Gabriele D'Annunzio

General Gabriele D'Annunzio, Prince of Montenevoso OMS CMG MVM (UK: /dæˈnʊntsi/,[2] US: /dɑːˈnn-/,[3] Italian: [ɡabriˈɛːle danˈnuntsjo]; 12 March 1863 – 1 March 1938), sometimes written d'Annunzio,[4] was an Italian poet, playwright, orator, journalist, aristocrat, and army officer during World War I. He occupied a prominent place in Italian literature from 1889 to 1910 and later political life from 1914 to 1924. He was often referred to under the epithets Il Vate ("the Poet")[5] or Il Profeta ("the Prophet").


Gabriele D'Annunzio

Prince of Montenevoso
OMS CMG MVM
Comandante of the Carnaro
In office
12 September 1919  30 December 1920
Preceded byOffice created
Succeeded byOffice abolished
(Riccardo Zanella as President of the Free State of Fiume)
Member of the Chamber of Deputies
In office
5 April 1897  17 May 1900
ConstituencyFlorence
Personal details
Born(1863-03-12)12 March 1863
Pescara, Italy
Died1 March 1938(1938-03-01) (aged 74)
Gardone Riviera, Italy
Resting placeVittoriale degli italiani, Gardone Riviera, Lake Garda
NationalityItalian
Political partyHistorical Right
(1897–1898)
Historical Far Left[1]
(1898–1900)
Italian Nationalist Association
(1910–1923)
Spouse(s)
Maria Hardouin
(m. 1883)
Domestic partnerEleonora Duse (1898–1901)
Children
  • Mario (1884–1964)
  • Gabriellino D'Annunzio (1886–1945)
  • Ugo Veniero (1887–1945)
  • Renata Anguissola (1893-1976)
  • Gabriele Cruyllas (1897-1978)
ParentsFrancesco Paolo Rapagnetta and Luisa de Benedictis
ProfessionJournalist, poet, soldier
Military service
Nickname(s)Il Vate ("The Poet"); Il Profeta ("The Prophet")
Branch/service Royal Italian Army
Royal Air Force
Years of service1915–18
RankGeneral (honorary)
Lieutenant colonel
Major
Lieutenant colonel
Unit3rd Army
Arditi
Battles/wars
Writing career
Period20th century
GenrePoetry, novel
SubjectIndividualism, existentialism
Literary movementDecadentism
Notable works
Years active1879–1938
Signature

D'Annunzio was associated with the Decadent movement in his literary works, which interplayed closely with French Symbolism and British Aestheticism. Such works represented a turn against the naturalism of the preceding romantics and was both sensuous and mystical. He came under the influence of Friedrich Nietzsche which would find outlets in his literary and later political contributions. His affairs with several women, including Eleonora Duse and Luisa Casati, received public attention.

During the First World War, perception of D'Annunzio in Italy transformed from literary figure into a national war hero.[6] He was associated with the elite Arditi storm troops of the Italian Army and took part in actions such as the Flight over Vienna. As part of an Italian nationalist reaction against the Paris Peace Conference, he set up the short-lived Italian Regency of Carnaro in Fiume with himself as Duce. The constitution made "music" the fundamental principle of the state, which was corporatist in nature.[7] Though D'Annunzio preached Italian ultranationalism and never called himself a fascist, he has been accused of partially inventing Italian fascism[8] as both his ideas and aesthetics were an influence upon Benito Mussolini.