Gamal Abdel Nasser

Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein[lower-alpha 1] (ɡəˈmɑːl æbdɛl ˈnɑːsər; Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر حسين‎; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was an Egyptian politician who served as the second president of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. Nasser led the 1952 overthrow of the monarchy and introduced far-reaching land reforms the following year. Following a 1954 attempt on his life by a Muslim Brotherhood member, he cracked down on the organization, put President Mohamed Naguib under house arrest and assumed executive office. He was formally elected president in June 1956.

Gamal Abdel Nasser
جمال عبد الناصر
Nasser in 1962
2nd President of Egypt
In office
23 June 1956  28 September 1970
Prime Minister
See list
Vice President
See list
Preceded byMohamed Naguib
Succeeded byAnwar Sadat
31st Prime Minister of Egypt
In office
19 June 1967  28 September 1970
PresidentHimself
Preceded byMohamed Sedki Sulayman
Succeeded byMahmoud Fawzi
In office
18 April 1954  29 September 1962
PresidentMohamed Naguib
Himself
Preceded byMohamed Naguib
Succeeded byAli Sabri
In office
25 February 1954  8 March 1954
PresidentMohamed Naguib
Preceded byMohamed Naguib
Succeeded byMohamed Naguib
Deputy Prime Minister of Egypt
In office
8 March 1954  18 April 1954
Prime MinisterMohamed Naguib
Preceded byGamal Salem
Succeeded byGamal Salem
In office
18 June 1953  25 February 1954
Prime MinisterMohamed Naguib
Preceded bySulayman Hafez
Succeeded byGamal Salem
Minister of the Interior
In office
18 June 1953  25 February 1954
Prime MinisterMohamed Naguib
Preceded bySulayman Hafez
Succeeded byZakaria Mohieddin
Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council
In office
14 November 1954  23 June 1956
Preceded byMohamed Naguib
Succeeded byHimself as President
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
In office
5 October 1964  8 September 1970
Preceded byJosip Broz Tito
Succeeded byKenneth Kaunda
Chairman of the Organisation of African Unity
In office
17 July 1964  21 October 1965
Preceded byHaile Selassie I
Succeeded byKwame Nkrumah
Personal details
Born
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein

(1918-01-15)15 January 1918
Alexandria, Sultanate of Egypt
Died28 September 1970(1970-09-28) (aged 52)
Cairo, United Arab Republic
Cause of deathHeart attack
Resting placeGamal Abdel Nasser Mosque[1]
NationalityEgyptian
Political partyArab Socialist Union
Spouse(s)
(m. 1944)
ChildrenFive, including Khalid Abdel Nasser
ProfessionMilitary officer, and later politician
Signature
Military service
Allegiance Kingdom of Egypt
Republic of Egypt
United Arab Republic
Branch/serviceEgyptian Army
Years of service1938–1952
Rank Lieutenant colonel
Battles/wars1948 Arab–Israeli War

Nasser's popularity in Egypt and the Arab world skyrocketed after his nationalization of the Suez Canal Company and his political victory in the subsequent Suez Crisis, known in Egypt as the Tripartite Aggression. Calls for pan-Arab unity under his leadership increased, culminating with the formation of the United Arab Republic with Syria from 1958 to 1961. In 1962, Nasser began a series of major socialist measures and modernization reforms in Egypt. Despite setbacks to his pan-Arabist cause, by 1963 Nasser's supporters gained power in several Arab countries, but he became embroiled in the North Yemen Civil War, and eventually the much larger Arab Cold War. He began his second presidential term in March 1965 after his political opponents were banned from running. Following Egypt's defeat by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967, Nasser resigned, but he returned to office after popular demonstrations called for his reinstatement. By 1968, Nasser had appointed himself Prime Minister, launched the War of Attrition to regain the Israeli-occupied Sinai Peninsula, began a process of depoliticizing the military, and issued a set of political liberalization reforms. After the conclusion of the 1970 Arab League summit, Nasser suffered a heart attack and died. His funeral in Cairo drew five to six million mourners,[4] and prompted an outpouring of grief across the Arab world.

Nasser remains an iconic figure in the Arab world, particularly for his strides towards social justice and Arab unity, his modernization policies, and his anti-imperialist efforts. His presidency also encouraged and coincided with an Egyptian cultural boom, and the launching of large industrial projects, including the Aswan Dam, and Helwan city. Nasser's detractors criticize his authoritarianism, his human rights violations, and the dominance of the military over civil institutions that characterised his tenure, establishing a pattern of military and dictatorial rule in Egypt.