French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (French: Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 4 September 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940, after the Fall of France during World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government.

French Republic
République française
1870–1940
Flag
Emblem
Motto: Liberté, égalité, fraternité
("Liberty, equality, fraternity")
Anthem: La Marseillaise
("The Marseillaise")
Great Seal of France:
The French Republic in 1939
  •   France
  •   French protectorates
Territories and colonies of the French Republic at the end of 1939
Capital
and largest city
Paris
Common languagesFrench (official), several others
Religion
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
President 
 1871–1873 (first)
Adolphe Thiers
 1932–1940 (last)
Albert Lebrun
President of the Council of Ministers 
 1870–1871 (first)
Louis Jules Trochu
 1940 (last)
Philippe Pétain
LegislatureParliament
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
History 
 Proclamation by Leon Gambetta
4 September 1870
 Vichy France established
10 July 1940
Area
1894 (Metropolitan France)536,464 km2 (207,130 sq mi)
1938 (including colonies)13,500,000[1][2] km2 (5,200,000 sq mi)
Population
 1938 (including colonies)
150,000,000[3]
CurrencyFrench Franc
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Second French Empire
Vichy France
Free France
German military administration
Italian military administration
Today part ofFrance
Algeria

The early days of the Third Republic were dominated by political disruptions caused by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, which the Republic continued to wage after the fall of Emperor Napoleon III in 1870. Harsh reparations exacted by the Prussians after the war resulted in the loss of the French regions of Alsace (keeping the Territoire de Belfort) and Lorraine (the northeastern part, i.e. present-day department of Moselle), social upheaval, and the establishment of the Paris Commune. The early governments of the Third Republic considered re-establishing the monarchy, but disagreement as to the nature of that monarchy and the rightful occupant of the throne could not be resolved. Consequently, the Third Republic, originally envisioned as a provisional government, instead became the permanent form of government of France.

The French Constitutional Laws of 1875 defined the composition of the Third Republic. It consisted of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate to form the legislative branch of government and a president to serve as head of state. Calls for the re-establishment of the monarchy dominated the tenures of the first two presidents, Adolphe Thiers and Patrice de MacMahon, but growing support for the republican form of government among the French populace and a series of republican presidents in the 1880s gradually quashed prospects of a monarchical restoration.

The Third Republic established many French colonial possessions, including French Indochina, French Madagascar, French Polynesia, and large territories in West Africa during the Scramble for Africa, all of them acquired during the last two decades of the 19th century. The early years of the 20th century were dominated by the Democratic Republican Alliance, which was originally conceived as a centre-left political alliance, but over time became the main centre-right party. The period from the start of World War I to the late 1930s featured sharply polarized politics, between the Democratic Republican Alliance and the Radicals. The government fell less than a year after the outbreak of World War II, when Nazi forces occupied much of France, and was replaced by the rival governments of Charles de Gaulle's Free France (La France libre) and Philippe Pétain's French State (L'État français).

During the 19th and 20th centuries, the French colonial empire was the second largest colonial empire in the world only behind the British Empire; it extended over 13,500,000 km2 (5,200,000 sq mi) of land at its height in the 1920s and 1930s. In terms of population however, on the eve of World War II, France and her colonial possessions totaled only 150 million inhabitants, compared with 330 million for British India alone.

Adolphe Thiers called republicanism in the 1870s "the form of government that divides France least"; however, politics under the Third Republic were sharply polarized. On the left stood Reformist France, heir to the French Revolution. On the right stood conservative France, rooted in the peasantry, the Roman Catholic Church and the army.[4] In spite of France's sharply divided electorate and persistent attempts to overthrow it, the Third Republic endured for seventy years, which as of 2022 makes it the longest lasting system of government in France since the collapse of the Ancien Régime in 1789;[5] the current Fifth Republic would overtake that record on 11 August 2028.


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