Galloway (Scottish Gaelic: Gall-Ghàidhealaibh [ˈkal̪ˠaɣəl̪ˠu]; Scots: Gallowa; Latin: Gallovidia) is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire, now part of the council area of Dumfries and Galloway.
A native or inhabitant of Galloway is called a Gallovidian. The place name Galloway is derived from the Gaelic i nGall Gaidhealaib ("amongst the Gall Gaidheil"). The Gall Gaidheil, literally meaning "Stranger-Gaidheil", originally referred to a population of mixed Scandinavian and Gaelic ethnicity that inhabited Galloway in the Middle Ages.
Galloway is bounded by sea to the west and south, the Galloway Hills to the north, and the River Nith to the east; the border between Kirkcudbrightshire and Wigtownshire is marked by the River Cree. The definition has, however, fluctuated greatly in size over history.