Fregat (Russian: Фрегат, frigate) is an upper stage developed by NPO Lavochkin in the 1990s, which is used in some Soyuz and Zenit launch vehicles, but is universal and can be used as a part of a medium and heavy class launch vehicles. Fregat became operational in February 2000.[3] Its liquid propellant engine uses UDMH and N2O4. Fregat's success rate is 97.8% (with 2 failures in 93 launches), which makes it one of the most reliable upper stages in the world. Fregat has successfully delivered more than 300 payloads into different orbits. It remains the only upper stage in the world that can place its payload into 3 or more different orbits in a single launch.[4]

Fregat [1]
ManufacturerNPO Lavochkin
Country of originRussia
Used onSoyuz-U (retired), Soyuz-FG (retired), Soyuz-2, Zenit-3F
General characteristics
DiameterFregat/Fregat-M: 3.35 m (11.0 ft)
Fregat-MT: 3.80 m (12.5 ft)
Fregat-SB: 3.875 m (12.71 ft)
Length1.5 m (4 ft 11 in)
Propellant massFregat: 5,250 kg (11,570 lb)
Fregat-M: 5,600 kg (12,300 lb)
Fregat-MT: 7,100 kg (15,700 lb)
Empty massFregat: 930 kg (2,050 lb)
Fregat-M: 980 kg (2,160 lb)
Fregat-MT: 1,050 kg (2,310 lb)
Associated stages
ComparableBriz-M, Briz-KM
Powered byS5.92
Maximum thrust19.85 kN (4,460 lbf)
Specific impulse333.2 seconds
Burn time1350 seconds [2]
Launch history
Total launches105
(stage only)
First flight2 February 2000

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