Geography of Quebec

Located in the eastern part of Canada, and (from a historical and political perspective) part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, and is much closer to the size of Alaska. As is the case with Alaska, most of the land in Quebec is very sparsely populated.[1] Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate (latitude and altitude), and the proximity to water. The Great Lakes–St. Lawrence Lowlands and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec.[2]

The Quebec territory.
Approximate areas of ecoregions
  1. Middle Arctic Tundra
  2. Low Arctic Tundra
  3. Torngat Mountain Tundra
  4. Eastern Canadian Shield Taiga
  5. Southern Hudson Bay Taiga
  6. Central Canadian Shield Forests
  7. Eastern Canadian Forests
  8. Eastern Forest/Boreal Transition
  9. Eastern Great Lakes Lowland Forests
  10. New England/Acadian Forests
  11. Gulf of St. Lawrence Lowland Forests

With an area of 1,542,056 km2 (595,391 sq mi), it is the second largest of Canada's provinces and territories and the tenth largest country subdivision in the world.[citation needed] More than 90% of Quebec's area lies within the Canadian Shield, and includes the greater part of the Labrador Peninsula. Quebec's highest mountain is Mont D'Iberville, which is located on the border with Newfoundland and Labrador in the northeastern part of the province in the Torngat Mountains. The addition of parts of the vast and scarcely populated District of Ungava of the Northwest Territories between 1898 and 1912 gave the province its current form.

The territory of Quebec is extremely rich in resources in its coniferous forests, lakes, and riverspulp and paper, lumber, and hydroelectricity are still some of the province's most important industries.[citation needed] The far north of the province, Nunavik, is subarctic or Arctic and is mostly inhabited by Inuit.

The most populous region is the Saint Lawrence River valley in the south, where the capital, Quebec City, and the largest city, Montreal, are situated. North of Montreal are the Laurentians, a range of ancient mountains, and to the east are the Appalachian Mountains which extends into the Eastern Townships and Gaspésie regions. The Gaspé Peninsula juts into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the East. The Saint Lawrence River Valley is a fertile agricultural region, producing dairy products, fruit, vegetables, maple sugar (Quebec is the world's largest producer of maple syrup[3]), and livestock.


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