General Gabriele D'Annunzio, Prince of Montenevoso (UK: //, US: /-/, Italian: [ɡabriˈɛːle danˈnuntsjo]; 12 March 1863 – 1 March 1938), sometimes written d'Annunzio, was an Italian poet, playwright, orator, journalist, aristocrat, and army officer during World War I. He occupied a prominent place in Italian literature from 1889 to 1910 and later political life from 1914 to 1924. He was often referred to under the epithets Il Vate ("the Poet") or Il Profeta ("the Prophet").
|Comandante of the Carnaro|
12 September 1919 – 30 December 1920
|Preceded by||Office created|
|Succeeded by||Office abolished|
(Riccardo Zanella as President of the Free State of Fiume)
|Member of the Chamber of Deputies|
5 April 1897 – 17 May 1900
|Born||12 March 1863|
|Died||1 March 1938 74) (aged|
Gardone Riviera, Italy
|Resting place||Vittoriale degli italiani, Gardone Riviera, Lake Garda|
|Political party||Historical Right|
Historical Far Left
Italian Nationalist Association
|Domestic partner||Eleonora Duse (1898–1901)|
|Parents||Francesco Paolo Rapagnetta and Luisa de Benedictis|
|Profession||Journalist, poet, soldier|
|Nickname(s)||Il Vate ("The Poet"); Il Profeta ("The Prophet")|
|Branch/service|| Royal Italian Army|
Royal Air Force
|Years of service||1915–18|
D'Annunzio was associated with the Decadent movement in his literary works, which interplayed closely with French Symbolism and British Aestheticism. Such works represented a turn against the naturalism of the preceding romantics and was both sensuous and mystical. He came under the influence of Friedrich Nietzsche which would find outlets in his literary and later political contributions. His affairs with several women, including Eleonora Duse and Luisa Casati, received public attention.
During the First World War, perception of D'Annunzio in Italy transformed from literary figure into a national war hero. He was associated with the elite Arditi storm troops of the Italian Army and took part in actions such as the Flight over Vienna. As part of an Italian nationalist reaction against the Paris Peace Conference, he set up the short-lived Italian Regency of Carnaro in Fiume with himself as Duce. The constitution made "music" the fundamental principle of the state, which was corporatist in nature. Though D'Annunzio preached Italian ultranationalism and never called himself a fascist, he has been accused of partially inventing Italian fascism as both his ideas and aesthetics were an influence upon Benito Mussolini.