). "Capitol Alert: California Assembly calls for Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". Fresno Bee. Archived from the original on 2014-05-08.
- Mason, Melanie (5 May 2014). "Calif. lawmakers to weigh in on dispute between Armenia, Azerbaijan". LA Times.
- "Hawaii Recognizes Nagorno Karabakh Republic's Independence". March 30, 2016.
- "Foreign Minister of Artsakh receives U.S. Congresswomen". armenpress.am.
- "Protocol on Cooperation and Consultations between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Pridnestrovien Moldavian Republic and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 July 2001.
- White, Jeremy B. (8 May 2014). "Capitol Alert: California Assembly calls for Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". Fresno Bee. Archived from the original on May 8, 2014.
- "Georgia House Recognizes Independence of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". Asbarez. March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
- "State of Hawaii Recognizes Independence of Nagorno Karabakh Republic". Massis Post. 29 March 2016.
- "OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE SENATE OF THE STATE OF LOUISIANA" (PDF). senate.la.gov.
- "JOINT RESOLUTION MEMORIALIZING THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS TO SUPPORT THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE NAGORNOKARABAKH REPUBLIC". www.mainelegislature.org.
- Hairenik (2017-09-28). "Michigan Recognizes Artsakh Independence". The Armenian Weekly. Retrieved 2017-10-06.
- "R.I. Wants Nagorno-Karabakh Recognition". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
- "Colorado Senate Recognizes Artsakh, Commemorates Armenian Genocide". Asbarez.com. 2019-04-24. Retrieved 2019-04-24.
- "State of Minnesota Recognizes the Republic of Artsakh | Toronto Hye". 2020-05-05. Retrieved 2020-05-05.
- "The State of Idaho recognizes the Republic of Artsakh | Public Radio of Armenia". 2021-04-23. Retrieved 2021-04-23.
- "Kentucky State Senate Withdraws Pro-Azerbaijani Resolution". Asbarez. March 7, 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
- "Mississippi Senate rejected pro-Azerbaijani resolution". Times.am. April 10, 2014. Archived from the original on May 29, 2014. Retrieved May 28, 2014.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Pro-Azerbaijani forces failed passing anti-Armenian resolution in Tennessee". Panorama.am. March 26, 2014. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
- Laura Krantz (April 10, 2014). "Vermont Senate bows out of international squabble". Brattleboro Reformer. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
- "Arizona Legislature supports Azerbaijan's territorial integrity". Consulate General of the Republic of Azerbaijan in Los Angeles. January 30, 2014. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
- Sabina Ahmadova (February 14, 2014). "Senate of U.S. State of New Mexico adopts resolution on Azerbaijan". Trend News Agency. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
- 11:48, 25.10.2012 (2012-10-25). "Australia's largest state recognizes independence of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". News.am. Retrieved 2017-11-16.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "EXP: Question time in federal parliament". 9News. 30 November 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Contributor, Guest (December 13, 2017). "Australian Greens Party Recognizes Artsakh in Party Platform". The Armenian Weekly.
- "Australian Greens recognize the Republic of Artsakh". armenpress.am.
- "Australia's New South Wales Legislative Assembly officially recognizes Artsakh independence". news.am. Retrieved 2020-10-22.
- "Basque Parliament Supports Artsakh's Self-Determination". Asbarez. 12 September 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-17. Retrieved 2018-04-14.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Azerbaijan Protests California Town's Recognition of Nagorno-Karabakh". RIA Novosti. December 6, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-12-27. Retrieved 2018-04-14.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "The US City of Highland Recognizes Nagorno-Karabakh - Armenian News". Tert.am. Retrieved 2017-11-16.
- "Los Angeles city council recognizes the independence of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". ARKA News Agency. January 29, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- Wright, Pam. "Montebello's newest Sister City program has come under fire from an ambassador for the Republic of Azerbaijan." Whittier Daily News. November 19, 2005.
- "City of Milan urges Italian authorities to recognize the Republic of Artsakh". Public Radio of Armenia. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
- "Il Comune di Asolo fa un piccolo grande passo verso il riconoscimento della Repubblica armena di Artsakh". QDP il Quotidiano del Piave, notizie dell'Alta Marca Trevigiana. (in Italian). 2020-10-30. Retrieved 2020-11-04.
- "ALBO PRETORIO DIGITALE - Comune di Cerchiara di Calabria". www.servizipubblicaamministrazione.it. Retrieved 2020-11-04.
- "Italy's Lombardy recognizes the independence of Artsakh". Public Radio of Armenia. Retrieved 2020-11-04.
- "The president of the Central American Parliament recognizes the independence of Artsaj". Retrieved 1 December 2020.
- "Canada's Laval recognizes independence of Karabakh". Retrieved 10 November 2020.
- "Montevideo recognizes the independence of Artsakh". Retrieved 13 November 2020.
- "International Cooperation | NKR". www.nkr.am.
- "First Nagorno-Karabakh Group announced in the European Parliament". EMI.
- "International Cooperation". nkr.am.
- "First Vice President of Guatemala's Parliament Felipe Alejos Lorenzana hosted at Artsakh parliament". horizonweekly.ca/.
- "Friendship circle with Cyprus formed in Artsakh Parliament". armenpress.am.
- "Karabakh president visits office of European Friends of Armenia". News.am.
- "Artsakh Official Explores Opportunities to Include Artsakh in EU Programs". March 7, 2019.
- "Ombudsman Beglaryan discusses Artsakh people's rights protection issues with some CoE officials". armenpress.am.
- "Artsakh's MFA welcomes position of CoE Secretary General". armenpress.am.