Gallia Belgica

Gallia Belgica ("Belgic Gaul") was a province of the Roman Empire located in the north-eastern part of Roman Gaul, in what is today primarily northern France, Belgium, and Luxembourg, along with parts of the Netherlands and Germany.

Province of Gallia Belgica
Provincia Belgica
Province of the Roman Empire
22 BC–5th century

CapitalDurocortorum (Reims)
Augusta Treverorum (Trier)
Historical eraAntiquity
 Established after the Gallic Wars
22 BC
 Ended with Frankish Kingdoms
5th century
Today part of
Map with the location of the Belgae at the time of Julius Caesar
Map of Roman Gaul with Belgica in orange (Droysens Allgemeiner historischer Handatlas, 1886)
The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117-138 AD), showing, in northeastern Gaul, the imperial province of Gallia Belgica (Belgium/Picardie/Champagne)

In 50 BC after the conquest by Julius Caesar during his Gallic Wars, it became one of the three parts of Gaul (Tres Galliae), the other two being Gallia Aquitania and Gallia Lugdunensis.[1] An official Roman province was later created by emperor Augustus in 22 BC. The province was named for the Belgae, as the largest tribal confederation in the area, but also included the territories of the Treveri, Mediomatrici, Leuci, Sequani, Helvetii and others. The southern border of Belgica, formed by the Marne and Seine rivers, was reported by Caesar as the original cultural boundary between the Belgae and the Celtic Gauls, whom he distinguished from one another.[2]

The province was re-organised several times, first increased and later decreased in size. Diocletian brought the northeastern Civitas Tungrorum into Germania Inferior, joining the Rhineland colonies, and the remaining part of Gallia Belgica was divided into Belgica Prima in the eastern area of the Treveri, Mediomatrici and Leuci, around Luxembourg and the Ardennes, and Belgica Secunda between the English channel and the upper Meuse.

The capital of Belgica Prima, Trier, became an important late western Roman capital.[3]